What Are The Stages Of Prostate Cancer
Your healthcare provider uses the Gleason score and Grade Groups to stage prostate cancer based on its projected aggressiveness. To get this information, the pathologist:
- Assigns a grade to each type of cell in your sample. Cells are graded on a scale of three to five . Samples that test in the one to two range are considered normal tissue.
- Adds together the two most common grades to get your Gleason score .
- Uses the Gleason score to place you into a Grade Group ranging from one to five. A Gleason score of six puts you in Grade Group 1 . A score of nine or higher puts you in Grade Group five . Samples with a higher portion of more aggressive cells receive a higher Grade Group.
What Signs Should You Look For
The prostate is one of the key components of the male reproductive system. It is a walnut-sized gland that is located below the urinary bladder, and its main responsibility is to create seminal fluid. It is wrapped around the urethra, which is a hollow tube that transports urine or semen out of the body.
The size of the prostate naturally gets bigger with age. Fortunately, this doesnt cause any serious problems in most cases. However, an enlarged prostate can sometimes constrict the urethra, which typically leads to BPH. Symptoms of BPH include:
- Frequent urination, especially during nighttime
- Difficulty urinating
- Unsatisfactory urination
Prostatitis is a bacterial infection that can be considered as a kind of urinary tract infection in men. While it is rarely a serious condition, you should still go to your doctor as soon as you experience any of these symptoms:
- Painful urination and ejaculation
- Erectile dysfunction
Surgery For An Enlarged Prostate
For most men with very enlarged prostates, surgery can relieve symptoms — but there are both risks and benefits with each type of operation. Discuss them with your doctor. After a careful evaluation of your situation and your general medical condition, your doctor will recommend which is best for you.
TURP : This is the most common surgery for an enlarged prostate, and considered to bring the greatest reduction in symptoms. Only the tissue growth that is pressing against the urethra is removed to allow urine to flow easily. The procedure involves an electrical loop that cuts tissue and seals blood vessels. Most doctors suggest using TURP whenever surgery is required, as it is less traumatic than open surgery and requires shorter recovery time.
With the TURP procedure, patients can expect to have retrograde ejaculation afterwards, says Westney. This is a condition in which a man ejaculates backward into the bladder instead of through the urethra. “Retrograde ejaculation generally isn’t painful,” she tells WebMD. “It shouldn’t be an issue unless fertility is a concern.” Other possible side effects include blood loss requiring transfusion , painful urination, recurring urinary tract infections, bladder neck narrowing, and blood in the urine.
After TURP, the odds of erection problems range from 5% to 35%. However, this is often temporary — and the ability to have an erection and an orgasm returns after a few months.
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Medication For Urinary Problems
Your doctor may suggest various medications to help ease your urinary problems, including:
- medications to reduce the tone of the muscles of the urethra and prostate to minimise any constriction to urine flow caused when these muscles contract
- medication to reduce the size of the prostate gland. These medications work by blocking the action of male hormones produced by the prostate gland
- medications to relax the bladder, making unwanted contractions less likely and reducing the symptoms of urgency and frequency of urination
- the over-the-counter preparation ‘saw palmetto’ is sometimes used. This may help some men, especially if frequent urination at night is a problem.
However, recent reviews of the evidence for using saw palmetto as a treatment for mild or moderate urinary symptoms did not show any improvement, compared to no treatment, in men with BPH.
What Else Can Cause These Symptoms
As men get older their prostate gland enlarges. It isn’t normally cancer. But instead a condition called benign prostatic hyperplasia . BPH is when the prostate gland grows and presses on the urethra. The urethra is the tube that empties out urine from the bladder.
BPH does not develop into cancer. But you can have an enlarged prostate at the same time as having areas in the prostate gland that contain cancer cells.
See your doctor if you have any of the changes described here.
The changes don’t mean that you have cancer but it is important to get them checked so your doctor can help with you cope with them.
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Why Is A Prostate
A PSA blood test is performed to detect or rule out prostate cancer. The amount of PSA in the blood is often higher in men who have prostate cancer. However, an elevated PSA level does not necessarily indicate prostate cancer. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved the PSA blood test for use in conjunction with a DRE to help detect prostate cancer in men age 50 or older and for monitoring men with prostate cancer after treatment. However, much remains unknown about how to interpret a PSA blood test, its ability to discriminate between cancer and problems such as BPH and prostatitis, and the best course of action if the PSA level is high.
When done in addition to a DRE, a PSA blood test enhances detection of prostate cancer. However, the test is known to have relatively high false-positive rates. A PSA blood test also may identify a greater number of medically insignificant lumps or growths, called tumors, in the prostate. Health care providers and patients should weigh the benefits of PSA blood testing against the risks of follow-up diagnostic tests. The procedures used to diagnose prostate cancer may cause significant side effects, including bleeding and infection.
S To Take After A Prostate Cancer Diagnosis
For many men, the first sign of prostate problems involves urination changes.
Some men may begin to notice increased frequency, slowing of their stream, and getting up at night to empty their bladder, says Dr. Chodak. Urinary troubles can often signal a noncancerous gland enlargement, which is called benign prostatic hyperplasia, a condition that is common in men over 40. Virtually every guy over 70 has some prostatic enlargement, says Edward Geehr, MD, the chief medical officer of ILinkMD Corporation.
Still, any urination changes including pain, weak flow, difficulty starting or stopping, frequent nighttime urination or blood in the urine or semen should be evaluated by a doctor.
In its advanced stages, prostate cancer can cause leg swelling and bone pain as the cancer spreads to other areas of the body.
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Transrectal Ultrasound With Prostate Biopsy
Transrectal ultrasound is most often used to examine the prostate. In a transrectal ultrasound, the health care provider inserts a transducer slightly larger than a pen into the mans rectum next to the prostate. The ultrasound image shows the size of the prostate and any abnormal-looking areas, such as tumors. Transrectal ultrasound cannot definitively identify prostate cancer.
To determine whether a tumor is cancerous, the health care provider uses the transducer and ultrasound images to guide a needle to the tumor. The needle is then used to remove a few pieces of prostate tissue for examination with a microscope. This process, called biopsy, can reveal whether prostate cancer is present. A transrectal ultrasound with prostate biopsy is usually performed by a doctor in a health care providers office, outpatient center, or hospital with light sedation and local anesthesia. The biopsied prostate tissue is examined in a laboratory by a pathologista doctor who specializes in diagnosing diseases.
What Are The Most Common Prostate Problems
The three most common prostate problems are:
Benign prostatic hyperplasia : BPH is the noncancerous enlargement of the prostate. It is the most common problem in men, and it is a part of the normal aging process. Factors like changes in hormone levels and fibrosis may play a role in causing BPH. Fibrosis is the thickening and stiffness of the organ wall.
Prostatitis: Prostatitis is the inflammation of the prostate. Though it can affect men of all ages, it is more common in men younger than 50 years. It is of two types:
Bacterial prostatitis: Bacterial prostatitis can be either acute or chronic. Diagnosis usually involves detecting white blood cells and bacteria in the urine with laboratory urine tests.
- Acute bacterial prostatitis: The symptoms of acute bacterial prostatitis appear suddenly and usually subside with antibiotic therapy.
- Chronic bacterial prostatitis: In chronic bacterial prostatitis, the symptoms build up gradually and stay for a couple of weeks.
Chronic prostatitis : Doctors do not know the exact cause of chronic prostatitis. The diagnosis of chronic prostatitis is done when there are symptoms of prostatitis but no signs of infection. Bacteria are absent in urine tests.
Prostate cancer: Prostate cancer is the most common cancer amongst men in America. Having your father or brother with prostate cancer makes you more likely to develop it. High-fat diets also put you at risk for prostate cancer.
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What Is Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer is common among American men. Your chance of getting prostate cancer may be affected by your:
- Age. Men age 50 and older run a greater risk.
- Race. Prostate cancer is most common among African-American men.
- Family history. If your father or brother has had prostate cancer, you are more likely to have it, too.
- Diet. Eating high-fat food with few fruits and vegetables may raise your risk.
What Is A Prostate Infection
A prostate infection occurs when your prostate and the surrounding area become inflamed. The prostate is about the size of a walnut. Its located between the bladder and the base of the penis. The tube that moves urine from the bladder to the penis runs through the center of your prostate. The urethra also moves semen from the sex glands to the penis.
Several types of infections can affect the prostate. Some men with prostatitis experience no symptoms at all, while others report many, including intense pain.
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What Are The Side Effects Of Treatments For Prostate Problems
The side effects of treating prostate problems may include the following:
- The medicines you take for prostatitis and BPH may make you feel sick or uncomfortable. Tell your doctor right away if you think the medicine is causing you to feel this way.
- Surgery for BPH may have a temporary effect on your ability to have sex. Most men recover their ability to have sex within a year of surgery. The exact length of time depends on the type of surgery and how long you had symptoms before surgery.
- You also may have bladder control problems after treatment for BPH. In most cases, these problems go away after several months.
If you have any problems after treatment for prostate problems, talk with your doctor. Chances are good that your doctor can help you.
If your doctor removes your prostate, youre more likely to have long-lasting problems with bladder control and having sex. Your doctor can recommend the best treatment options for these problems.
What To Look Out For
The chances of developing prostate cancer increase as a man gets older, with most cases developing in men aged 50 or older.
For many men in the early stages of the disease, there are no symptoms to alert them to prostate cancer. The prostate tends to become bigger with age and because of its position can cause problems with urination. But symptoms may include:
- needing to urinate more often, especially at night
- needing to rush to the toilet or passing urine when you dont expect to
- difficulty starting or straining to pass urine
- taking a long time to finish, with dribbling at the end
- a weak flow
- a feeling that your bladder has not emptied properly
If you have any of these symptoms, it is important to find out whether it is cancer or not, so you should visit your GP for further advice.
You can find out more at the page below:
The majority of prostate problems are not cancer.
Prostate cancer, once diagnosed, responds well to treatment and may be cured.
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Problems With Enlarged Prostate Gland
Benign enlargement of the prostate gland is more common as men get older. It can cause troublesome symptoms, although it doesnt always.
The urethra passes through the prostate gland, so men may have problems urinating if the enlarged gland restricts the flow of urine. If the flow stops completely, a catheter is required to empty the bladder. It is rare for this form of acute urinary retention to cause kidney damage.
An enlarged prostate doesn’t always cause urinary problems. Studies indicate that the size of a man’s prostate gland has little influence on the type or severity of his urination problems. BPH is just one possible cause of urinary symptoms.
Another cause of urinary symptoms can be changes to the muscular wall of the bladder, which may cause spasms of the bladder or weaken the bladder, causing problems passing urine.
The Signs Of Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer can be silent. It usually is, at least while it is small. It doesnt cause any symptoms at that moment.
Thats because it usually grows in the periphery of the prostate, far from the urethra.
After it grows a little, you can start to get some symptoms. These are the most common:
As you can see, all these signs and symptoms are related to urination and ejaculation.
For example, as the prostate surrounds the urethra, prostate cancer may make it harder to pee.
The tumor will narrow the duct and the urine flow will diminish. Thats when we find difficulties to urinate. Either through trouble starting or being unable to stop.
Also, the effort of the bladder against the obstacle can cause a burning sensation or pain
And so on many of these signs are due to this obstacle mechanism.
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Cause Of Urinary Problems As Men Age
Many men experience urinary symptoms as they age, which may be caused by inflammation of the prostate gland . In older men, symptoms may be due to a blockage in the tubes due to a benign enlargement of the prostate gland . The most common symptom is difficulty emptying your bladder. Urinary symptoms may become bothersome enough that they require treatment. Not all urinary symptoms are due to changes to the prostate. Also, some men have enlarged prostates and yet experience few, if any, symptoms.
Signs Of Advanced Prostate Cancer
If youre experiencing these symptoms, you may have a more advanced or aggressive prostate cancer. If you are experiencing a combination of these symptoms and are concerned about prostate cancer, set up a visit with your physician to discuss screening options.
- Pain or burning when urinating
- Difficulty starting or stopping urination and dribbling
- Increased frequency of urinating
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Symptoms Of Urinary Problems
Urinary symptoms commonly experienced with prostate problems include:
- the need to urinate frequently during the night
- urinating more often during the day
- urinary urgency the urge to urinate can be so strong and sudden that you may not reach the toilet in time
- the urine stream is slow to start
- urine dribbling for some time after finishing urination
- a sensation that the bladder isn’t fully emptied after urination
- lack of force to the urine flow, which makes directing the stream difficult
- the sensation of needing to go again soon after urinating.
Although these symptoms often do not need treatment, see your doctor if they are causing you difficulty, as they can be successfully treated.
Genetic Testing For Prostate Cancer
You may hear a lot about genetics or genomics. Both terms are related to genes and cell DNA, but they are different. These tests are being used to learn more about the DNA of cancer cells, and link DNA mutations with treatments. In the future, genetic testing may be the first step doctors take when diagnosing prostate cancer.
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What Are Early Signs Of Prostate Cancer
Here are the main symptoms of prostate cancer:
- Blood in the urine or semen
- Pain or stiffness in the hips, lower back or upper thighs
But a man may not experience any of these symptoms and still have prostate cancer.
Prostate cancer is, like most cancers, a silent disease in its early stages, says Gerald Chodak, MD, a urologist in Chicago and the author of Winning the Battle Against Prostate Cancer: Get the Treatment That Is Right for You.
The Role Of The Prostate Gland
The prostate is a walnut sized gland that sits just below the bladder in men. Although it doesnt get a lot of attention , it has some very important roles in mens overall health, and the health of his offspring. The prostate gland is a key component in the male reproductive system and is responsible for a few key things, including:
- The makeup of the male sperm
- Filtering toxins and impurities out of the semen to produce the finest sperm possible
- First line of defence against disease and infection of the genitourinary system
So to ensure a healthy urinary system and healthy offspring, the prostate gland carries a lot of the load.
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Prostate Problem Warning Signs
At Advanced Urology Institute, we frequently see first-time visitors with symptoms of advanced stage prostate problems. For us, that is quite heartbreaking because it means the patients come too late, when only limited treatment options are available for their conditions.
As urologists, we always want the best for our patients. We want to see them leave when they can pee better and are free from the embarrassment of accidental urine leaks. And because early detection and treatment of prostate problems whether prostate cancer or non-cancerous condition improve the chances of cure and of long-term survival, we always encourage men to be more mindful of their bodies, especially when it comes to their urinary function and habits. By doing that, they are able to detect warning signs of prostate issues early and can seek treatment.
Warnings signs of prostate problems include: