What Do Colorectal Cancer Screening Guidelines Say About Who Should Have Colorectal Cancer Screening
Expert medical groups, including the US Preventive Services Task Force , strongly recommend screening for colorectal cancer. Although some details of the recommendations vary, most groups now generally recommend that people at average risk of colorectal cancer get screened at regular intervals beginning at age 45 or 50 .
The expert medical groups generally recommend that screening continue to age 75 for those aged 76 to 85 years, the decision to screen is based on the individuals life expectancy, health conditions, and prior screening results.
People who are at increased risk of colorectal cancer because of a family history of colorectal cancer or documented advanced polyps or because they have inflammatory bowel disease or certain inherited conditions may be advised to start screening earlier and/or have more frequent screening.
Why Is My Upper Stomach Bloated And Hard
When your stomach swells and feels hard, the explanation might be as simple as overeating or drinking carbonated drinks, which is easy to remedy. Other causes may be more serious, such as an inflammatory bowel disease. Sometimes the accumulated gas from drinking a soda too quickly can result in a hard stomach.
What Is The Difference Between Colon Cancer And Prostate Cancer
Colon Cancer vs Prostate Cancer
Colon and prostate cancers are two types of common cancers detected in the elderly individuals. Both cancers are very invasive. These two cancers types are very different from each other, which are discussed below in detail, highlighting the clinical features, symptoms, causes, investigation and diagnosis, prognosis, and the course of treatment of colon and prostate cancers.
Large bowel is medically known as the colon. The colon consists of the caecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon and sigmoid colon. The sigmoid colon is continuous with the rectum. Cancers can manifest themselves at any site, but lower colon and rectum are more frequently affected compared to the upper colon. Colon cancers present with bleeding via rectum, feeling of incomplete evacuation, alternative constipation and diarrhea. There may be associated systemic features such as lethargy, wasting, loss of appetite, and loss of weight.
There are many risk factors for colon cancers. Inflammatory bowel diseases lead to cancer due to a high rate of cell division and repair. Genetics play a key role in carcinogenesis because with rapid cell division the chance of cancer gene activation is high. First degree relatives with colon cancers suggest a significantly higher chance of getting colon cancers. There are genes called proto-oncogenes, which result in malignancies if a genetic abnormality transforms them into oncogenes.
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Tests Used To Check The Prostate
This first step lets your doctor hear and understand the story of your prostate concerns. Youll be asked whether you have symptoms, how long youve had them, and how much they affect your lifestyle. Your personal medical history also includes any risk factors, pain, fever, or trouble passing urine. You may be asked to give a urine sample for testing.
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What About Other Treatments That I Hear About
When you have cancer you might hear about other ways to treat the cancer or treat your symptoms. These may not always be standard medical treatments. These treatments may include vitamins, herbs, diets, and other things. You may wonder if these treatments are safe and whether they could help you.
Some of these treatments are known to help, but many have not been tested. Some have been shown not to help. A few have even been found to be harmful. Talk to your doctor about anything youre thinking about using, whether its a vitamin, a diet, or anything else.
The Initial Causes What Is The Difference Between Colon Cancer And Prostate Cancer
One of the first symptoms of prostate issues is pain or tenderness in the groin or lower back. This can be the result of a noncancerous condition called enlarged prostatic tissue, or it could be an infection of the bladder. In either case, its important to see a doctor as soon as possible. If youre suffering from prostate pain, you may want to consider reducing your caffeine intake.
Another symptom of a potentially enlarged prostate is difficulty starting a stream of urine, leaking, or dribbling. These symptoms are not serious, but theyre still alarming. Most men put up with an enlarged prostate for years before seeking medical attention, but they typically seek treatment as soon as they notice symptoms. Even if you dont have symptoms, its worth getting checked to determine if you have any prostate issues.
If you experience nightly bathroom runs, you may be experiencing an enlarged prostate. You may be having difficulty starting a stream of urine, or you may even be dribbling or leaking during the day. These problems arent life-threatening, but can become a nuisance. You should not ignore these signs and seek treatment as soon as you notice them. If you feel any of these symptoms, you should consult a doctor.
Can Prostate Cancer Increase The Risk Of Other Cancers
Men who have survived prostate cancer, like all other cancer survivors, have a common concern what is the possibility of facing cancer again, especially second cancer? This is an understandable and normal concern for any cancer survivor to question. Second cancers are not uncommon. While the risk is small, one to three percent of survivors will develop second cancer different from the originally treated cancer, such as men whove had prostate cancer.
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Colon & Rectal Cancer Diagnosis
Colorectal cancer screening is now recommended for everyone with an average risk starting at age 45 using one or more common tests. If the results of the cancer screening tests show suspicion of colon or rectal cancer, further tests will likely be required. There are several steps in the diagnosis process including:
Based on the stage and other factors of your cancer, you and your cancer care team will discuss options for your treatment. Those options can include:
- Biological Therapy
- Radiation Therapy
The oncologists at Virginia Oncology Associates will help you decide on a plan thats right for you.
Special Concerns About A Plant
To get the benefits of a plant-based diet, you need to eat a wide variety of healthy plant foods. A plant-based diet that includes a lot of processed foods and added sugars won’t provide the nutrition you need. On a plant-based diet, you need to make sure you get enough zinc, vitamin B12, protein, calcium, and vitamin D.
To get the nutrition you need on a plant-based diet:
- Eat a variety of plant-based foods high in protein.
- Drink plant milks that contain added calcium and vitamin D.
- Eat fortified cereals, whole grains, and beans for zinc and iron.
- Try nutritional yeast, an excellent source of vitamin B12.
- Eat lots of dark leafy greens for calcium.
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Questions You May Want To Consider Asking Your Doctor Include:
- What type of prostate problem do I have?
- Is more testing needed and what will it tell me?
- If I decide on watchful waiting, what changes in my symptoms should I look for and how often should I be tested?
- What type of treatment do you recommend for my prostate problem?
- For men like me, has this treatment worked?
- How soon would I need to start treatment and how long would it last?
- Do I need medicine and how long would I need to take it before seeing improvement in my symptoms?
- What are the side effects of the medicine?
- Are there other medicines that could interfere with this medication?
- If I need surgery, what are the benefits and risks?
- Would I have any side effects from surgery that could affect my quality of life?
- Are these side effects temporary or permanent?
- How long is recovery time after surgery?
- Will I be able to fully return to normal?
- How will this affect my sex life?
- How often should I visit the doctor to monitor my condition?
What Is Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
Benign prostatic hyperplasia is very common in men above the age of 40 and can cause the urinary tract to be obstructed. Unlike prostate cancer, BPH is not cancerous nor is it fatal. As you age, your testosterone levels increase, which, in turn, causes your prostate to grow in size or become enlarged.
During a physical exam, if you have BPH, your healthcare provider will notice your prostate feels larger than it should be. Your PSA tests will also come back elevated. Whereas in prostate cancer, the sides of the prostate are usually affected, in BPH the central portion of the prostate is usually affected. Also, unlike cancer, BPH cannot spread.
The most common symptoms of BPH include urinary symptoms such as frequency of urination, hesitancy, dribbling, and frequent nighttime urination. Depending on the severity of your symptoms, treatment can range from nothing to medication to shrink the prostate, or surgery to remove the central part of the prostate to allow better flow of urine.
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How Is Each Condition Diagnosed
Youll see a specialist called a urologist to diagnose BPH or prostate cancer. Doctors use many of the same tests to diagnose both of these conditions.
- Prostate-specific antigen test:This blood test detects PSA, a protein your prostate gland makes. When your prostate grows, it produces more of this protein. A high PSA level can only tell your doctor that your prostate has grown. It cant tell for sure that you have BPH or prostate cancer. Youll need more tests to confirm the diagnosis.
- Digital rectal exam : Your doctor will insert a gloved, lubricated finger into your rectum. This test can show if your prostate is enlarged or abnormally shaped. Youll need more tests to find out if you have BPH or prostate cancer.
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The Causes Of Colon Cancer
Colon cancer can result from a number of different things. One of the most common is the presence of polyps. Polyps are small tumors that can form in the cells lining the colon. A change in the genes that cause a polyp to become cancerous is one of the causes of colon cancer. The other is poor nutrition. Poor nutrition can cause issues with the cells that make up the walls of the colon. This can cause inflammation and cell damage. It can also lead to the buildup of harmful bacteria in the colon, which can cause colorectal cancer.
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Two Parts Of The Same Organ
Both colon and rectal cancer affect the large intestine, which is the lowest part of the digestive system. But they start in different places within it.
Colon cancer can start anywhere in the colon, which is about 5 feet long and absorbs water from stool.
Rectal cancer starts in the rectum, which is the last 12 centimeters of the colon. Itâs where the body stores stools until you have a bowel movement.
The location also matters because of whatâs nearby.
Most of the colon is in the large space between the bottom of your ribcage and your pelvis.
The rectum is in a more crowded neighborhood. Your bladder is nearby. So are the uterus and for women, or the prostate for men. The tight space may affect the kinds of surgeries that doctors can do to remove tumors.
What Is The Difference Between Colon Cancer And Rectal Cancer
The colon and rectum are both part of the large intestine, which is sometimes called the bowel. Cancers of both organs are often grouped together as colorectal cancer.
- The colon is the first five feet of the large intestine. It absorbs water from stool. Surgery is generally simpler for colon cancer, which is in a large area of the body.
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Does Colonoscopy Check For Prostate Cancer
Discussion: A colonoscopy presents an ideal opportunity for physicians to use a digital rectal examination to assess for prostate cancer. Physicians performing colonoscopies in men 50 to 70 years of age should pay special attention to the prostate while performing a digital rectal examination before colonoscopy.
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Ethics Approval And Consent To Participate
The Womens Health Initiative was overseen by ethics committee at all 40 clinical centers , by the coordinating center , and an independent data and safety monitoring board for the clinical trials. Each institution obtained human subjects committee approval. Each participant provided written informed consent.
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Colorectal Cancer Support In Southeast Virginia
Local support groups, genetic risk testing, and financial counseling are just some of the areas the specialists at Virginia Oncology Associates can assist you with during your colorectal cancer care.We encourage you to learn more and take advantage of our cancer support groups and disease specific organizations, including the ColonCancer Alliance.
Prostate Cancer Vs Colon
Heres an image of both to show their difference in location.
Prostate cancer Attribution By Cancer Research UK Original email from CRUK, CC BY-SA 4.0,
Colon cancer By Blausen Medical Communications, Inc. see ticket for details, CC BY 3.0,
The rectum is part of our large intestine , part of our digestive system. In comparison, the prostate is part of the male reproductive system.
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What Causes Prostate Cancer
Experts arent sure why some cells in the prostate gland become cancerous . Genetics appear to play a role. For example:
- Youre two to three times more likely to get prostate cancer if your father, brother or son has the disease.
- Inherited mutated breast cancer genes and other gene mutations contribute to a small number of prostate cancers.
Surgery Is Used For Both Colon And Rectal Cancers
Surgery is the most common treatment for both colon and rectal cancer, although each type has specific techniques and risks. Patients may still need chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy to kill remaining cancer cells, even when surgery is the primary treatment.
Colon Cancer Surgery
A partial colectomy is usually the first surgical treatment for colon cancer, which involves removing only a section of the colon. Surgeons can typically reconnect the separated portions of the colon, allowing you to have normal bowel movements. In some cases where it cant be reconnected right away, you may need a colostomy.
A colostomy is a procedure that involves creating a hole, or ostomy, in your abdomen and attaching the end of your colon to the ostomy. A bag connected to the outside of the ostomy then collects the bowel movements. This is not always a permanent condition. For some patients, after some healing of the colon, the two parts can be reconnected and the ostomy closed.
Rectal Cancer Surgery
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Prostate Cancer Caregiver Podcast Series
We are proud to announce a new podcast series geared toward helping give support, hope and guidance to prostate cancer caregivers. The goal of this Prostate Cancer Caregiver Podcast Series is to help others connect with a diverse group of people who have felt the impact of prostate cancer in their lives and empower them on their journey.
Is Colon Cancer Hereditary
You could be at risk of developing colorectal cancer if you have a family history of the disease.Our cancer genetic experts at Virginia Oncology Associates are here to guide you through cancer genetic counseling. Find out if you are at risk for hereditary colon cancer syndromes, and if you should take advantage of the Genetic Risk Evaluation & Testing Program.
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Cancer Treatment Strategies Differ
When rectal cancer is identified before symptoms develop, the treatment priority is lowering the risk of local growth and spread. A rectal cancer is considered locally advanced when an ultrasound or MRI confirms it has grown through the bowel wall into the tissue around the rectum, or there is evidence of nearby lymph node involvement.
At this stage, the strategy is to begin with chemotherapy or targeted radiation to shrink the tumor, Hardiman says. An expert surgeon can then remove the radiated part of the rectum and often reconnect the adjacent parts of the bowel. This approach has been shown to be the best for maintaining surrounding organ function.
Tumors located farther up in the colon pose less risk to nearby organs, so with a different diagnosis, we typically start with surgery. Patients may also need chemotherapy to kill any remaining cancer cells, says Hardiman. Thats why its important to choose a center with advanced imaging technologies and expertise to guide diagnosis and stagingand surgeons with the specialized training to perform rectal surgery, which is far more delicate and complex than colon surgery.
Colon And Rectal Melanomas
Most commonly associated with skin cancer, these may start to develop anywhere, including in the colon or rectum, or may spread to the GI tract from the primary melanoma site. Melanomas account for 1 percent to 3 percent of all cancers that develop in the digestive system, according to research published in BMJ Case Reports. How melanomas develop in the colon isnt well understood, as its extremely rare. Diagnosis may involve a biopsy and other tests to determine whether the cancer spread from elsewhere in the body or started in the colon or rectum.
Colorectal melanoma treatment may include:
- Radiation therapy
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