Can Prostate Cancer Treatment Affect Your Quality Of Life
Your age and overall health will make a difference in how treatment may affect your quality of life. Any health problems you have before youre treated, especially urinary, bowel or sexual function problems, will affect how you recover. Both surgery and radiation can cause urinary incontinence or impotence .
Established Risk Factors: Age Race And Family History
The only risk factors for prostate cancer that can be considered established are age, race/ethnicity, and family history. Study of age-specific incidence curves reveals that prostate cancer risk begins to rise sharply after age 55 years and peaks at age 7074, declining slightly thereafter. Autopsy studies confirm that prostate cancer has a long induction period, and that many men have incipient lesions in their 20s and 30s.2 As Figure 1 shows, the risk of prostate cancer is approximately 60% higher in African Americans than in whites. Mortality among African Americans is approximately double that of whites. Conflicting data exist as to whether this mortality difference is explained entirely by differences in socioeconomic status variables and stage at diagnosis, or whether an inherent difference exists between these racial/ethnic groups in the underlying biology of prostate cancer. It should be emphasized that biological explanations for these risk differences could involve genetic factors, environmental factors, or, more likely, an interaction between the two.
What Are The 5 Warning Signs Of Prostate Cancer
Each year, almost 250,000 men in the United States are diagnosed with prostate cancer. As with other forms of cancer, this is a dangerous disease that is more easily treated if detected early. Let’s discuss what may cause prostate cancer, the 5 common warning signs associated with it, and what to do if you suspect that you have it.
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Can Prostatitis Cause Dull Pain In The Testicles
Testicle is one of the genital organs, it is an important organ of the bodyit can be with many abnormal symptoms like swelling and pain in daily life. And for prostatitis, it is a common disease among males, the patients will experience many discomfort. Do the patients experience the dull pain in testicle?
Can prostatitis cause pain in testicles?How to eliminate the dull pain in the testicle caused by prostatitis?
When Should I See My Doctor
See your doctor if you notice any unusual or ongoing changes in your toilet habits . Most often, these wont mean you have cancer, but finding cancer early improves the odds of treating it successfully.
If you dont have any symptoms but are concerned about your risk, your doctor can also explain the risks and benefits of prostate cancer screening, such as having a PSA test.
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Anthropometric Factors And Physical Activity
Measures of obesity and height have been extensively studied in relation to prostate cancer risk. These studies do not indicate any substantial association between either obesity or height and prostate cancer.13 Adult height was hypothesized to be important, in part because it is influenced by nutrition during childhood. However, attained height is not correlated with adult levels of the somatotrophin insulin-like growth factor -1, which has been linked to prostate cancer risk. The lack of association between obesity and prostate cancer is vexing because obesity reduces sex hormone-binding globulin levels, which could lead to an increase in bioavailable testosterone, and increases both insulin and bioavailable IGF-1, which are both potentially important prostate mitogens. Relatively little research has been conducted so far on body fat distribution, as opposed to total body fat. Of particular interest is abdominal fat, which has metabolic effects different from those of subcutaneous fat. In addition, investigators have hypothesized that physical activity, apart from its beneficial effect on body fat, could reduce prostate cancer risk. The data thus far, however, are not conclusive, perhaps due to difficulty in measuring physical activity in study populations or assessment of activity during the wrong period of life.
What Kind Of Treatment Will I Need
There are many ways to treat prostate cancer. The main kinds of treatment are observation, active surveillance, surgery, radiation, hormone therapy, and chemo. Sometimes more than one kind of treatment is used.
The treatment thats best for you will depend on:
- Any other health problems you might have
- The stage and grade of the cancer
- Your feelings about the need to treat the cancer
- The chance that treatment will cure the cancer or help in some way
- Your feelings about the side effects that might come with treatment
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What Are The Treatments For Prostate Cancer
Your treatment options usually depend on your age, your general health, and how serious the cancer is. Your treatment may include one or more of options:
- Observation,which is mostly used if you are older, your prostate cancer isn’t likely to grow quickly, and you don’t have symptoms or you have other medical conditions. Your doctor will keep checking on your cancer over time so to see whether you will need to start treatment for the cancer. There are two types of observation:
- Watchful waiting means having little or no testing. If symptoms begin or change, you will get treatment to relieve them, but not to treat the cancer.
- Active surveillance means having regular tests to see if your prostate cancer has changed. If the tests show the cancer is starting to grow or if you develop symptoms, then you will have treatment to try to cure the cancer.
What Causes Prostate Cancer
Researchers do not know exactly what causes prostate cancer. But they have found some risk factors and are trying to learn just how these factors might cause prostate cells to become cancer cells.
On a basic level, prostate cancer is caused by changes in the DNA of a normal prostate cell. DNA is the chemical in our cells that makes up our genes, which control how our cells function. We usually look like our parents because they are the source of our DNA. But DNA affects more than just how we look.
Some genes control when our cells grow, divide into new cells, and die:
- Certain genes that help cells grow, divide, and stay alive are called oncogenes.
- Genes that normally keep cell growth under control, repair mistakes in DNA, or cause cells to die at the right time are called tumor suppressor genes.
Cancer can be caused by DNA mutations that keep oncogenes turned on, or that turn off tumor suppressor genes. These types of gene changes can lead to cells growing out of control.
DNA changes can either be inherited from a parent or can be acquired during a persons lifetime.
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Side Effects Of Treatment
Treatment for prostate cancer can cause a variety of side effects which can affect your mind, your body and your relationships. All of this can impact your sex life, some more than others. You can read about sex and prostate cancer here.
Some men experience urinary problems after prostate cancer treatment, including leakage of urine . You can read information about this here.
Check out our most recent prostate cancer awareness campaign here
Exposure To Harmful Substances
Individuals who are working as welders or in companies where battery or rubber is being manufactured and where exposure to cadmium occurs on a regular basis are also at a higher risk of developing prostate cancer.
A great way to help protect your prostate from disease is by taking VIR2D Food Supplement for Men. Order it here now!
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Diagnosing Prostate Cancer In Dogs
To diagnose prostate cancer in dogs, vets start with a thorough physical examination. Suspicion for the prostatic tumor is based on the combination of clinical signs and exam results .
To confirm the diagnosis, the vet will order additional tests such as urine sample analysis, abdominal radiographs, contrast x-rays of the urinary tract, abdominal ultrasound scans, CT scan, and PSA markers. A biopsy is the best way to differentiate between a benign and malignant tumor of the prostate gland in dogs.
With that being said, all older male dogs presenting with similar symptoms to a urinary bacterial infection should be carefully evaluated for prostate cancer.
How Do You Know If You Have Prostate Cancer
Theres no way of knowing if you have prostate cancer without visiting your doctor, as most men with early prostate cancer dont have any symptoms. And if you do have symptoms they can be caused by other things.
And you cant check for prostate cancer yourself.
You may want to speak to your GP if you’re over 50 , even if you don’t have any symptoms. These are all things that can increase your risk of prostate cancer. Your GP can give more information or tests if necessary.
If youre not sure about what to say to your GP, print and fill out this form and show it to them. This will help you have the conversation.
I thought I could be at risk after learning that African Caribbean men are more likely to get prostate cancer than white men.
Does Prostate Cancer Have Any Symptoms
Most men with early prostate cancer dont have any signs or symptoms.
One reason for this is the way the cancer grows. Youll usually only get early symptoms if the cancer grows near the tube you urinate through and presses against it, changing the way you urinate . But because prostate cancer usually starts to grow in a different part of the prostate, early prostate cancer doesnt often press on the urethra and cause symptoms.
If you do notice changes in the way you urinate, this is more likely to be a sign of a very common non-cancerous problem called an enlarged prostate, or another health problem. But its still a good idea to get it checked out. Possible changes include:
- difficulty starting to urinate or emptying your bladder
- a weak flow when you urinate
- a feeling that your bladder hasnt emptied properly
- dribbling urine after you finish urinating
- needing to urinate more often than usual, especially at night
- a sudden need to urinate you may sometimes leak urine before you get to the toilet.
If prostate cancer breaks out of the prostate or spreads to other parts of the body , it can cause other symptoms, including:
- back pain, hip pain or pelvis pain
- problems getting or keeping an erection
- unexplained weight loss.
These symptoms can all be caused by other health problems. But its still a good idea to tell your GP about any symptoms so they can find out whats causing them and make sure you get the right treatment, if you need it.
Enhancing Healthcare Team Outcomes
Prostate cancer diagnosis and treatment can be complex and is often controversial. an interprofessional team of specialty-trained nurses, nurse practitioners, physician assistants, primary care providers, oncologists, radiation therapists, genetic counselors, and urologists must work together to manage:
These and many more issues continue to challenge clinicians who deal with prostate cancer patients and men at risk for this common, potentially lethal male malignancy.
The interprofessional team can optimize the treatment of these patients through communication and coordination of care. Primary care providers, urologists, oncologists, radiation oncologists, and nurse practitioners provide diagnoses and care plans. Specialty care urologic nurses should work with the team to coordinate care and be involved in patient education and monitoring compliance. The interprofessional team can thus improve outcomes for patients with prostate cancer.
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Does Undergoing A Vasectomy Cause Prostate Cancer
The link between prostate cancer and vasectomy is controversial. A 2020 study in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute suggests that undergoing a vasectomy may result in a small increased risk of prostate cancer that persists for at least three decades, regardless of the age at vasectomy. However, other studies have not found this to be true and more research is needed, according to the American Cancer Society.
Are There Prostate Cancer Risk Factors To Consider
Cancer researchers have identified several factors that could increase a mans risk of developing prostate cancer. In considering whether any of these risk factors apply to you, remember that having one or more of them does not mean you will get the disease. However, you should be sure to get all the prostate cancer screenings your physician recommends. It is also important to know that men without these risk factors may also have prostate cancer.
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Pain As Symptom Of Prostate Cancer
Approximately 70% to 85% of patients with advanced prostate cancer have associated clinically apparent bone metastases, while another 20% to 25% have metastatic liver lesions, explain the authors of the study Pain Management in Patients With Advanced Prostate Cancer.In addition to pelvic pain associated with primary tumor extension, these metastatic lesions cause pain that ranges from mild to very severe and may require extensive, highly individualized pain management. Pain is perhaps the one aspect of cancer that patients fear most, and effective pain control is a critical issue for patients and often a challenge for clinicians.
How Can I Reduce The Risk Of Getting Prostate Cancer
You may help to reduce your risk and look after your health generally by:
Maintaining a healthy weight by combining a balanced, low fat diet with regular physical activity.
Doing regular exercise Try to do at least 30 minutes of moderate physical activity five times or more a week. The more active you are, the more you can reduce the risk.
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Cause Of Increasing Incidence
We have considered several possible explanations for the increasing incidence, including improved recognition , screening practices, overdiagnosis, racial/ethnic shifts, societal factors, exogenous carcinogenic exposures, and increasing obesity among AYAs.
Because prostate cancer originally was rarely considered in a young male, it may not have been recognized previously and thus was underdiagnosed. The increased incidence could have resulted from the increased implementation of diagnostic methodologies, including those for genomic predisposition syndromes. Figure C suggests a degree of underdiagnosis in that the youngest men have the higher proportion of metastatic disease at diagnosis. There may have been delays because of underdiagnosis that allowed the cancer ultimately to present with signs and/or symptoms of metastases. That these patients also had the highest proportion of unstaged disease may have been because of underdiagnosis related to less comprehensive workup and understaging. The increasing capability to detect and diagnose prostate cancer in young men is consistent with the observation that nearly all of the increase was of earlier stage disease rather than late-stage disease with distant metastases.
Prostate-specific antigen screening
Figure 7Am J Clin Pathol
Racial, ethnic, and familial factors
The Psa Blood Test Explained
PSA is prostate specific antigen, a substance produced by the prostate sometimes but not always in higher quantities in men with prostate cancer. Other causes of a raised PSA blood test include benign prostatic hyperplasia in men with a large prostate gland and infection or inflammation in the prostate . A raised PSA blood test does not mean that you have prostate cancer but that you may have an increased risk of developing the disease. If the PSA is raised, your doctor will talk to you about your options. Men in Ireland are not routinely offered PSA tests to screen for prostate cancer. There are many reasons for this, the most relevant being that although the PSA is prostate specific, it is not cancer specific. In other words the PSA can be raised for reasons other than cancer.
Prostate cancer treatment will depend on:
The type of cancer cells found at the time of diagnosis.
The test results.
The age of the patient.
General health of the patient.
Some of the treatment options include: active surveillance , surgery, radiotherapy , hormone therapy and chemotherapy. Your doctor will discuss your treatment options with you. Some of these treatments may be used alone or together to treat some prostate cancers. It is often useful to have a friend or relative with you when the treatment is explained. Some patients find it helps to write down a list of questions before going to the appointment.
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What Stages Have To Do With Cancer Spread
Cancers are staged according to tumor size and how far it has spread at the time of diagnosis. Stages help doctors decide which treatments are most likely to work and give a general outlook.
There are different types of staging systems and some are specific to certain types of cancer. The following are the basic stages of cancer:
- In situ. Precancerous cells have been found, but they havent spread to surrounding tissue.
- Localized. Cancerous cells havent spread beyond where they started.
- Regional. Cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes, tissues, or organs.
- Distant. Cancer has reached distant organs or tissues.
- Unknown. Theres not enough information to determine the stage.
- Stage 0 or CIS. Abnormal cells have been found but have not spread into surrounding tissue. This is also called precancer.
- Stages 1, 2, and 3. The diagnosis of cancer is confirmed. The numbers represent how large the primary tumor has grown and how far the cancer has spread.
- Stage 4. Cancer has metastasized to distant parts of the body.
Your pathology report may use the TNM staging system, which provides more detailed information as follows:
T: Size of primary tumor
- TX: primary tumor cant be measured
- T0: primary tumor cant be located
- T1, T2, T3, T4: describes the size of the primary tumor and how far it may have grown into surrounding tissue
N: Number of regional lymph nodes affected by cancer
M: Whether cancer has metastasized or not