Family History And Genetic Factors
It is estimated that about 20% of patients with prostate cancer report a family history, which may develop not only because of shared genes but also for a similar pattern of exposure to certain environmental carcinogens and common lifestyle habits . Several studies reported that inherited genetic background is associated with increased risk for prostate cancer, contributing to about 5% of disease risks . Particularly, this risk is increased by several folds when high-penetrance genetic âriskâ alleles are inherited, conversely to more common low-penetrance loci that increase the risk only modestly.
The X chromosome is also believed to have a role in prostate cancer inheritance, because it contains the androgen receptor and because small deletions in Xq26.3-q27.3 region were noted in sporadic and hereditary forms of prostate cancer . More recent studies in 301 hereditary prostate cancer affected families defined a number of other loci that may contribute to hereditary prostate cancer .
Cancer Incidence And Death Rates By Sex And World Region
Worldwide, the incidence rate for all cancers combined was 19% higher in men than in women in 2020, although rates varied widely across regions. Among men, incidence rates ranged almost 5-fold, from 494.2 per 100,000 in Australia/New Zealand to 100.6 per 100,000 in Western Africa among women, rates varied nearly 4-fold, from 405.2 per 100,000 in Australia/New Zealand to 102.5 per 100,000 in South Central Asia. These variations largely reflect differences in exposure to risk factors and associated cancers and barriers to high-quality cancer prevention and early detection. For example, the highest overall incidence rates in Australia/New Zealand are caused in part by an elevated risk of NMSC because most of the population is light-skinned, and excessive sun exposure is prevalent, in conjunction with increased detection of the disease.
The gender gap for overall cancer mortality worldwide is twice that for incidence, with death rates 43% higher in men than in women , partly because of differences in the distribution of the cancer types. Death rates per 100,000 persons varied from 165.6 per 100,000 in Eastern Europe to 70.2 per 100,000 in Central America among men and from 118.3 per 100,000 in Melanesia to 63.1 per 100,000 in Central America and South Central Asia among women. Notably, the cumulative risk of dying from cancer among women in 2020 was higher in Eastern Africa than in Northern America , Western Europe , and Australia/New Zealand .
What Is Fluxactive Complete And How Does It Work
Fluxactive Complete is a natural dietary supplement which not only helps your prostate health but also improves your brain function. As we age, our prostate glands may become more prominent.
If left untreated, an enlarged gland in the prostate can cause many health problems. It can also lead to the development and spread of prostate cancer. Fluxactive Complete contains an exclusive formula that contains 14 essential anti-oxidants, minerals, vitamins, herbs, and other prostate health benefits.
Fluxactive Complete, a unique formula, has been developed to support the male reproduction system and provide numerous sexual health benefits. Fluxactive Complete provides a unique way to help maintain optimal prostate health, and is unlike any other dietary supplement.
These ingredients are antioxidant- and anti-inflammatory. Fluxactive Compleat has an anti-inflammatory property that lowers the risk of Benign prostatic hyperplasia.
If men don’t take care of their reproductive system, they may develop prostate carcinoma in later stages of their lives. Fluxactive Complex contains several important ingredients that supply essential vitamins to your body, as well as minerals, which can improve your health.
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Is The Prostate Cancer Curable
While prostate cancer has an uncertain prognosis, it can be treated in many cases. The key is to get diagnosed early. Ninety percent of prostate cancer cases are found in the early stages, when treatment is more effective. Treatment for prostate cancer can include noninvasive radiation therapy. CyberKnife radiation therapy, for example, can be completed in a week or less. Then, patients can resume their normal activities.
Treatment for prostate cancer depends on the stage, type, and location of the cancer. Localized cancers are treated with surgery or radiation therapy, while advanced cancers are treated with hormone therapy or chemotherapy. However, early stage cancers are curable with a high success rate. Treatment may involve several types of surgeries.
Prostate cancer is staged by PSA levels and Gleason scores. The first two stages are stage 0 where the cancer has not spread yet and stage 1 which indicates it has spread to nearby lymph nodes. The final stage is called stage 4 and the patient will need more aggressive treatment. Fortunately, most patients are diagnosed in the early stages thanks to PSA testing.
Is Prostate Cancer Fatal
The short answer to this question is no. Prostate cancer has a very good prognosis. Most men who are diagnosed can expect to live a normal life-span.
Prostate cancer is the most common form of cancer in males. On the other hand, its also considered one of the most manageable cancers because it tends not to spread beyond the prostate gland.
In the United States, approximately 1 in 6 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer during their lifetime. However, more than 90% of these diagnoses will be classified as low risk because they grow so slowly that they dont usually cause problems before the man dies of another cause.
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What Should I Do If I Think I Have A Prostate Problem
If you notice any of the above symptoms or you think you might have a problem with your prostate, talk to your GP. Prostate cancer can be treated and over 90% of men with the disease survive but the first step is to talk to your GP.
Your GP may want to do a blood test called a PSA blood test and then examine your prostate. This involves inserting a gloved finger into your back passage to feel the size and shape of your prostate.
Can Drinking Cause Prostate Cancer
No. Alcohol use can increase the risk for many types of cancer, but prostate cancer is not on this list.
Prostate cancer treatment: The care you need is one call away
Your multidisciplinary team will work with you to develop a personalized plan to treat your prostate cancer in a way that fits your individual needs and goals.
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What Are The Stages Of Prostate Cancer
Cancer staging is first described using what is called a TNM system. The T refers to a description of the size or extent of the primary, or original, tumor. N describes the presence or absence of, and extent of spread of the cancer to lymph nodes that may be nearby or further from the original tumor. M describes the presence or absence of metastases usually distant areas elsewhere in the body other than regional lymph nodes to which the cancer has spread. Cancers with specific TNM characteristics are then grouped into stages, and the stages are then assigned Roman numerals with the numerals used in increasing order as the extent of the cancer being staged increases or the cancer prognosis worsens. Prognosis is finally reflected by considering the patients PSA score at presentation as well as their Gleason score in assigning a final stage designation.
The American Joint Commission on Cancer system for prostate cancer staging is as follows:
Traditionally, advanced prostate cancer was defined as disease that had widely metastasized beyond the prostate, the surrounding tissue, and the pelvic lymph nodes and was incurable. However, a more contemporary definition includes patients with lower grade disease with an increased risk of progression and/or death from prostate cancer in addition to those with widely metastatic disease.
The National Cancer Institute and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines on prostate cancer version 2.2017 indicate the following:
Early Stage Prostate Cancer
Most prostate cancer is caught in the early stage. Prostate cancer is in the early stage when the prostate hasnt grown or swelled because of the cancers presence, and its still localized in the gland. While there are four stages of prostate cancer, each with their own levels of severity, nearly all of these stages are considered in the early stage as long as the cancer hasnt spread outside of the prostate. After various tests, your doctor will assign a stage or a Gleason score based on what your
prostate looks like and how aggressive the cancer is. The higher Gleason score you have , the more aggressive the cancer is. While the cancer is still is in the prostate, its still in the early stages. According to the ACS, the five-year survival rate for those diagnosed with prostate cancer is almost 100 percent.
There are several treatment options available in the early stages of prostate cancer. These options include:
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Cancer Incidence And Mortality Patterns By The 4
Incidence rates increased with increasing HDI level, ranging from 104.3 and 128.0 per 100,000 in low HDI countries to 335.3 and 267.6 per 100,000 in very high HDI countries for men and women, respectively . Mortality rates are about 2-fold higher in higher HDI countries versus lower HDI countries in men, whereas little variation exists across HDI levels in women .
- a Incidence excludes basal cell carcinoma, whereas mortality includes all types of nonmelanoma skin cancer.
- Abbreviation: HDI, Human Development Index.
Figures and show cancer incidence and mortality ASRs in higher HDI versus lower HDI countries for men and women, respectively, in 2020. For incidence in men , lung cancer ranks first and prostate cancer ranks second in higher HDI countries, and vice versa for lower HDI countries . These cancers were followed by colorectal cancer in higher HDI countries, largely reflecting the substantial contribution by the United States, and lip and oral cavity cancer in lower HDI countries because of the high burden of the disease in India. In women , incidence rates for breast cancer far exceed those of other cancers in both transitioned and transitioning countries, followed by colorectal cancer in transitioned countries and cervical cancer in transitioning countries.
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Prostate Growth: A Normal Part Of Aging
Starting around age 25, the adult prostate begins to enlarge slowly. The condition is called benign prostatic hyperplasia , and it has nothing to do with cancer.
Itâs not clear why the growth happens. What is clear, however, is that around age 50, many men begin to have uncomfortable symptoms as a result of this enlargement. They may have to go to the bathroom more urgently and often, especially at night — and when they do, itâs often difficult to get a strong stream started or to empty the bladder.
This happens because the prostate gland surrounds the urethra, the tube that carries urine from the bladder and out through the . As the prostate grows, it compresses that tube, and that makes urination difficult.
If it gets so bad that you canât pee at all, thatâs a medical emergency. Get to an emergency room or call 911 immediately.
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Incidence And Survival Rates
Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide, and the fifth most common cause of cancer death among men. Almost all cases are adenocarcinoma, a glandular malignancy. Around 1.1 million new cases were recorded worldwide in 2012, accounting for 15 per cent of all new cases of cancer in men.
Prostate cancer is more common as men age, in the US 97 per cent of all prostate cancers are diagnosed in men 50 years or older. Incidence rates of prostate cancer vary by more than 25-fold in different parts of the world the highest rates are in Australia and New Zealand, Northern and Western Europe and North America. A proportion of the variation in incidence rates can be explained by differences in screening practices, notably screening for prostate-specific antigen .
Early prostate cancer detected by screening usually has no symptoms. With more advanced disease men may experience weak or interrupted urine flow the inability to urinate or difficulty starting or stopping urine flow the need to urinate frequently, especially at night blood in the urine or pain or burning with urination, but these symptoms may also be due to a common condition called benign prostatic hyperplasia. Prostate cancer that has spread often presents as bone pain. The five- and ten-year survival is high in Europe and North America, but lower in some Asian and African countries.
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Which Age Groups Have The Highest Incidence Of Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer incidence increases as men age as many as 60% of men over 65 years of age may be diagnosed with prostate cancer. Prostate cancer is most often diagnosed in men aged 65-74 years median age at diagnosis is 66 years.
However, men as young as 17 years are experiencing an increasing incidence of prostate cancer in much of the world, including the United States, according to data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program and the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation Global Burden of Disease database. These younger patients frequently present with more advanced cancer and have worse survival than middle-aged and older men. Worldwide, the incidence of prostate cancer has increased in men ages 15 to 40 years at a steady rate averaging 2% per year since 1990. In the United States, this age group was more than 6 times more likely than older men to have distant disease at diagnosis.
Bray F, Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Siegel RL, Torre LA, Jemal A. Global cancer statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries. CA Cancer J Clin. 2018 Nov. 68 :394-424. .
American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures 2021. Available at . Accessed: February 2, 2021.
Komyakov BK, Sergeev AV, Fadeev VA, et al. . Urologiia. 2017 Sep. 42-5. .
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Prostate Cancer Treatment Options: What Are They
Prostate cancer is, most often, a slow-growing cancer.
For some men, prostate cancer causes no symptoms or long-term issues, so treatment isn’t necessary.
In these cases, doctors may recommend active surveillance. That is, they’ll keep an eye on the development of the tumor using various tools and tests, including:
- Digital rectal exams
- Transrectal ultrasounds
- Prostate biopsies
Men who require treatment for their condition are most often treated with surgery, radiation therapy, hormone therapy, or a combination of these modalities.
Scientific Evidence Of Fluxactive Complete
Fluxactive Complete is the dietary supplement that supports prostate wellness. Fluxactive Comprehensive formula includes ingredients such as Chinese Ginseng, Epimedium Sagittatum, among others. These ingredients are known to lower the chances of developing prostate carcinoma.
This study concluded that Chinese Ginseng has a positive effect on prostate cancer cell proliferation. Scientists are still working out the mechanism.
Fluxactive Complete also contains Epimedium Saagittatum. It has anti-cancer qualities. According to this study Epimedium Sagittatum is also known for increasing testosterone levels and sexual endurance.
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Data Sources And Methods
The sources and methods used in compiling the estimates in GLOBOCAN 2018 are described in detail elsewhere and also are available online at the Global Cancer Observatory . The Global Cancer Observatory website includes facilities for the tabulation and graphical visualization of the GLOBOCAN database for 185 countries and 36 cancers by age and sex.
The profile of cancer, globally and by world region, is built up in GLOBOCAN using the best available sources of cancer incidence and mortality data within a given country therefore, validity of the national estimates depends on the degree of representativeness and the quality of source information. The methods used to compile the 2018 estimates are largely based on those developed previously, with an emphasis on the use of short-term predictions and modeling of incidence-to-mortality ratios, where applicable. The list of cancer sites, however, has been extended to 36 cancer types in GLOBOCAN 2018, with one of the major additions being estimates of the incidence of, and mortality from, nonmelanoma skin cancer . Together with all cancers combined, cancer-specific estimates are provided for 185 countries or territories worldwide by sex and for 18 age groups .
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Symptoms Of Prostate Cancer
Now that we know what prostate cancer is, how can we tell if we have it aside from being tested regularly? A lot of the symptoms of the disease have to do with discomfort while urinating while ejaculating. According to the Prostate Cancer Foundation, these can include:
- Blood in your urine
- Frequently having to urinate especially at night and not being able to hold it back
- Pain while urinating
- Trouble getting and maintaining an erection
- Loss of control of your bladder and bowels
- Pain in your hips, back, spine, and other parts of your body close to your prostate, indicating the cancer may have spread
- Pressure in your rectum
In its earliest stages, none of these symptoms may be present, which is why its important to get ahead of the disease with testing.
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Us Cancer Statistics Data Visualizations Tool
The Data Visualizations tool makes it easy for anyone to explore and use the latest official federal government cancer data from United States Cancer Statistics.It includes the latest cancer data covering the U.S. population.
See how the rates of new prostate cancers or prostate cancer deaths changed over time for the entire United States and individual states.Links with this icon indicate that you are leaving the CDC website.
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