Monday, May 23, 2022

What Is The Leading Cause Of Prostate Cancer

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Where Prostate Cancer Spreads

What causes prostate cancer ?

If left untreated, diagnosed prostate cancer can grow and possibly spread outside of the prostate to local tissues or distantly to other sites in the body. The first sites of spread are typically to the nearby tissues.

The cancer can spread down the blood vessels, lymphatic channels, or nerves that enter and exit the prostate, or cancer could erode directly through the capsule that surrounds the prostate.

The seminal vesicles are a site of particularly common early spread. More extensive local spread can occur with cancer invading the nearby bladder or rectum.

Further advancement of cancer can occur when cancer cells enter the blood vessels and lymphatic channels. Once cancer has entered into these vessels, prostate cancer cells can seed into virtually any other part of the body.

Prostate cancer is known to have a particular affinity for spreading or metastasizing to the bones especially the lower spine, pelvis, and femur. Other organs such as the liver, brain, or lungs can also be the sites of spread, but these are much rarer.

Whats The Main Reason Men Get Prostate Cancer

Researchers believe that a combination of factors are usually involved with the development of prostate cancer. In 10% of diagnoses, men have inherited a genetic disposition to the disease. Other things then increase their risk, including:

  • Age: 65 years of age or older
  • Ethnicity: Black men are at the greatest risk
  • Lifestyle: Diet, physical activity, and smoking

What Men Should Know About Prostate Cancer

It’s not particularly pleasant, but a digital rectal exam can save a man’s life. Its purpose is to screen for cancer of the prostate gland, the second most frequent malignancy in men worldwide in 2020, and the leading one in more than half of the world’s countries, according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer .

During the exam, a doctor inserts a gloved, lubricated finger into the rectum and palpates, or feels, the prostate for any hard, lumpy or abnormal areas.

Who’s especially at risk?

“Prostate cancer is a disease of older men,” says Dr Anno Graser, a Munich-based radiologist and prostate specialist. A 35-year-old man has a 0.1 per cent risk of developing prostate cancer within the next 10 years, he notes, while a 75-year-old’s risk is 5 per cent.

There were more than 1.41 million cases of prostate cancer worldwide in 2020, or 7.3 per cent of total cancer cases, estimates the IARC, part of the World Health Organization .

What are the warning signs?

Usually there aren’t any. “The body doesn’t recognize that abnormal cells are multiplying uncontrollably, so there are typically no symptoms in the early stages,” explains Dr Olaf Reichelt, chief physician in the Department of Urology and Paediatric Urology at the Helios Clinic in Aue, Germany. This is why screening is so important, he says.

How can prostate cancer be detected early?

How dangerous is prostate cancer compared with other cancers?

What are the treatment options?

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Is Cancer Increasing Or Decreasing

From 1999 to 2019, cancer death rates went down 27%, from 200.8 to 146.2 deaths per 100,000 population. Healthy People 2030 set a target of 122.7 cancer deathsexternal icon per 100,00 population. Cancer death rates went down more among males than among females but were still higher among males than females .

NOTES: Deaths were classified using the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision. Cancer deaths were identified using underlying cause-of-death codes C00-C97 . Rates were age-adjusted to the 2000 US standard population.

National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System, Mortality Data.

Detecting Prostate Cancer: 7 Signs And Symptoms

Prostate cancer cause defined symptom risk factors

Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in American men according to the National Cancer Institute. The term prostate cancer refers to any cancer that begins in your prostate. What is the prostate? Its a walnut-sized gland near the penis and bladder responsible for making seminal fluid.

As you age your risk of developing cancer in your prostate gland increases. That means its a good idea to discuss the pros and cons of prostate screening with your doctor once you reach 50.

This type of cancer usually progresses very slowly and often with few signs or symptoms. The Prostate Cancer Foundation says many of the symptoms people associate with cancer could actually signal a benign disease like benign prostate hypertrophy or BPH for short. However some forms of aggressive prostate gland cancer grow quickly so let your doctor know if youre experiencing any of the following symptoms:

1. Weak or stop-and-start urine flow If you are having trouble passing urine it could be a sign of an enlarged prostate a tumor or cancer.

2. Frequent need to urinate It might be more than just an annoyance to find that you need to urinate more frequently especially at night.

3. Burning or pain when urinating Several different conditions could cause pain or burning when you urinate including infections prostatitis or cancer.

4. Blood in the urine or semen -If you notice blood in your urine or semen call your doctor right away.

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What Are The Stages Of Prostate Cancer

Your healthcare provider uses the Gleason score and Grade Groups to stage prostate cancer based on its projected aggressiveness. To get this information, the pathologist:

  • Assigns a grade to each type of cell in your sample. Cells are graded on a scale of three to five . Samples that test in the one to two range are considered normal tissue.
  • Adds together the two most common grades to get your Gleason score .
  • Uses the Gleason score to place you into a Grade Group ranging from one to five. A Gleason score of six puts you in Grade Group 1 . A score of nine or higher puts you in Grade Group five . Samples with a higher portion of more aggressive cells receive a higher Grade Group.

Pain In Your Hips And Upper Thighs

In addition swelling in your lower body, pain in your hips or upper thighs can also be potential symptoms of prostate cancer, according to Robert J. Cornell, MD, a urologist in Houston, Texas. And for other discomforts you should address with your doctor, check out 25 Common Pains You Should Never Ignore.

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What Are The Causes Of Prostate Cancer

The specific etiology or cause of prostate cancer is still yet to be discovered.

This cancer starts when the DNA of cells in the prostate changes, causing them to grow and replicate quicker than normal cells.

These unstable cells can eventually grow into a tumor that damages the tissues and organs around them.

These cancerous cells can migrate from the tumor and spread to other organs and regions of the body in aggressive cases of prostate cancer.

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Prostate Cancer: The Second Leading Cause Of Cancer Death In Men

What Causes Prostate Cancer?

Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths among men in the United States. If caught early, prostate canceris curable, but mortality results when the cancer starts to spread beyond the prostate. Understanding the molecular mechanism associated with the cancer spread beyond the prostate is crucial for the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer. Our current knowledge on how prostate cancer metastasis develops is limited. Cancer spread or metastasis involves many molecular regulators, complex cell signaling processes in the cell and if identified it can be used as markers for early diagnosis and as potential targets for cancer treatment.

Dr. Sridhar in her lab

Professor Suganthi Sridhar at the University of South Florida in St. Petersburg is a cancer researcher. Her lab is specifically involved in identifying the role for one of the regulators that prevents cancer spread, a protein called CD82.

Identifying the molecules involved in the metastatic process is crucial, as these could serve either as biomarkers for early diagnosis or as molecular targets for treatment of not only prostate cancer, but also other metastatic cancers, where CD82 disappears. Dr. Sridhar continues to do her research at USF with undergraduate students at the St. Petersburg campus.

Pictures: Prostate cells made to express CD82 above along with expressed c-Met expressed and merged images of the two.

Figure;above show prostate cells expressing CD82 and c-Met

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Data Source And Methods

The data shown in this report reflect information collected by CDCs National Center for Health Statistics from death certificates filed in all 50 states and the District of Columbia and compiled into the National Vital Statistics System. Deaths were classified using the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision. Cancer deaths were identified using underlying cause-of-death codes C00-C97 . Rates were age-adjusted to the 2000 US standard population.

Can Prostate Cancer Be Prevented

There are no clear prevention strategies for prostate cancer. There is some conflicting evidence that a healthy diet composed of low fat, high vegetables and fruits may help reduce your risk of prostate cancer. Routine screening, with PSA blood test and physical exam, is important to detect prostate cancer at an early stage. A healthy diet and regular exercise are also critical in maintaining good health and preventing disease in general.;

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Prognosis For Prostate Cancer

It is not possible for a doctor to predict the exact course of a disease, as it will depend on each person’s individual circumstances. However, your doctor may give you a prognosis, the likely outcome of the disease, based on the type of prostate cancer you have, the test results, the rate of tumour growth, as well as your age, fitness and medical history.

Prostate cancer often grows slowly and even more aggressive types tend to grow more slowly than other types of cancer. If diagnosed early, prostate cancer has one of the highest five year survival rates.;

Swelling In Your Legs And Feet

Prostate cancer: Symptoms, treatment, and causes

According to Johns Hopkins University, swelling in your lower extremities could be a symptom of advanced prostate cancer, especially when it occurs alongside other symptoms, including urinary or erectile dysfunction. When the cancer spreads to the lymph nodes, it causes a blockage, which leads to the build-up of fluids and swelling in your body. And for more on serious cancer symptoms you need to know about, check out 13 Warning Signs Your Pancreas Is Trying to Tell You Somethings Wrong.

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Gene Mutations And Genetic Syndromes

It’s thought that 10% of prostate cancers are related to inherited mutations for which testing is now available. The chance that a prostate cancer is hereditary is increased if at least three;relatives have had prostate cancer.

Some genetic changes associated with prostate cancer include:

  • BRCA gene mutations:;Both BRCA1 gene mutations and;BRCA2 gene mutations carry an increased risk of prostate cancer. It’s important to note that both of these mutation types may be associated with different cancers in different family members. So, for example, your doctor may be more concerned that you have one of these mutations if you have young female relatives who have had breast cancer and another family member who has had pancreatic cancer than if you have a few male relatives who had prostate cancer at a later age.
  • Lynch syndrome;: This syndrome is caused by mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes and is associated more strongly with colorectal cancer.
  • RNASEL mutations: These mutations affect a tumor suppressor gene.
  • HOXB13 mutations: These mutations are uncommon and are associated with prostate cancer in younger men.

Gene mutations can be confusing. It is not usually the gene mutation itself that gives rise to cancer. Many of the genes associated with an increased risk of cancer are tumor suppressor genes.

Whether or not you have a family history of prostate cancer, it’s helpful to;learn about hereditary cancer when looking at your risk of any type of cancer.

Reducing The Cancer Burden

Between 30 and 50% of cancers can currently be prevented by avoiding risk factors and implementing existing evidence-based prevention strategies. The cancer burden can also be reduced through early detection of cancer and appropriate treatment and care of patients who develop cancer. Many cancers have a high chance of cure if diagnosed early and treated appropriately.;

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Prevention And Early Detection

Prevention

Prostate cancer is an androgen-dependent tumor with a prolonged latency between initial malignant transformation and clinical expression, which are features well-suited to disease prevention efforts.7 Progression from tumor inception to invasive carcinoma often takes decades, allowing sufficient time for intervention.9 Chemoprevention strategies that use high-risk target populations, particularly those with premalignant lesions , have the greatest potential to identify promising agents in a time-efficient manner.98 The results of focused studies such as these can then be confirmed in large-scale trials applied to the general population. The ability to alter the hormonal environment of the host provides an excellent opportunity to interrupt the multistep process that results in clinical expression of the disease.7 Advances in our understanding of the process of carcinogenesis and the availability of promising new chemopreventive agents, including those producing reversible androgen deprivation, have the potential to favorably affect the morbidity and mortality of prostate cancer in the foreseeable future.

Early Detection

TABLE 51-2. Upper Normal Age-Specific Limits for Prostate-Specific Antigen in Men without Prostate Cancer

Study

Jaspreet S. Sandhu, Peter N. Schlegel, in, 2004

How Does Prostate Cancer Kill You In The End

What causes prostate cancer ?
  • How Does Prostate Cancer Kill You in the End? Center
  • Prostate cancer is the most common cancer after skin cancer in men in the US and the second leading cause of cancer death. Prostate-specific antigen testing has made the detection of prostate cancer easier in its early stages. Ninety-two out of 100 men get diagnosed when the cancer is limited to the prostate.

    Most men are diagnosed with prostate cancer in their senior years; and only 1 out of 36 men die from it. Death from prostate cancer most often happens when cancer has spread to other organs in the body. This is known as the advanced stage of prostate cancer.

    The chances of survival decrease as cancer spreads beyond the prostate. If cancer has metastasized to other parts of the body, only three out of 10 men will survive for five years after the diagnosis.

    Advanced stage prostate cancer or metastasized prostate cancer

    Cancerous cells may spread to organs other than the site of origin. In the case of prostate cancer, this tendency is decreased, but it can happen. Advanced stage prostate cancer is defined based on the Gleason score, which is based on the TNM staging of cancer. T stands for tumor size, N stands for lymph node involvement and M stands for metastasis.

    Prostate cancer can kill in the end through metastases that can develop in

    Metastasis to the liver can affect the livers ability to filter out toxins from the body. This can eventually lead to jaundice, nausea, loss of appetite and weight loss.

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    Why Did Cancer Death Rates Change From 1999 To 2019

    Previous research suggests that trends in cancer death rates reflect population changes in cancer risk factors, screening test use, diagnostic practices, and treatment advances. More information can be found in the blog post Conversations with Authors: The Annual Report to the Nation. Some examples are highlighted below.

    • Cigarette smoking contributes to the development of cancers throughout the body. Fewer people are smoking cigarettes: in 1965, 42% of U.S. adults smoked cigarettes compared to 14% in 2019. About two-thirds of people who smoke want to quit. For more information and quitting resources, visit Tips From Former Smokers.
    • Overweight and obesity also contribute to the development of cancers throughout the body, including cancers of the liver, pancreas, and uterus. Some states and communities are providing support that can help people get to and keep a healthy weight. For more information, visit Obesity and Cancer.
    • Cancer screening tests can find cancer early, when treatment works best. Screening tests for colorectal cancer can also find polyps, which can be removed before they become cancerous. For more information, visit Cancer Screening Tests.
    • Since 2011, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved new treatments for advanced melanoma. For more information, visit the National Cancer Institutes New Therapies Are Changing the Outlook for Advanced Melanoma.external icon

    Prostate Cancer: Signs And Symptoms

    So, the good news is that;when you detect prostate cancer in its very early stages, youve got a much better chance of survival. The bad news is that;in its absolute earliest stages, prostate cancer causes very few symptoms. However, as it develops and even before it spreads to other organs in the body there are some signs you should be aware of.

    One of the most easily recognizable signs of a prostate problem is difficulty urinating. That includes having a weak stream of urine, dribbling urine, and having frequent urges to urinate, even during sleep and even if you dont have a lot of urine in your bladder. Urinary symptoms occur as the tumor enlarges and begins pressing on your bladder or against your urethra .;

    Urinary troubles may be the symptom most commonly associated with prostate cancer, but its not the only symptom you need to be aware of. Other symptoms include:

    • Blood in your urine or semen
    • Problems getting or maintaining an erection
    • Pain during ejaculation
    • Pain or pressure in the pelvic area
    • Pain or pressure in the rectum area, the hips, or the lower back

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