Your Risk For Prostate Cancer
The greatest risk factors for developing prostate cancer are increasing age, family history, ethnicity, and diet. Do any of the following describe you?
- I am older than 50
- I have a family history of prostate cancer
- I am African-American
If you answered yes to any of these, then you may be at higher risk of prostate cancer. However, not having any of these risk factors does not mean you are immune. Unfortunately, all men are at risk for prostate cancer. Keep reading to learn more about your risk and what steps you can take.
Being Out To Your Doctor
Having a doctor with whom you can be open about your sexual orientation or gender identity is important. Because prostate cancer can affect gay men and transgender women differently than cisgender or straight men, being out to your doctor can help you get the best possible treatment. You can find resources for coming out to your doctor at Human Rights Campaign or consult the Gay and Lesbian Medical Associations online Provider Directory.
Breast Cancer Screening For Women With A Strong Family History Of Breast Or Ovarian Cancer
There are special breast cancer screening guidelines for women with a strong family history of breast or ovarian cancer.
If you have a greater than 20 percent lifetime risk of breast cancer based mainly on your family history of breast or ovarian cancer, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network recommends you get a :
- Clinical breast exam every 6-12 months, but not before age 21
- Mammogram every year, starting 10 years younger than the youngest breast cancer case in your family, but not before age 30
- Breast MRI every year, starting 10 years younger than the youngest breast cancer case in your family, but not before age 25
Learn more about breast cancer screening recommendations for men at higher risk.
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Nbc Out’you’re Safe Now’: Matthew Shepard Laid To Rest 20 Years After His Death
Doctors may also make a number of assumptions about patients, including about their family support system, their sexual orientation and their sexual interests.
Your doctor might tell you youll have an erection strong enough for intercourse, but anal penetration requires 33 percent more rigidity, Rosser said. Hes heard men say their doctors neutered them. Others have said theyd rather be dead. In all, 15 percent of all men whove had a radical prostatectomy exhibit some kind of treatment regret. For gay men, so long ignored by medicine, Rosser believes those rates are much higher.
with a postmenopausal wife who doesnt want sex anyway might just accept having a low libido, he explained. But if your partner is another man, and his drive isnt diminished, it can be a real problem.
Rosser said the silence and shame surrounding the topic allows ugly myths to flourish like that gay sex somehow caused their cancer. Guys can feel guilty, Rosser said. Or, their partners may think on some level, they can catch it.
He had some of those thoughts himself: Im a cyclist did being in the saddle too much cause it? Did enjoying receptive anal sex?
Without good data, researchers cant get to the truth, Rosser stressed.
Do Not Stuff Yourself
The Japanese enjoy a long life expectancy, and the highest percentage of centenarians in the world is found in Okinawa. If you want to learn how to live to 100, follow the eating style of people who live there. They have a practice of eating until they are only 80 percent full. This makes good sense because it takes 20 minutes for the brain to receive the signal from your stomach that it is full. Stop eating before you feel full. Over time, not cleaning your plate adds up to weight loss.
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Why Is Obesity A Risk Factor In Prostate Cancer
Overweight men are less likely to be diagnosed with early prostate cancer.
Due to this, the researchers point out that the risk association with obesity may not be accurate.
Obesity can hinder detection of the disease because overweight men tend to have larger prostates.
lus, the report states that they have lower concentrations of prostate specific antigens.
Am I At Risk Of Prostate Cancer
In the UK, about 1 in 8 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer in their lifetime. We dont know exactly what causes prostate cancer but there are some things that may mean you are more likely to get it these are called risk factors.
There are three main risk factors for getting prostate cancer, which are things you cant change. These are:
If you have any of these risk factors or if you have any symptoms, speak to your GP. They can talk to you about your risk, and about the tests that are used to diagnose prostate cancer. You can also get in touch with our Specialist Nurses, who can help you understand your risk of prostate cancer.
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Quality Of Life With Advanced Stage Prostate Cancer
Since Huggins and Hodges won a Nobel Prize in 1966 for their work describing the relationship between testosterone and prostate cancer, androgen deprivation has continued to be an important component in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer. It is associated, however, with significant cost in terms of morbidity as well as economics. Side effects of androgen deprivation therapy include hot flashes, osteoporosis, loss of libido or impotence, and psychological effects such as depression, memory difficulties, or emotional lability. Recently Harle and colleagues reported insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, metabolic syndrome, and metabolic complications being associated with castration and thus being responsible for increased cardiovascular mortality in this population.
Because of the palliative nature of androgen ablation, quality of life is an important component of evaluating competing therapies. Intermittent androgen deprivation is one approach to hormonal therapy that has been developed with the aim of minimizing the negative effects of therapy while maximizing clinical benefits and the patients quality of life. It can be used in any clinical situation where continuous androgen deprivation treatment could be applied.
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Second Cancers After Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer survivors can be affected by a number of health problems, but often a major concern is facing cancer again. Cancer that comes back after treatment is called a recurrence. But some cancer survivors may develop a new, unrelated cancer later. This is called a second cancer.
Unfortunately, being treated for prostate cancer doesnt mean you cant get another cancer. Men who have had prostate cancer can still get the same types of cancers that other men get. In fact, they might be at higher risk for certain types of cancer.
Men who have had prostate cancer can get any type of second cancer, but they have an increased risk of certain cancers, including:
This risk is probably related to the dose of radiation. Newer methods of giving radiation therapy may have different effects on the risks of a second cancer. Because these methods are newer, the long-term effects have not been studied as well.
Prostate cancer is diagnosed in 1 in 7 men in the U.S., and though that is an undeniably high rate, most wont die from the disease. According to the American Cancer Society, there are approximately 2.9 million men in the country diagnosed with prostate cancer at some point in their life who are still alive today.
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Should I Get Prostate Cancer Screening
You may have wondered why there is no nationwide prostate cancer screening program in Australia . Thats because experts do not recommend routine prostate cancer screening if youre aged between 50 and 69, healthy, and dont have a family history of prostate cancer.
There are several reasons for this:
- A high PSA level can be a result of something other than cancer.
- Experts dont fully agree on what is a normal or abnormal PSA level.
- Most men with a slightly raised PSA level have a biopsy that confirms no cancer.
- Many prostate cancers are low risk, slow growing, and are unlikely to cause harm if left untreated.
- Testing and treating low risk, slow growing cancers may cause more harm than good.
You should speak to your doctor if you have a family history or ongoing symptoms of prostate cancer, such as difficulty passing urine. Your doctor can help you make an informed decision about whether prostate cancer screening is suitable for you.
Black Men Both Get And Die From Prostate Cancer At A Higher Rate The Reasons Are Complex And Unclear
Black men are 50% more likely to develop prostate cancer in their lifetime and twice as likely to die from the disease, Dr. Kantoff says.
It is difficult to untangle the various factors that might affect the risk and outcome of prostate cancer, Dr. Kantoff explains. Prostate cancer in Blacks tends to have biological characteristics associated with more aggressive disease, he says. There is evidence suggesting that this is partly related to inherited genetic factors.
He points out that in addition to differences in tumor biology, the higher risk may be tied to disparities in environment and behavior. This could include social stress or more exposure to cancer-causing pollutants. Smoking, poor diet, and lack of exercise, which can cause obesity, may also have effects. Disparities in outcome could be affected by differences in when the cancer is diagnosed and how the men are treated after diagnosis.
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Does My Husband Have Prostate Cancer
1 in 7 men will be diagnosed with Prostate Cancer in his lifetime. As a concerned partner, you worry that your husband or companion could be that one. Maybe your partner doesnt go to the doctor enough or maybe he has a mindset of invincibility. Maybe youve noticed a shift in his health and behavior.
You ask him to go to the doctor, but in true husband fashion, he wont go.
So what should you be on the lookout for to know if your husband is at risk of prostate cancer? What do you need to know about prostate cancer to be alert for your partners health?
Half Of Men Over 60 Have Prostate Cancer But Most Die Of Other Causes
A new study looking at the prevalence of prostate cancer in men over 60 years of age found that just about 50 percent of men have the cancer. This statistic isn’t as distrubing as it sounds most prostate cancers never develop into a harmful form of the disease and a large proportion of men will pass away from other causes without their prostate cancer progressing and becoming invasive.
The current study, published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, examined 320 men from Russia and Japan who had died at the age of 60 or older between 2010 and 2011. None of the men had been diagnosed with prostate cancer before their death. Men from Russia were used for the survey because they have similar fat intakes and sun exposures compared to North American men. Japanese men were examined because the incidence of prostate cancer is lower in the male population of Japan, most likely resulting in different diet compared to Caucasian North American men.
How often men should be tested for prostate cancer is a topic of debate among healthcare professionals. After all, the bottom line is that most American men will get prostate cancer if they live long enough. But many of them never experience any ill effects from the cancer, and typically die of natural causes having nothing to do with the prostate. And in fact, many doctors believe that prostate cancer is over-treated because not all men progress to a dangerous form of the disease.
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Tests Used To Check The Prostate
This first step lets your doctor hear and understand the story of your prostate concerns. Youll be asked whether you have symptoms, how long youve had them, and how much they affect your lifestyle. Your personal medical history also includes any risk factors, pain, fever, or trouble passing urine. You may be asked to give a urine sample for testing.
Should I Have A Psa Test
Because the results of the PSA test are not as reliable as doctors would like, other tests and investigations are needed to diagnose prostate cancer.
A PSA test cannot identify prostate cancer on its own, and changes in PSA levels alone are not a good reason to start treatment.
If you are thinking about asking for a PSA test, it is important that you first discuss whether it is right for you with your GP so you understand what the results might mean.
The Prostate Cancer Risk Management Programme has information on the risks and benefits of the PSA test to help you decide whether or not to have it.
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Who Should Think About Getting Tested
To find out if you have a genetic mutation linked to prostate cancer, you can take a simple blood or saliva test. If your urologist suggests genetic testing, they may send you to a genetic counselor. They may also order the test and then send you to a genetic counselor if the results are positive or uncertain.
There are two groups of men who may want to think about being tested for prostate cancer genes, Dr. Morgan said.
The first group are men with localized prostate cancer who have a family history of breast, colon, ovarian, pancreatic or prostate cancer.
Doctors may decide whether to suggest genetic testing based in part on his Gleason score-a grading system that describes how aggressive the cancer is.
The National Comprehensive Cancer Network, a not-for-profit group representing many leading cancer centers, suggests a man should think about genetic testing if he has a Gleason score of seven or higher and at least one of the following:
- At least one close blood relative with breast or ovarian cancer at age 50 or younger, or
- A least two family members with breast, ovarian or prostate cancers at any age.
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Are There Complications Of Prostate Cancer And Treatment
Treatments can cause side effects, including:
- Erectile dysfunction: More than 3 in every 4 men have problems with getting and keeping an erection after surgery. However, this can be minimised using nerve-sparing surgery techniques. Erectile dysfunction is also common after radiation therapy and ADT. There are effective treatments for erection problems.
- Poor bladder control : 5% to 10% of men have problems with urine leakage within one year after prostate removal.
- Urinary urgency: Radiation therapy can cause damage around the prostate, making you feel like going to the toilet more often.
Men who take ADT may also experience a reduced sex drive and hormone-related effects such as hot flushes, tiredness and sweating, loss of body hair and osteoporosis. ADT can also result in reduced muscle strength, an increased risk of getting heart disease and memory loss.
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What Are The Stages Of Prostate Cancer
Your healthcare provider uses the Gleason score and Grade Groups to stage prostate cancer based on its projected aggressiveness. To get this information, the pathologist:
- Assigns a grade to each type of cell in your sample. Cells are graded on a scale of three to five . Samples that test in the one to two range are considered normal tissue.
- Adds together the two most common grades to get your Gleason score .
- Uses the Gleason score to place you into a Grade Group ranging from one to five. A Gleason score of six puts you in Grade Group 1 . A score of nine or higher puts you in Grade Group five . Samples with a higher portion of more aggressive cells receive a higher Grade Group.
Myth : Theres No Need To Have A Psa Test If I Dont Have Any Symptoms Of Prostate Cancer
This is a common misconception and one which is important to overturn. Sometimes men tell me their GP has refused to give them a PSA blood test because they didnt have any symptoms of prostate cancer. However, most early stage prostate cancers dont cause any symptoms. In fact, any man over the age of 50 can ask their GP for a PSA test to check for signs of prostate cancer.
If youre over 45 and have a higher risk of prostate cancer , talk to your GP about whether the PSA test is right for you.
During And After Cancer Treatment
Many times sexual problems or side effects that affect your sexuality happen during treatment, and might continue for a while afterward. Itâs important to know what precautions might be needed at certain times. Itâs also important to report any side effects while youâre getting treatment and during follow-up visits, as well as any changes you notice in sexual desire and function. Ask questions about them, because sometimes these problems come and go, and sometimes they can last.
Questions to ask during treatment about safety and protective precautions might be needed, such as:
- If you are getting certain types of radiation therapy where is it unsafe to be physically close to your partner.
- If you are getting certain types of chemo, targeted therapy, or immunotherapy that might be released in your body fluids, including sweat, saliva, and semen.
- If you are getting a treatment that might cause birth defects if your partner gets pregnant.
- If you have decreased white blood cells that cause you to have weakened immunity and make you more prone to infection.
- If you have a decreased platelet count that can make you prone to easy bruising or bleeding.
Other questions you might have during and after treatment could be related to: