Prostate Cancer Is Only For Men Because Prostate Gland Is Only In Men
Prolonged aging increases the likelihood of prostate cancer. According to the WHO report, there has been an increase in cases of prostate cancer in the last two decades. This type of cancer is more likely to occur in the prostate gland of men over 60. The prostate gland is one of the sizes of the nut that is around the urine tube. Its work is to create a liquid substance present in work semen. We are telling you about seven types of the prostate which every man should know.
How Is Prostate Cancer Diagnosed
A biopsy is when a small piece of tissue is removed from the prostate and looked at under a microscope.
A biopsy is a procedure that can be used to diagnose prostate cancer. A biopsy is when a small piece of tissue is removed from the prostate and looked at under a microscope to see if there are cancer cells.
A Gleason score is determined when the biopsy tissue is looked at under the microscope. If there is a cancer, the score indicates how likely it is to spread. The score ranges from 2 to 10. The lower the score, the less likely it is that the cancer will spread.
A biopsy is the main tool for diagnosing prostate cancer, but a doctor can use other tools to help make sure the biopsy is made in the right place. For example, doctors may use transrectal ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging to help guide the biopsy. With transrectal ultrasound, a probe the size of a finger is inserted into the rectum and high-energy sound waves are bounced off the prostate to create a picture of the prostate called a sonogram. MRI uses magnets and radio waves to produce images on a computer. MRI does not use any radiation.
Whats My Risk Of Getting Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer is no laughing matter a staggering 1 in 7 men in Ireland will be diagnosed with prostate cancer in their lifetime. Approximately 3,600 men are diagnosed with prostate cancer in Ireland every year.
Treatment options may include active surveillance, prostatectomy , radiotherapy, hormone therapy or chemotherapy.
But, the earlier the disease is caught, the better it can be treated, and today nine out of ten men diagnosed will survive.
The 5 year survival rate for people with prostate cancer is 98%, and up to 89% of prostate cancers are found in the early stages.
So what can you do to help you and your brother, father, uncle, partner, and friends understand prostate health and stay healthy or recover quickly?
Knowing the symptoms of prostate cancer is key to great outcomes.
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Positron Emission Tomography Scan
A PET scan is similar to a bone scan, in that a slightly radioactive substance is injected into the blood, which can then be detected with a special camera. But PET scans use different tracers that collect mainly in cancer cells. The most common tracer for standard PET scans is FDG, which is a type of sugar. Unfortunately, this type of PET scan isnt very useful in finding prostate cancer cells in the body.
However, newer tracers, such as fluciclovine F18, sodium fluoride F18, and choline C11, have been found to be better at detecting prostate cancer cells.
Other newer tracers, such as Ga 68 PSMA-11 and 18F-DCFPyl , attach to prostate-specific membrane antigen , a protein that is often found in large amounts on prostate cancer cells. Tests using these types of tracers are sometimes referred to as PSMA PET scans.
These newer types of PET scans are most often used if its not clear if prostate cancer has spread. For example, one of these tests might be done if the results of a bone scan arent clear, or if a man has a rising PSA level after initial treatment but its not clear where the cancer is in the body.
The pictures from a PET scan arent as detailed as MRI or CT scan images, but they can often show areas of cancer anywhere in the body. Some machines can do a PET scan and either an MRI or a CT scan at the same time, which can give more detail about areas that show up on the PET scan.
Phi For Risk Stratification And Treatment Outcomes
Risk stratification is also important for men undergoing definitive treatment and those with more advanced disease. Although relatively fewer studies have been studied using phi in this clinical context, a recent pilot study of men with biochemical recurrence reported significantly higher p2PSA and phi in men with metastatic progression compared those without clinical metastasis . Future studies are necessary to further evaluate and validate a role for PHI in the management of more advanced disease.
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Prostate Cancer: Advancements In Screenings
Dr. Christian Paul Pavlovich
You may know thatprostate canceris one of the most common cancer types in men. The good news is that thereare many treatment and management options, even if the cancer is caught ata later stage.
What you may not know: There are several options when it comes toprostate cancer screening. After considering multiple factors, your doctor may recommend theprostate-specific antigen test, and/or one of the newer screeningtests that are now available.
Johns Hopkins urologistChristian Pavlovich, M.D., explains what you should know.
What Are Some Of The Limitations And Potential Harms Of The Psa Test For Prostate Cancer Screening
Detecting prostate cancer early may not reduce the chance of dying from prostate cancer. When used in screening, the PSA test can help detect small tumors that do not cause symptoms. Finding a small tumor, however, may not necessarily reduce a mans chance of dying from prostate cancer. Many tumors found through PSA testing grow so slowly that they are unlikely to threaten a mans life. Detecting tumors that are not life-threatening
that requires treatment.
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Ask About Screening For Bowel Cancer
Early detection of bowel cancer greatly improves chances of successful treatment. Your risk of bowel cancer increases with age. If you are over age 50, you should be tested for bowel cancer every two years.
The National Bowel Screening Program, using FOBT, is offered free to all Australians aged 50-74 every two years. Cancer Council urges all eligible Australians to participate. Screening kits usually arrive within six months of your birthday.
Some people have known risk factors that put them at increased risk. If you do, your doctor will talk to you about regular surveillance.
Psa Test: The Current Prostate Screening Standard
Before recommending when you should be screened for prostate cancer, yourdoctor will consider many factors, such as:
- Family history, particularly whether any of your family members have had prostate cancer
- Race, as African-American men have a higher risk of developing prostate cancer
If your doctor determines you should undergo screening, he or she will mostlikely recommend the PSA test. For more than 30 years, the PSA test hasbeen the gold standard in prostate cancer screening. This simple blood testmeasures how much prostate-specific antigen is in your blood.
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How Should I Prepare For The Exam
You should tell your doctor if you have hemorrhoids, anal tears, or other problems with your anus. The exam will be easier if you breathe normally and try to relax.
Before having a PSA test, tell your doctor about any medications and supplements you take. Recent ejaculation can also affect your PSA levels. Ask your doctor if you should abstain from sexual activity before the test.
Your blood must be sent to a laboratory for analysis, so your PSA results wont be available immediately. Your doctor will let you know when they have the results.
The lab report will show the level of PSA in your blood as:
In addition to looking at the amount of PSA in your blood, your doctor will assess how quickly this number is changing. Many things can affect PSA, so test results require careful analysis by an expert. Your doctor will take all of your health information into account.
If you have an abnormal PSA test result, it doesnt mean you have prostate cancer. Most men with a high PSA level dont have prostate cancer. About 25 percent of men who have a biopsy due to a high PSA level have prostate cancer.
Its also possible for men with prostate cancer to have normal DRE and PSA test results.
How To Locate Your Prostate
This article was medically reviewed by Erik Kramer, DO, MPH. Dr. Erik Kramer is a Primary Care Physician at the University of Colorado, specializing in internal medicine, diabetes, and weight management. He received his Doctorate in Osteopathic Medicine from the Touro University Nevada College of Osteopathic Medicine in 2012. Dr. Kramer is a Diplomate of the American Board of Obesity Medicine and is board certified.There are 11 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. This article has been viewed 140,179 times.
The prostate is a walnut-sized organ in males that plays a major role in the production of semen. The easiest way to access the prostate is by way of an index finger carefully inserted into the rectum. The processes for accessing the prostate as part of a medical exam or for sexual pleasure are the same, and the same precautions should be taken. You should also keep an eye out for signs of potential prostate problems and contact your doctor as needed.
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How To Check For Prostate Enlargement
To find out whether your prostate gland is enlarged, youll need to have a few tests. Some tests will be done by a GP and, if needed, others will be carried Other tests such as urine flow study, digital rectal exam, prostate-specific antigen blood test, cystoscopy, ultrasound, or prostate MRI may be used to Transrectal ultrasound. An ultrasound uses sound waves to take a picture of your prostate gland. It can show whether it is enlarged or you have You may be offered a blood test to check your kidneys are working properly. You may also be offered a prostate-specific antigen blood test. PSA is a The first test for detecting prostate problems is a blood test to measure prostate-specific antigen , a protein made only by the prostate gland. Cystoscopy to look at the urethra or bladder with a scope Post-void residual volume to measure urine left in the bladder after urinating
What Are The Prostate Cancer Symptoms I Need To Look Out For
In its early stages, prostate cancer may not show any symptoms. Symptoms of early prostate cancer can include:
- difficulty passing urine
Symptoms associated with advanced prostate cancer include:
- blood in urine
- pain during urination
- lower back or pelvic pain.
These symptoms are also found in men who may have benign prostatic hyperplasia , a common, non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate gland.
If you experience these symptoms, visit your doctor.
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International Studies On Phi In Prostate Cancer Screening
Several large international studies have also reported on PHI, including the PRO-PSA Multicentric European Study. Among 646 European men from five centers undergoing prostate biopsy for a PSA of 210 ng/ml or suspicious DRE, Lazzeri and colleagues showed that using p2PSA or PHI significantly improved the prediction of biopsy outcome over total and free PSA . While the use of %p2PSA or PHI would reduce the number of unnecessary biopsies by 15% at 90% sensitivity, PHI would miss the fewest high-grade tumors.
The same authors also reported a subset of men from this multicenter PROMEtheuS trial to specifically evaluate men with a positive family history of prostate cancer . They found that proPSA and PHI were significant independent predictors of prostate cancer in this high-risk population. When added to a model containing PSA and prostate volume, p2PSA and PHI led to a 8.7% and 10% increase in accuracy, respectively . In addition, p2PSA and PHI were associated with Gleason score on biopsy, suggesting their potential utility to reduce unnecessary biopsies in men with a positive family history. Additional study is warranted to further examine the potential utility of PHI in other high-risk populations, including men of African descent.
What Is A Digital Rectal Exam
The most common way for doctors to check on the health of your prostate is with a DRE. Its a fairly quick and simple procedure.
For the exam, youll bend at the waist while standing or lie on your side with your knees bent toward your chest.
Your doctor will lubricate a gloved finger and gently place it inside your rectum. Theyll press one hand on your prostate, and their other hand will feel your pelvic area. It should only take a few moments.
You may experience momentary discomfort. You may also feel the urge to urinate, especially if your prostate is enlarged or inflamed.
Your doctor will be able to tell you if your prostate seems to be a normal size and shape. In general, a DRE has no risks.
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Getting The Results Of The Biopsy
Your biopsy samples will be sent to a lab, where they will be looked at with a microscope to see if they contain cancer cells. Getting the results usually takes at least 1 to 3 days, but it can sometimes take longer. The results might be reported as:
- Positive for cancer: Cancer cells were seen in the biopsy samples.
- Negative for cancer: No cancer cells were seen in the biopsy samples.
- Suspicious: Something abnormal was seen, but it might not be cancer.
If the biopsy is negative
If the prostate biopsy results are negative , and the chance that you have prostate cancer isnt very high based on your PSA level and other tests, you might not need any more tests, other than repeat PSA tests sometime later.
But even if many samples are taken, biopsies can still sometimes miss a cancer if none of the biopsy needles pass through it. This is known as a false-negative result. If your doctor still strongly suspects you have prostate cancer , your doctor might suggest:
- Getting other lab tests to help get a better idea of whether or not you might have prostate cancer. Examples of such tests include the Prostate Health Index , 4Kscore test, PCA3 tests , and ConfirmMDx. These tests are discussed in Whats New in Prostate Cancer Research?
- Getting a repeat prostate biopsy. This might include getting additional samples of parts of the prostate not biopsied the first time, or using imaging tests such as MRI to look more closely for abnormal areas to target.
Prostate cancer grade
Ways To Perform Self Prostate Exam For Most Common Prostate Diseases
How do you perform self prostate exam? Do you know that you have got a problem with your penis? The answer is not very clear.
You can insert your finger, as described in my own page of self prostate massage, you may have some ideas, but not sure. It should be soft and not hard, painless soft touch, and feel smooth without caking. Make sure you use gloves and lubricate to make insertion easier. To be gentle!
DRE or digital rectal examination by a trained urologist will provide you with the information you need. He would be very hesitant if he wants to do a biopsy. This is because the procedure has a lot of risks. He may underestimate the path of the invasion including the act if he finds the slightest sign of cancer.
Due to prostate disease symptoms often have no specificity, which means that prostate disease is difficult to distinguish only from the symptoms. So when you have these symptoms, you should also check through many other exams to finally determine whether it is really a prostate disease. It is best to get aids from professional hospitals as soon as possible to find a solution. Urinary problems can warn male urinary system, including many organs, such as lower urinary tract, the bladder, prostate and urethra, they have directly relations to the appearance of urinary symptoms.
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Specialist Referral And Biopsy
Your doctor will discuss your prostate check results with you. If the PSA and DRC results suggest you have a high risk for prostate cancer, your doctor will refer you to a urologist .
The specialist will discuss having a prostate biopsy, in which a small sample of your prostate gland cells are taken for examination.
The aim of the biopsy is to confirm whether or not you have prostate cancer and, if so, whether it needs treatment. The treatment options will then be discussed with you.
If the biopsy shows no evidence of cancer, you may be advised to attend future check-ups.
Is The Psa Test Recommended For Prostate Cancer Screening
Until about 2008, some doctors and professional organizations encouraged yearly PSA screening for men beginning at age 50. Some organizations recommended that men who are at higher risk of prostate cancer, including African-American men and men whose father or brother had prostate cancer, begin screening at age 40 or 45. However, as more was learned about both the benefits and harms of prostate cancer screening, a number of organizations began to caution against routine population screening. Most organizations recommend that men who are considering PSA screening first discuss the risks and benefits with their doctors.
Currently, Medicare provides coverage for an annual PSA test for all Medicare-eligible men age 50 and older. Many private insurers cover PSA screening as well.
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Doing A Prostate Self Exam:
With the above warning in mind, then how can you do aprostate self exam and know if you have a problem or not? The answer is not very likely.
You could insert your finger as described in my page on self prostate massage, and you may get some idea but nothing definitive. It should be soft not hard, painless to the gentle touch, and feel smooth not lumpy. Make sure you use gloves and lubrication to make insertion easier. Be gentle!
Getting a DRE or digital rectal exam by a trained urologist will give you the information you want. Just be very hesitant if he wants then to do a biopsy as there are many risks to this procedure that he may downplay including the path to invasive action if he finds the slightest sign of cancer. Go to Prostate Biopsy Procedure to read more.