Monday, October 3, 2022

What To Know About Prostate Cancer

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There Are Different Types Of Treatment For Patients With Prostate Cancer

What you need to know about prostate cancer

Different types of treatment are available for patients withprostate cancer. Some treatments are standard , and some are being tested in clinical trials. A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer. When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment. Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial. Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have not started treatment.

High Intake Of Dairy Products Modestly Increases In Prostate Cancer Risk

In a combined analysis of 10 published studies, men with the highest intake of dairy products and calcium were more likely to develop prostate cancer than men with the lowest intakes.

Calcium is a nutrient that has been linked with a decreased risk of osteoporosis, hypertension, and colorectal cancer. Some studies, however, have suggested that high calcium intake may increase the risk of prostate cancer.

The reason for a link between high calcium intake and prostate cancer is unclear, but could potentially involve suppression of plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 or elevation of plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor-I .

To evaluate the link between dairy products, calcium, and risk of prostate cancer, researchers combined information from 10 published studies that addressed this question conducted in the U.S. or Europe and were published between 1984 and 2005. Information about consumption of dairy products and calcium was collected by questionnaires completed by the study subjects.

Data from the 10 studies suggest a modestly increased risk of prostate cancer among men with the highest intake of dairy products or calcium:

The researchers conclude that âHigh intake of dairy products and calcium may be associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer, although the increase appears to be small.â

You Can Take Action Now To Reduce Your Risk Of Prostate Cancer Later On

You cant control your genes or what the future may hold. But you can take steps to reduce your risk of prostate cancer through lifestyle choices. For starters:

  • Maintain a healthy diet. A diet full of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins and healthy fats can contribute to your overall health.
  • Exercise regularly. Exercise not only improves your physical health, but also your mood and mental health. Plus, there is some evidence that men who exercise are at a lower risk of developing prostate cancer.
  • Try to maintain a healthy weight. Obesity is a risk factor for prostate cancer.
  • Talk proactively with your doctor about your risk for prostate cancer. If youre over 40 and havent discussed your risk level with your doctor or urologist, I suggest you make an appointment. Depending on your risk factors, you and your doctor can work together to create an action plan that works best for you, which may include a prostate cancer screening.

Also, if youve been experiencing any unusual urinary or erectile symptoms, dont ignore them. Make a primary care appointment, for starters.

Your doctor will talk with you about your symptoms, answer your questions and recommend treatment next steps if needed. They may also recommend you see a urologist like me. Urologists are experts in urinary and male reproductive health, including prostate cancer diagnosis and treatment.

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What Are Prostate Cancer Treatment Side Effects

Some prostate cancer treatments can affect the bladder, erectile nerves and sphincter muscle, which controls urination. Potential problems include:

  • Incontinence: Some men experience urinary incontinence. You may leak urine when you cough or laugh, or you may feel an urgent need to use the bathroom even when your bladder isnt full. This problem can improve over the first six to 12 months without treatment.
  • Erectile dysfunction : Surgery, radiation and other treatments can damage the erectile nerves and affect your ability to get or maintain an erection. Some men regain erectile function within a year or two . In the meantime, medications like sildenafil or tadalafil can help by increasing blood flow to the penis.
  • Infertility: Treatments can affect your ability to produce or ejaculate sperm, resulting in male infertility. If you think you might want children in the future, you can preserve sperm in a sperm bank before you start treatments. After treatments, you may undergo sperm extraction. This procedure involves removing sperm directly from testicular tissue and implanting it into a womans uterus.

Black Men Both Get And Die From Prostate Cancer At A Higher Rate The Reasons Are Complex And Unclear

Infographic: What you need to know about prostate cancer ...

Black men are 50% more likely to develop prostate cancer in their lifetime and twice as likely to die from the disease, Dr. Kantoff says.

It is difficult to untangle the various factors that might affect the risk and outcome of prostate cancer, Dr. Kantoff explains. Prostate cancer in Blacks tends to have biological characteristics associated with more aggressive disease, he says. There is evidence suggesting that this is partly related to inherited genetic factors.

He points out that in addition to differences in tumor biology, the higher risk may be tied to disparities in environment and behavior. This could include social stress or more exposure to cancer-causing pollutants. Smoking, poor diet, and lack of exercise, which can cause obesity, may also have effects. Disparities in outcome could be affected by differences in when the cancer is diagnosed and how the men are treated after diagnosis.

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The Grade Group And Psa Level Are Used To Stage Prostate Cancer

The stage of the cancer is based on the results of the staging and diagnostic tests, including the prostate-specific antigen test and the Grade Group. The tissue samples removed during the biopsy are used to find out the Gleason score. The Gleason score ranges from 2 to 10 and describes how different the cancer cells look from normal cells under a microscope and how likely it is that the tumor will spread. The lower the number, the more cancer cells look like normal cells and are likely to grow and spread slowly.

The Grade Group depends on the Gleason score. See the General Information section for more information about the Gleason score.

  • Grade Group 1 is a Gleason score of 6 or less.
  • Grade Group 2 or 3 is a Gleason score of 7.
  • Grade Group 4 is a Gleason score 8.
  • Grade Group 5 is a Gleason score of 9 or 10.

The PSA test measures the level of PSA in the blood. PSA is a substance made by the prostate that may be found in an increased amount in the blood of men who have prostate cancer.

What Will Happen After Treatment

Youll be glad when treatment is over. But its hard not to worry about cancer coming back. When cancer comes back it is called a recurrence. Even when cancer never comes back, people still worry about it. For years after treatment ends, you will see your cancer doctor. At first, your visits may be every few months. Then, the longer youre cancer-free, the less often the visits are needed.

Be sure to go to all follow-up visits. Your doctors will ask about your symptoms, examine you, and might order blood tests and maybe other tests to see if the cancer has come back.

Having cancer and dealing with treatment can be hard, but it can also be a time to look at your life in new ways. You might be thinking about how to improve your health. Call us at 1-800-227-2345 or talk to your doctor to find out what you can do to feel better.

You cant change the fact that you have cancer. What you can change is how you live the rest of your life, making healthy choices and feeling as good as you can.

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How Is Prostate Cancer Treated

Your treatment will depend on what kind of cancer cells you have, how far they have spread, your age and general health, and your preferences. At HealthPartners and Park Nicollet, we approach cancer treatment by understanding the impact it has both physically and mentally. So, you and your doctor may decide to manage your cancer with active surveillance or to treat it with surgery or radiation.

If youre over age 80 or have other serious health problems, like heart disease, you may choose not to have treatments to cure your cancer. Instead, you can just have treatments to manage your symptoms. This is called watchful waiting.

If youve already been diagnosed with prostate cancer, choosing treatment for prostate cancer can be confusing. Both urologists and oncologists have the specialty training and expertise to treat prostate cancer. They can work with you develop a treatment plan thats right for you.

Can You Fully Recover From Prostate Cancer

What you need to know about prostate cancer

Yes, when diagnosed early and treated promptly, the chance of curing prostate cancer can be almost 100%. However, when prostate cancer is metastatic, it is treatable, but cure is not possible.

For those who undergo a prostatectomy, the postoperative short-term recovery involves a night in the hospital and regaining your mobility. After youre able to walk, you will return home to recuperate for a month before returning to work. You also cannot lift heavy objects for 6 weeks or drive for 7 to 10 days.

Long-term side effects of prostate cancer treatment include urinary dysfunction, erectile dysfunction, bowel issues, infertility and issues resulting from hormone therapy. However, with pelvic floor physical therapy and medications, long-term side effects can often be treated.

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What Is The Number One Thing Youd Like Men To Know About Prostate Cancer

My patients are often surprised to learn the statistics of prostate cancer. The risk of prostate cancer increases with age. Other than skin cancer, prostate cancer is the most common cancer and remains the second-leading cause of cancer death in American men, behind only lung cancer. Accordingly, men need to take charge of their health and should talk to their doctor about periodic screening for prostate cancer.

Who Gets Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer is rarely diagnosed in men younger than 40. Still, by age 50, its common for men to experience changes in the size and shape of the cells in the prostate. Understanding whether these changes are signs of a tumor and knowing your risk for developing prostate cancer are important steps in protecting your health.

Besides age, other risk factors for prostate cancer include:

  • Race: Black men are more likely to develop prostate cancer than men of other racesand are more likely to die from the disease.
  • Family history: The risk of developing prostate cancer is higher among people who have an immediate family member, such as a father, brother or son, who had or currently has prostate cancer.
  • Inherited genetic changes: Several inherited mutations are associated with a higher risk of prostate cancer. Mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes are one example. An inherited condition called Lynch syndrome is also associated with a higher risk of prostate cancer, among other types of cancer.

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The Psa Blood Test Explained

PSA is prostate specific antigen, a substance produced by the prostate sometimes but not always in higher quantities in men with prostate cancer. Other causes of a raised PSA blood test include benign prostatic hyperplasia in men with a large prostate gland and infection or inflammation in the prostate . A raised PSA blood test does not mean that you have prostate cancer but that you may have an increased risk of developing the disease. If the PSA is raised, your doctor will talk to you about your options. Men in Ireland are not routinely offered PSA tests to screen for prostate cancer. There are many reasons for this, the most relevant being that although the PSA is prostate specific, it is not cancer specific. In other words the PSA can be raised for reasons other than cancer.

Prostate cancer treatment will depend on:

The type of cancer cells found at the time of diagnosis.

The test results.

The age of the patient.

General health of the patient.

Some of the treatment options include: active surveillance , surgery, radiotherapy , hormone therapy and chemotherapy. Your doctor will discuss your treatment options with you. Some of these treatments may be used alone or together to treat some prostate cancers. It is often useful to have a friend or relative with you when the treatment is explained. Some patients find it helps to write down a list of questions before going to the appointment.

Although It Is The Most Commonly Diagnosed Cancer In American Women Breast Cancer Can Impact People Of All Genders

Infographic: What you need to know about prostate cancer

The pancreas is located behind the stomach, so having pancreatic cancer doesn’t involve a palpable mass that you can feel. Your doctor will want to discuss treatment options as well as the prognosis for bladder cancer. However, as with other types of cancer,. Prostate cancer is one of the most common types of cancer diagnosed in men. Treatment for bladder cancer depends on your overall health, progression of the c. In fact, most people don’t even know what it does. Prostate cancer is a common type of cancer in men, according to the mayo clinic. Although screenings for prostate cancer are one tool for early detecti. Whether you or someone y. When malignant cancer cells form and grow within a person’s breast tissue, breast cancer occurs. Being armed with information is vital to begin the fight. Of course, your specialist is the main person whose advice you should follow but it doesn’t do anyone harm. The american cancer society provides detailed information on prostate cancer and its treatment.

Although it is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in american women, breast cancer can impact people of all genders. Despite this, pancreatic cancer is among the deadliest types of cancer, which is why it’s extremely important to know and recogni. Although the percentage of cases in men is much lower than in women, male breast cancer accounts for a por. Prostate cancer is a common type of cancer in men, according to the mayo clinic. But hearing the words can still be scary.

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Signs And Symptoms Of Prostate Cancer

Early prostate cancer is often present without any obvious symptoms. However, if you have any of the symptoms listed below, make an appointment with your doctor.

Dysuria difficulty and pain passing urine

Urgency- difficult to postpone passing urine

Frequency- going to the toilet more frequently than before

Nocturia- getting up more than twice a night to pass urine

Hesitancy- taking time to get going when passing urine

Flow- has become weak or intermittent

Incomplete emptying feeling that the bladder has not emptied

Blood-present in the urine

Trouble having or keeping an erection

Lower back pain or pain in hips or upper thighs.

It is important to note that the prostate enlarges with age. It wraps around the urethra and this enlargement can cause bladder outlet obstruction which can lead to the above symptoms. BPH is more common than prostate cancer but the conditions may exist together. BPH is not cancerous but can be troublesome.

Click here for more information about the symptoms of prostate cancer.

What to do

If you experience any of the listed symptoms:

If discovered early, prostate cancer can be treated successfully.

How Is Prostate Cancer Diagnosed And Treated

If your blood test detects high PSA levels, your primary care provider may refer you to a urologist for further evaluation, where additional imaging and/or a biopsy of the prostate may be performed. During a biopsy, a thin needle is inserted into the prostate to collect sample tissue. The tissue sample is then sent to a lab where it is analyzed under a microscope to determine whether the cells are cancerous. Your provider may also conduct an ultrasound or MRI to guide the biopsy. If cancer cells are detected in your biopsy, you will be assigned a Gleason score. Ranging from 2 to 10, this score indicates how aggressive the cancer is and how likely it is to spread. The lower the score is, the less likely the cancer is to spread.

If a prostate cancer diagnosis has been made, other tests will be ordered to determine if the cancer cells have spread to other parts of the body and what stage it is. Treatment will largely depend on your age, health history, and the stage of the cancer. If your cancer is slow growing and non-aggressive, your provider may recommend active surveillance, which means closely monitoring the cancer through routine PSA tests and biopsies. More aggressive cancers may require surgery, radiation, cryotherapy, hormone therapy, or chemotherapy.

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How Can I Participate In A Clinical Trial For Prostate Cancer

Anyone interested in participating in research can search for a trial relevant to them at clinicaltrials.gov, a worldwide database of clinical research thatâs run by the U.S. National Institutes of Health. Each trial listing includes a phone number potential participants can call to get more information.

Clinical trials offer men access to new treatments that they might not otherwise be able to try, said keynoter Dr. Paul Schellhammer â whoâs both a leading prostate cancer expert based at Eastern Virginia Medical School and a prostate cancer patient himself who participated in several trials during the course of his treatment. But he cautioned that clinical trials are not for everyone, as they often require strict treatment regimens and a lot of extra testing.

Susan Keown, a staff writer at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, has written about health and research topics for a variety of research institutions, including the National Institutes of Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Reach her at .

Solid tumors, such as those of the prostate, are the focus of Solid Tumor Translational Research, a network comprised of Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, UW Medicine and Seattle Cancer Care Alliance. STTR is bridging laboratory sciences and patient care to provide the most precise treatment options for patients with solid tumor cancers.

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