What Is Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
Benign prostatic hyperplasia is very common in men above the age of 40 and can cause the urinary tract to be obstructed. Unlike prostate cancer, BPH is not cancerous nor is it fatal. As you age, your testosterone levels increase, which, in turn, causes your prostate to grow in size or become enlarged.
During a physical exam, if you have BPH, your doctor will notice your prostate feels larger than it should be. Your PSA tests will also come back elevated. Whereas in prostate cancer, the sides of the prostate are usually affected, in BPH the central portion of the prostate is usually affected. Also, unlike cancer, BPH cannot spread.
The most common symptoms of BPH include urinary symptoms such as frequency of urination, hesitancy, dribbling, and frequent nighttime urination. Depending on the severity of your symptoms, treatment can range from nothing to medication to shrink the prostate, or surgery to remove the central part of the prostate to allow better flow of urine.
What Does A Dre Involve
You might have a DRE at your GP surgery or at the hospital.
The doctor or nurse will ask you to lie on your side on an examination table, with your knees brought up towards your chest. They will slide a finger gently into your back passage. Theyll wear gloves and put some gel on their finger to make it more comfortable.
You may find the DRE slightly uncomfortable or embarrassing, but the test isnt usually painful and it doesnt take long.
What Is A Psa Test
PSA is a protein that is made by all prostate cells, whether they are normal or cancerous. A PSA test measures the level of PSA in a mans blood and generally reflects the volume of prostate tissue in the body.
Since prostate cancer can increase the level of PSA in the blood as it is progressing, a high PSA is associated with higher risk of having the disease. Therefore, many doctors have used the test to help determine whether a man is harboring the disease. Since the test was developed, several professional organizations have recommended that men over age 50 undergo PSA testing, often in addition to a digital rectal exam, to aid in early detection of the disease.
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How Is Prostate Cancer Treated With Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy is also used against prostate cancer.
- The utility of chemotherapy in the management of metastatic prostate cancer continues as an area of ongoing research.
- This therapeutic option has been explored most in patients with the hormone-resistant disease.
Newer chemotherapy medicines, such as docetaxel , have shown some promise in prolonging the survival of some patients with extensive prostate cancer. They may also decrease the pain related to widespread cancer. However, this comes at the cost of significant side effects that may impact the quality of life.
Symptom palliation: The primary approach to the management of symptoms in patients with advanced prostate cancer is systemic therapy with both older and newer forms of hormonal treatments, then chemotherapy. Today immunotherapy and radioactive isotope treatments may be used. Radiation to painful bone lesions may be used. Throughout all of this, optimal pain medication use and other therapies for cancer-related symptoms should be administered. For patients with castrate-resistant prostate cancer, palliative therapy may be indicated to treat symptomatic bone metastases or symptoms arising from progressive disease.
What Is The Survival Rate For Prostate Cancer
Most of the men diagnosed with prostate cancer will not die from it. Other medical conditions along with prostate cancer can cause death.
Survival rates for men with prostate cancer have increased over the years due to increased screening and treatment options. Ninety-nine percent of men with prostate cancer will survive for a minimum of five years after diagnosis.
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How Does The Doctor Know I Have Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer tends to grow slowly over many years. Most men with early prostate cancer dont have changes that they notice. Signs of prostate cancer most often show up later, as the cancer grows.
Some signs of prostate cancer are trouble peeing, blood in the pee , trouble getting an erection, and pain in the back, hips, ribs, or other bones.
If signs are pointing to prostate cancer, tests will be done. Most men will not need all of them, but here are some of the tests you may need:
PSA blood test: PSA is a protein thats made by the prostate gland and can be found in the blood. Prostate cancer can make PSA levels go up. Blood tests will be done to see what your PSA level is and how it changes over time.
Transrectal ultrasound : For this test, a small wand is put into your rectum. It gives off sound waves and picks up the echoes as they bounce off the prostate gland. The echoes are made into a picture on a computer screen.
MRI: This test uses radio waves and strong magnets to make detailed pictures of the body. MRI scans can be used to look at the prostate and can show if the cancer has spread outside the prostate to nearby organs.
Prostate biopsy: For a prostate biopsy, the doctor uses a long, hollow needle to take out small pieces of the prostate where the cancer might be. This is often done while using TRUS or MRI to look at the prostate. The prostate pieces are then checked for cancer cells. Ask the doctor what kind of biopsy you need and how its done.
Prostate Cancer Survival Rates
The good news about prostate cancer is that it usually grows slowly, and 9 out of 10 cases are found in the early stages. Overall, the 5-year relative survival rate is 100% for men with disease confined to the prostate or nearby tissues. Many men live much longer. When the disease has spread to distant areas, that figure drops to 31%. But these numbers are based on men diagnosed at least 5 years ago. The outlook may be better for men diagnosed and treated today.
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Ejaculation Is A Potential Cause Of Mildly Elevated Psa
“Ejaculation can cause a mild elevation of your PSA level, and so can having a digital rectal exam,” says Milner. “These types of PSA elevations are usually not enough to make a significant difference unless your PSA is borderline. PSA should return to normal in two to three days.”
To avoid this type of elevation, doctors will usually draw blood for a person’s PSA level before doing a rectal exam. Ask your doctor if you should avoid ejaculation for a few days before a PSA test.
Does A Lump On The Prostate Mean Cancer
While the thought of being diagnosed with cancer is a scary one, its important to know that finding a suspicious lump may cause you to worry about something that, in the end, is harmless. For men, one worry is prostate cancer. Often this cancer shows no early symptoms, and when a symptom does appear, it may be in the form of a lump or growth on the prostate glandwhich does not necessarily mean cancer.
The Prostate Gland
The prostate gland is the part of the reproductive system that produces semen. Located below the bladder, this walnut-sized organ is situated around the urethra, which is the tube that carries both urine and semen out of the body.Sometimes the prostate becomes enlargedmore than half the men in the U.S. over the age of 60 have an enlarged prostate. This is usually not cancer, but it can cause problems, such as trouble with urination.
Symptoms of Prostate Cancer
The earliest symptoms of prostate cancer are often caused by an enlargement of the gland and can include urinary problems such as trouble urinating, weak stream of urine, and starting and stopping when urinating. More advanced symptoms include blood in your semen or urine, swelling in your legs, pelvic pain, bone pain and bone fractures.
What Else Could That Lump Be?
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When Prostate Cancer Symptoms Are Not Related To Voiding
Only when prostate cancer metastasizes to the bones and other organs do secondary and systemic symptoms of bone pain, weight loss and fatigue develop.
It is important to remember that the majority of men diagnosed with prostate cancer will die with itnot from it.
Yet early detection and appropriate management will help to achieve the best outcome and quality of life for each individual.
If you are a man of African descent or have a family history of prostate cancer, you should discuss with your physician about the option of screening starting at age 40, explains Dr. Lutz.
Why Does Prostate Cancer Happen
The causes of prostate cancer are largely unknown. But certain things can increase your risk of developing the condition.
The chances of developing prostate cancer increase as you get older. Most cases develop in men aged 50 or older.
For reasons not yet understood, prostate cancer is more common in men of African-Caribbean or African descent, and less common in Asian men.
Men whose father or brother were affected by prostate cancer are at slightly increased risk themselves.
Recent research also suggests that obesity increases the risk of prostate cancer.
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What Is The Prognosis For People Who Have Prostate Cancer
Because prostate cancer tends to grow slowly, most men die from something other than the disease. Early detection is key to better outcomes. Almost all men 97% to 98% diagnosed with localized cancer that hasnt spread outside of the prostate live at least five years after diagnosis. When metastatic cancer has spread outside of the gland, one-third of men continue to survive after five years.
Risk Factors You Can Control
Diet seems to play a role in the development of prostate cancer, which is much more common in countries where meat and high-fat dairy are mainstays. The reason for this link is unclear. Dietary fat, particularly animal fat from red meat, may boost male hormone levels. And this may fuel the growth of cancerous prostate cells. A diet too low in fruits and vegetables may also play a role.
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Risk Factors You Can’t Control
Growing older is the greatest risk factor for prostate cancer, particularly after age 50. After age 70, studies suggest that anywhere from 31% to 83% of men have some form of prostate cancer, though there may be no outward symptoms. Family history increases a man’s risk: having a father or brother with prostate cancer more than doubles the risk. African-American men and Caribbean men of African descent are at high risk and have the highest rate of prostate cancer in the world.
Pde5 Inhibitors: Viagra Levitra And Cialis
Approved by the FDA in 1998, sildenafil revolutionized the way we think about and treat erectile dysfunction, largely because it is so easy to use and effective. Since then the FDA has approved three closely related drugs, vardenafil , avanafil and tadalafil .
All four drugs work in a similar fashion, by affecting the normal physiology of the penis. In particular, they block PDE5, an enzyme that breaks down the erection-producing chemical cyclic guanosine monophosphate. This enables the penis to fill with blood and to stay erect long enough for intercourse. Of course, its important to realize that none of these drugs is an aphrodisiac. Youve got to feel sexually stimulated in order for them to work.
The main differences between the drugs have to do with timing: how quickly they begin to work, and how long their effects last . Levitra may start working slightly faster than Viagra although the FDA says that like Viagra, it should be taken about an hour before sexual activity. Some studies suggest that Levitra may help some men who dont respond to Viagra. And while some doctors are skeptical about this claim, theres no harm in trying Levitra or Cialis if Viagra doesnt work for you.
Cialis has also been approved to treat men with both erectile dysfunction and BPH. The dose is lower, usually 5 milligrams per day.
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Living With Prostate Cancer
Living with prostate cancer depends on how early you were diagnosed. Also, it depends on the type of treatment you received. For example, if you had to have your prostate removed, you may have to live with sexual dysfunction. If you had hormone or chemotherapy, you may have long-terms effects from the medicines used on those treatments. Ask your doctor how you can improve the quality of your life after treatment.
Bladder And Urinary Troubles
A prostate tumor that has grown significantly in size may start to press on your bladder and urethra. The urethra is the passage the carries urine from your bladder out of your body. If the tumor is pressing on your urethra, you might have trouble passing urine.
One of the common areas for prostate cancer to spread to is the bladder, because the two organs are close. This can cause additional problems with urination and bladder function.
Some symptoms your bladder and urethra are being affected by cancer include:
- urinating more frequently
- getting up in the middle of the night to pee
- having blood in your urine or semen
- feeling like you have to urinate often and not actually passing anything
Its not as common, but prostate cancer can also spread to your bowel. The cancer first spreads to the rectum, which is the part of your bowel closest to the prostate gland.
Symptoms of cancer thats spread to the bowels include:
- stomach pain
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Questions To Ask The Doctor
- What treatment do you think is best for me?
- Whats the goal of this treatment? Do you think it could cure the cancer?
- Will treatment include surgery? If so, who will do the surgery?
- What will the surgery be like?
- Will I need other types of treatment, too?
- Whats the goal of these treatments?
- What side effects could I have from these treatments?
- What can I do about side effects that I might have?
- Is there a clinical trial that might be right for me?
- What about special vitamins or diets that friends tell me about? How will I know if they are safe?
- How soon do I need to start treatment?
- What should I do to be ready for treatment?
- Is there anything I can do to help the treatment work better?
- Whats the next step?
What Is Radical Prostatectomy For Prostate Cancer
Radical prostatectomy is the surgical removal of the entire prostate. This operation is indicated for cancer that is limited to the prostate and has not invaded the capsule of the prostate, any other nearby structures or lymph nodes, or distant organs.
Transurethral resection of the prostate is an alternative to radical prostatectomy.
- Only part of the prostate is removed by an instrument inserted through the urethra.
- An electric current passes through a small wire loop at the end of the instrument. The electrical current cuts away a piece of the prostate.
- This procedure is used to remove tissue that is blocking urine flow in patients with extensive disease or those that are not fit enough to undergo radical prostatectomy. It is not considered a procedure for cure.
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How Common Is Prostate Cancer
About one in nine men will receive a prostate cancer diagnosis during his lifetime. Prostate cancer is second only to skin cancer as the most common cancer affecting males. Close to 200,000 American men receive a diagnosis of prostate cancer every year. There are many successful treatments and some men dont need treatment at all. Still, approximately 33,000 men die from the disease every year.
Talking With Your Doctor
Different kinds of doctors and other health care professionals manage prostate health. They can help you find the best care, answer your questions, and address your concerns. These health care professionals include:
- Family doctors and internists
- Physician assistants and nurse practitioners
- Urologists, who are experts in diseases of the urinary tract system and the male reproductive system
- Urologic oncologists, who are experts in treating cancers of the urinary system and the male reproductive system
- Radiation oncologists, who use radiation therapy to treat cancer
- Medical oncologists, who treat cancer with medications such as hormone treatments and chemotherapy
- Pathologists, who identify diseases by studying cells and tissues under a microscope
View these professionals as your partnersâexpert advisors and helpers in your health care. Talking openly with your doctors can help you learn more about your prostate changes and the tests to expect.
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What Is Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer is the growth of abnormal cells in a mans prostate gland. The prostate gland is part of a mans reproductive system. It makes a fluid that mixes with sperm and other fluids during ejaculation. A normal-size prostate is about the size of a walnut.
Prostate cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in men. Most types of prostate cancer grow slowly. However, some types can grow quickly and spread to other parts of the body. When cancer spreads, doctors say the cancer has metastasized.
Can Prostate Cancer Be Prevented Or Avoided
Some risk factors, such as family history and hormone levels, cant be prevented. However, your weight, physical activity, and diet may lower your risk for prostate cancer. Work toward a healthy lifestyle by eating the recommended daily amount of fruits and vegetables, exercising, and maintaining a healthy weight .
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