Sunday, September 25, 2022

What Treatments Are Available For Prostate Cancer

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Treatment To Lower Androgen Levels From The Adrenal Glands

New treatment for prostate cancer introduced in New Orleans

LHRH agonists and antagonists can stop the testicles from making androgens, but cells in other parts of the body, such as the adrenal glands, and prostate cancer cells themselves, can still make male hormones, which can fuel cancer growth. Some drugs can block the formation of androgens made by these cells.

Abiraterone blocks an enzyme called CYP17, which helps stop these cells from making androgens.

Abiraterone can be used in men with advanced prostate cancer that is either:

  • High risk
  • Castrate-resistant

This drug is taken as pills every day. It doesnt stop the testicles from making testosterone, so men who havent had an orchiectomy need to continue treatment with an LHRH agonist or antagonist. Because abiraterone also lowers the level of some other hormones in the body, prednisone needs to be taken during treatment as well to avoid certain side effects.

Ketoconazole , first used for treating fungal infections, also blocks production of androgens made in the adrenal glands, much like abiraterone. It’s most often used to treat men just diagnosed with advanced prostate cancer who have a lot of cancer in the body, as it offers a quick way to lower testosterone levels. It can also be tried if other forms of hormone therapy are no longer working.

Ketoconazole also can block the production of cortisol, an important steroid hormone in the body, so men treated with this drug often need to take a corticosteroid .

Access The Right Treatments At The Right Time

When it comes to treating prostate cancer, it is important to have access to the best expertise possible so you can receive the right treatments at the right time. The University of Maryland Cancer Network gives you the opportunity to connect with the best treatment options available.

Led by the University of Maryland Greenebaum Comprehensive Cancer Center , the UM Cancer Network provides you access to nationally renowned experts, the latest treatments, and promising clinical trials close to home. When you work with a UM Cancer Network cancer center, your community hospital will work in partnership with UMGCCC to help you beat cancer.

Find out more about prostate cancer treatments.

Find an UMMS cancer center near you.

Hormone Therapy For Prostate Cancer: Important Things To Know

The prostate is a small walnut-sized gland that produces seminal fluid in men. The seminal fluid nourishes and transports sperms. The prostate serves several purposes besides producing the fluid that nourishes and transports sperms. It also secretes Prostate-Specific Antigen , a protein that aids in the retention of the liquid state of sperm and aids in urine control.

Read Also: Does Regular Ejaculation Help Prostate

How Much Does Car T

China is a world leader in number of clinical trials for CAR-T cell therapy & BMT. Till now there are more than 300 CAR-T cell clinical trials in progress. Chinas CAR-T treatment is the most budget one around the world. Because the CAR-T cell preparation is free now ! The patients only have to pay for the treatment & services. Total cost of treatment will be around $30,000 -$40,000.

Your Age And General Health

How much does HIFU treatment for prostate cancer cost?

Your doctor takes your age into account because some prostate cancers grow very slowly. If you are older and your prostate cancer is not causing you any symptoms, you may live just as long without having any active treatment. So you might be offered regular checkups instead of treatment.

You may find it hard to wait and see if you are offered regular checkups. But it could be the right choice for you if the side effects from the treatment might be worse than the effects of the cancer. This is particularly so if you have other health problems. If your cancer starts to cause symptoms you and your doctor can then consider which treatment is best for you.

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Possible Side Effects Of Chemotherapy

Chemo drugs attack cells that are dividing quickly, which is why they work against cancer cells. But other cells in the body, such as those in the bone marrow , the lining of the mouth and intestines, and the hair follicles, also divide quickly. These cells can also be affected by chemo, which can lead to side effects.

The side effects of chemo depend on the type and dose of drugs given and how long they are taken. Some common side effects can include:

These side effects usually go away once treatment is finished. There are often ways to lessen these side effects. For example, drugs can be given to help prevent or reduce nausea and vomiting.

Along with the risks above, some side effects are seen more often with certain chemo drugs. For example:

  • Docetaxel and cabazitaxel sometimes cause severe allergic reactions. Medicines are given before each treatment to help prevent this. These drugs can also damage nerves , which can cause numbness, tingling, or burning sensations in the hands or feet.
  • Mitoxantrone can, very rarely, cause leukemia several years later.
  • Estramustine carries an increased risk of blood clots.

If you notice any side effects while getting chemo report them to your cancer care team so that they can be treated promptly. In some cases, the doses of the chemo drugs may need to be reduced or treatment may need to be delayed or stopped to prevent the effects from getting worse.

Ng Tohu Matua: Te Maimoatanga Matepukupuku Repe Ure

  • M te mhio ki te whanga o t matepukupuku repe ure, e whina i t rp maimoa ki te whakamahere i maimoatanga.
  • Ka whakaritea he whakamtau toto prostate specific antigen ki te ine i te taumata PSA kei roto i t toto. Mehemea
  • kua piki t PSA, he tohu tnei kua piki ake te mrea o t whai i te matepukupuku repe ure, e ai ki te tangata whai taumata PSA pai.
  • Ara an tahi atu take, atu i te matepukupuku, piki ai te PSA, n reira, kore e taea te whakamahi i te whakamtautau PSA anake ki te whakatau i te matepukupuku repe ure.
  • Ko te whakamtautau -mati tou, ko te porooro, ko te unuhanga tahi atu whakamtautau.Mehemea kei roto te matepukupuku i to tauira unuhanga, ka tauinetia m te whakamahi i te tauine ISUP .
  • He huarahi te mahi tauine ki te krero i te momo hua u ptau matepukupuku, te tere o t rtou tipu, me te hua o tna kaha ki te hrapa ki whi k o te tinana.Tr pea ka whakahaerehia tahi atu titiro whakatau pr ki te CT, ki te MRI rnei, , i tahi w, he titiro whakatau -kiwi.Ka whakamahia ng putanga o ng whakamtautau me ng titiro whakatau ki te krawarawa i te whanga taumata o t matepukupuku tna rahi, me tna kaha rauroha.

Read Also: Can Your Prostate Grow Back

Choosing To Stop Treatment Or Choosing No Treatment At All

For some people, when treatments have been tried and are no longer controlling the cancer, it could be time to weigh the benefits and risks of continuing to try new treatments. Whether or not you continue treatment, there are still things you can do to help maintain or improve your quality of life.

Some people, especially if the cancer is advanced, might not want to be treated at all. There are many reasons you might decide not to get cancer treatment, but its important to talk to your doctors and you make that decision. Remember that even if you choose not to treat the cancer, you can still get supportive care to help with pain or other symptoms.

Surgically Removing The Prostate Gland

New treatment for advanced prostate cancer shows progress

A radical prostatectomy is the surgical removal of your prostate gland. This treatment is an option for curing prostate cancer that has not spread beyond the prostate or has not spread very far.

Like any operation, this surgery carries some risks, such as urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction.

In extremely rare cases, problems arising after surgery can be fatal.

It’s possible that prostate cancer can come back again after treatment. Your doctor should be able to explain the risk of your cancer coming back after treatment, based on things like your PSA level and the stage of your cancer.

Studies have shown that radiotherapy after prostate removal surgery may increase the chances of a cure, although research is still being carried out into when it should be used after surgery.

After a radical prostatectomy, you’ll no longer ejaculate during sex. This means you will not be able to have a child through sexual intercourse.

You may want to ask your doctors about storing a sperm sample before the operation so it can be used later for in vitro fertilisation .

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Are There Side Effects

The treatments for prostate cancer also can affect your body in other ways. Side effects can include:

  • Bowel problems
  • Loss of your ability to get a woman pregnant
  • Leaky bladder or loss of bladder control. You might also need to pee a lot more often.

Side effects are another thing to think about when youâre choosing a treatment. If theyâre too tough to handle, you might want to change your approach. Talk to your doctor about what you can expect. They can also help you find ways to manage your side effects.

How Prostate Cancer Is Treated

In cancer care, different types of doctorsincluding medical oncologists, surgeons, and radiation oncologistsoften work together to create an overall treatment plan that may combine different types of treatments to treat the cancer. This is called a multidisciplinary team. Cancer care teams include a variety of other health care professionals, such as palliative care experts, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, oncology nurses, social workers, pharmacists, counselors, dietitians, physical therapists, and others.

The common types of treatments used for prostate cancer are described below. Your care plan may also include treatment for symptoms and side effects, an important part of cancer care.

Treatment options and recommendations depend on several factors, including the type and stage of cancer, possible side effects, and the patients preferences and overall health.

Cancer treatment can affect older adults in different ways. More information on the specific effects of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy on older patients can be found another section of this website.

Because most prostate cancers are found in the early stages when they are growing slowly, you usually do not have to rush to make treatment decisions. During this time, it is important to talk with your doctor about the risks and benefits of all your treatment options and when treatment should begin. This discussion should also address the current state of the cancer:

Read Also: Can Prostate Infection Cause Back Pain

What Questions Should I Ask My Healthcare Provider

If you have prostate cancer, you may want to ask your healthcare provider:

  • Why did I get prostate cancer?
  • What is my Gleason score? What is my Grade Group? What do these numbers mean for me?
  • Has the cancer spread outside of the prostate gland?
  • What is the best treatment for the stage of prostate cancer I have?
  • If I choose active surveillance, what can I expect? What signs of cancer should I look out for?
  • What are the treatment risks and side effects?
  • Is my family at risk for developing prostate cancer? If so, should we get genetic tests?
  • Am I at risk for other types of cancer?
  • What type of follow-up care do I need after treatment?
  • Should I look out for signs of complications?

A note from Cleveland Clinic

Prostate cancer is a common cancer that affects males. Most prostate cancers grow slowly and remain in the prostate gland. For a small number, the disease can be aggressive and spread quickly to other parts of the body. Men with slow-growing prostate cancers may choose active surveillance. With this approach, you can postpone, and sometimes completely forego, treatments. Your healthcare provider can discuss the best treatment option for you based on your Gleason score and Group Grade.

Treating Prostate Cancer That Doesnt Go Away Or Comes Back After Treatment

Management of Prostate Cancer

If your prostate-specific antigen blood level or another test shows that your prostate cancer has not been cured or has come back after the initial treatment, further treatment can often still be helpful. Follow-up treatment will depend on where the cancer is thought to be and what treatment you’ve already had. Imaging tests such as CT, MRI, or bone scans may be done to get a better idea about where the cancer is.

Recommended Reading: What Is The Purpose Of The Prostate Gland In Males

Cancer May Spread From Where It Began To Other Parts Of The Body

When cancer spreads to another part of the body, it is called metastasis. Cancer cells break away from where they began and travel through the lymph system or blood.

  • Lymph system. The cancer gets into the lymph system, travels through the lymph vessels, and forms a tumor in another part of the body.
  • Blood. The cancer gets into the blood, travels through the blood vessels, and forms a tumor in another part of the body.

The metastatic tumor is the same type of cancer as the primary tumor. For example, if prostate cancer spreads to the bone, the cancer cells in the bone are actually prostate cancer cells. The disease is metastatic prostate cancer, not bone cancer.

Denosumab, a monoclonal antibody, may be used to preventbone metastases.

Some Things To Consider When Choosing Among Treatments

Before deciding on treatment, here are some questions you may want to ask yourself:

  • Are you the type of person who needs to do something about your cancer, even if it might result in serious side effects?
  • Would you be comfortable with watchful waiting or active surveillance, even if it means you might have more anxiety and need more frequent follow-up appointments in the future?
  • Do you need to know right away whether your doctor was able to get all of the cancer out ? Or are you comfortable with not knowing the results of treatment for a while if it means not having to have surgery?
  • Do you prefer to go with the newest technology , which might have some advantages? Or do you prefer to go with better proven treatments that doctors might have more experience with?
  • Which potential treatment side effects might be most distressing to you?
  • How important for you are issues like the amount of time spent in treatment or recovery?
  • If your initial treatment is not successful, what would your options be at that point?

Many men find it very stressful to have to choose between treatment options, and are very fearful they will choose the âwrongâ one. In many cases, there is no single best option, so itâs important to take your time and decide which option is right for you.

Read Also: Do Guys Have To Get A Prostate Exam

Treatment Choices For Prostate Cancer That Has Spread

If your prostate cancer has spread to other parts of your body, it cannot be cured. But it can be controlled by lowering the level of testosterone in your body with hormone therapy. You can have hormone therapy as

  • Tablets you take each day
  • Injections each month or every 3 months or 6 months.
  • Tablets for a few months, then a break, followed by more tablets, and so on

Another way of reducing testosterone levels is removing the testicles. This is called surgical castration or orchidectomy. It quickly lowers the testosterone levels and can control the cancer very well.

Orchidectomy or hormone therapy can control the cancer for a few years in many men. When the cancer starts to develop again, your doctors may suggest treatment with chemotherapy or steroids. These can control or shrink the cancer for some time. Chemotherapy can work well at controlling advanced prostate cancer in some men.

If your cancer has spread to your bones and is causing you pain, your specialist may suggest radiotherapy to the affected areas of bone. Radiotherapy for bone pain can work very well to strengthen the bone and relieve pain. The damaged bone begins to repair itself after radiotherapy treatment. Bisphosphonate treatment can also reduce bone pain and help to reduce the risk of bone fracture.

For more information on Thrombosis which may occur during / after chemo click here

What Are The Treatment Options For Prostate Cancer

Prostate Cancer Treatment

Your prostate cancer is every bit as unique as you are, and that is why prostate cancer treatment at City of Hope is focused around you and your loved ones.

This means our physicians will personally consult with you about your disease, treatment options and desired outcomes. Afterward, our multidisciplinary team of specialists will work together to discuss, design and deliver an individual treatment plan to best meet those goals.

The innovative treatments we use to treat prostate cancer include:

Also Check: Treatment Options Of Prostate Cancer

What Are Some Of The Treatments For Prostate Cancer

These resources cover some of the most common treatments and what you can expect from them.

To help with making decisions about treatment, patients can be placed into high, intermediate or low risk groups with respect to likely cancer outcome. This is done using a combination of factors.

External Beam Radiotherapy Radiotherapy is a suitable treatment for men of any age and is as effective at treating localised prostate cancer as surgery to remove the prostate .

Hormone Therapy Hormone therapy works by stopping the hormone testosterone from reaching the prostate cancer cells.

Second-Line Hormone Therapy If you are on hormone therapy and your PSA starts to rise, this may mean that your hormone therapy is no longer working as well as it was. You may be offered another type of hormone therapy, which is sometimes called second-line hormone therapy.

Chemotherapy Chemotherapy is a treatment option that may be suitable for men who have prostate cancer that has spread to other parts of the body and is no longer responding to hormone therapy. Chemotherapy is used to help control symptoms and not to cure prostate cancer.

Clinical Trials A clinical trial is a type of medical research study that aims to find new and improved ways of preventing, diagnosing, treating and controlling illnesses.

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Links made with the kind permission of Prostate Cancer UK and PAndrology Australia.

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