Monday, September 26, 2022

What Does Prostate Cancer Look Like

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Prostate Cancer Treatment: Prostate Cancer Surgery

Survivor Story: What is Prostate Cancer Treatment Like?

Radical prostatectomy is the surgical removal of the prostate gland. Usually, this treatment is performed when the cancer is located only in the prostate gland. New surgical techniques help avoid damage to nerves, but the surgery may still have the side effects of erectile dysfunction and impaired urinary control. However, these side effects may gradually improve in some patients. Surgeons today may use robotic technique to assist in the operation.

Tips: Coping With Incontinence

Urinary incontinence is a common complication for men following prostate cancer surgery, and this problem can persist even five years after the surgery takes place. In one survey of 111 men published in 2003, 69% reported incontinence after prostate surgery. Most of these men used pelvic muscle exercises to help. Many used containment devices, including pads, special underwear, and sanitary napkins to manage incontinence.

Here are some post-surgical incontinence tips:

Molecular And Cytogenetic Studies

The pathology lab might do several additional tests to learn more about your cancer. These cytogenetic studies dont look at cancer cells per se they utilize tissue culture and other diagnostic techniques.

These additional molecular and cytogenetic studies can tell your healthcare provider about genetic changes the cells have undergone when they become cancerous, predicting cancers behavior as it evolves and deciding which treatments have the best chance of being effective.

For example, changes in the 23 pairs of mega-molecules that hold our genetic material, called chromosomes, can be a major factor in the development of some cancers.

The Philadelphia chromosome is one such change. It happens when chromosomes 22 and 9 swap sections. This change is found in chronic myelogenous leukemia and sometimes in acute lymphocytic leukemia.

Some cancers develop changes in the HER2 gene, which produces an important protein in controlling cellular growth in normal cells. If the cells start making larger than normal amounts of this protein, they can grow more quickly and are more likely to spread. This can guide treatment decisions in breast cancer and stomach cancer.

Some of the tools used in molecular and cytogenetic analyses include:

What Causes Prostate Cancer And Am I At Risk

Every man is at risk for prostate cancer as he ages. Although prostate cancer can affect younger men, about 6 out of 10 cases are diagnosed in men over the age of 65. The average age of diagnosis is 66. After non-melanoma skin cancer, prostate is the most common cancer diagnosed in men in the United States. The American Cancer Society estimates there will be 248,530 new cases of prostate cancer each year.

Although there are several known risk factors for getting prostate cancer, no one knows exactly why one man gets it and another doesn’t. Some important risk factors for prostate cancer are:

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How Can I Prevent Prostate Cancer

The best way to try and prevent prostate cancer is to modify the risk factors for prostate cancer that you have control over. Eat a low-fat diet that is rich in fruits and vegetables and low in animal fats. It is always a good idea to maintain a healthy weight, get plenty of exercise and not to smoke or to quit smoking.

Screening Information For Prostate Cancer

Understanding Prostate Changes

Screening for prostate cancer is done to find evidence of cancer in otherwise healthy adults. Two tests are commonly used to screen for prostate cancer:

  • Digital rectal examination . A DRE is a test in which the doctor inserts a gloved, lubricated finger into the rectum and feels the surface of the prostate through the bowel wall for any irregularities.

  • PSA blood test. There is controversy about using the PSA test to look for prostate cancer in people with no symptoms of the disease. On the one hand, the PSA test is useful for detecting early-stage prostate cancer, especially in those with many risk factors, which helps some get the treatment they need before the cancer grows and spreads. On the other hand, PSA screening may find very-slow-growing prostate cancers that would never threaten someone’s life. As a result, screening for prostate cancer using PSA may lead to treatments that are not needed, which can cause side effects and seriously affect a person’s quality of life.

ASCO recommends that people with no symptoms of prostate cancer and who are expected to live less than 10 years do not receive PSA screening. For those expected to live longer than 10 years, ASCO recommends that they talk with their doctor to find out if the test is appropriate for them.

Other organizations have different recommendations for screening:

The symptoms and signs of prostate cancer may include:

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How Prostate Cancer Staging Is Done

Initial staging is based on the results of PSA blood tests, biopsies, and imaging tests. This is also called clinical staging.

PSA refers to a protein made by the prostate measured by a lab test.

  • A higher level of PSA can indicate a more advanced cancer.
  • The doctors will also look at how fast the PSA levels have been increasing from test to test. A faster increase could show a more aggressive tumor.

A prostate biopsy is done in your doctor’s office. The results can indicate:

  • How much of the prostate is involved.
  • The Gleason score. A number from 2 to 10 that shows how closely the cancer cells look like normal cells when viewed under a microscope. Scores 6 or less suggest the cancer is slow growing and not aggressive. Higher numbers indicate a faster growing cancer that is more likely to spread.

How Do I Know How Long I Have Left To Live

You might want to know how long you have left to live. This can help you prepare and plan the time you have left. There might be things you want to do or people you want to see. But some men dont want to know how long they have left. Everyone is different.

You can ask your doctor how long you have left to live. They wont be able to give you an exact answer. This can be frustrating and it may feel like your doctor is trying to avoid your questions. But no-one can know for certain how long you have left because everyone’s body and everyone’s cancer is different. However, your doctor will be able to give you some idea based on where the cancer has spread to, how you are responding to treatment, how quickly the cancer has spread, and what problems it is causing.

It can be helpful to talk with your family about this. You may not want to upset them but they might have similar questions and thoughts to you.

If you have months or maybe years left to live, it can be difficult for your doctor to say exactly how long you have left. This is because they dont know how you will respond to different treatments. If your treatment stops working so well, there may be other treatments available. Some men may not respond well to one treatment, but may respond better to another. Read more about treatments for advanced prostate cancer.

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If Treatment Does Not Work

Recovery from cancer is not always possible. If the cancer cannot be cured or controlled, the disease may be called advanced or terminal.

This diagnosis is stressful, and for many people, advanced cancer may be difficult to discuss. However, it is important to have open and honest conversations with your health care team to express your feelings, preferences, and concerns. The health care team has special skills, experience, and knowledge to support patients and their families and is there to help. Making sure a person is physically comfortable, free from pain, and emotionally supported is extremely important.

People who have advanced cancer and who are expected to live less than 6 months may want to consider hospice care. Hospice care is designed to provide the best possible quality of life for people who are near the end of life. You and your family are encouraged to talk with the health care team about hospice care options, which include hospice care at home, a special hospice center, or other health care locations. Nursing care and special equipment, including a hospital bed, can make staying at home a workable option for many families. Learn more about advanced cancer care planning.

After the death of a loved one, many people need support to help them cope with the loss. Learn more about grief and loss.

  • Handling insurance and billing issues

Learn more about caregiving.

Psa Testing For Prostate Cancer

What are the Treatment Options for Stage 1 Prostate Cancer

The blood test was talking about is called the PSA test, and an elevation in the PSA test does not always mean prostate cancer, but it can raise concerns and prompt us to do more testing that can determine if cancer is present. The treatment is basically, some people say, depending on how old they are when theyre diagnosed with prostate cancer, doctors say that its slow-growing, or then theres a part of some men actually have some type of surgery. Thats great. There are various treatment options available, and it really depends on what type of cancer is present and how much the patients age is.

There are other health issues for most men. The options are surveillance, so watching the cancer and intervening if it gets more serious, surgery to remove the prostate, which can be done minimally invasively now, or radiation therapy to destroy the cancer cells with radiation. The most important thing here is, of course, to get that screening. Hope you get the answer to the question of What does a prostate cancer look like? Thank you

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Hope For Advanced Cancer

Your doctor will continue to monitor your PSA levels and may perform other tests after treatment for prostate cancer. If it recurs or spreads to other parts of the body, additional treatment may be recommended. Lifestyle choices may matter, too. One study found that prostate cancer survivors who exercised regularly had a lower risk of dying, for example.

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What Does The Prostate Do

The prostate is not essential for life, but it is important for reproduction. Healthy semen is the perfect consistency and environment for sperm transit and survival, and for fertilization. Semen includes enzymes like PSA , as well as other substances made by the seminal vesicles and prostate, such as zinc, citrate, and fructose . Semen also contains substances that may protect the urinary tract and sperm from bacteria and other pathogens.

The prostate typically grows during adolescence, under the control of the male hormone testosterone and its byproduct dihydrotestosterone . Testosterone is primarily made in the testes, but a smaller amount it is also made in the adrenal glands above the kidneys.

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Enlarged Prostate Or Prostate Cancer

The prostate can grow larger as men age, sometimes pressing on the bladder or urethra and causing symptoms similar to prostate cancer. This is called benign prostatic hyperplasia . It’s not cancer and can be treated if symptoms become bothersome. A third problem that can cause urinary symptoms is prostatitis. This inflammation or infection may also cause a fever and in many cases is treated with medication.

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What Kind Of Treatment Will I Need

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There are many ways to treat prostate cancer. The main kinds of treatment are observation, active surveillance, surgery, radiation, hormone therapy, and chemo. Sometimes more than one kind of treatment is used.

The treatment thats best for you will depend on:

  • Your age
  • Any other health problems you might have
  • The stage and grade of the cancer
  • Your feelings about the need to treat the cancer
  • The chance that treatment will cure the cancer or help in some way
  • Your feelings about the side effects that might come with treatment

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How Common Is Prostate Cancer

About one in nine men will receive a prostate cancer diagnosis during his lifetime. Prostate cancer is second only to skin cancer as the most common cancer affecting males. Close to 200,000 American men receive a diagnosis of prostate cancer every year. There are many successful treatments and some men dont need treatment at all. Still, approximately 33,000 men die from the disease every year.

Risk Factors For Prostate Cancer

Some risk factors have been linked to prostate cancer. A risk factor is something that can raise your chance of developing a disease. Having one or more risk factors doesn’t mean that you will get prostate cancer. It just means that your risk of the disease is greater.

  • Age. Men who are 50 or older have a higher risk of prostate cancer.
  • Race. African-American men have the highest risk of prostate cancer√Ęthe disease tends to start at younger ages and grows faster than in men of other races. After African-American men, prostate cancer is most common among white men, followed by Hispanic and Native American men. Asian-American men have the lowest rates of prostate cancer.
  • Family history. Men whose fathers or brothers have had prostate cancer have a 2 to 3 times higher risk of prostate cancer than men who do not have a family history of the disease. A man who has 3 immediate family members with prostate cancer has about 10 times the risk of a man who does not have a family history of prostate cancer. The younger a man’s relatives are when they have prostate cancer, the greater his risk for developing the disease. Prostate cancer risk also appears to be slightly higher for men from families with a history of breast cancer.
  • Diet. The risk of prostate cancer may be higher for men who eat high-fat diets.

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Prostate Cancer Or Enlarged Prostate

Two conditions can cause some symptoms that mimic those seen in prostate cancer described previously.

Benign prostatic hyperplasia

BPH results from the prostate growing larger. BPH causes symptoms by creating pressure on the bladder, urethra, or both. BPH commonly occurs in elderly men and is a relatively benign condition.

Prostatitis

In the case of prostatitis, prostate tissue becomes inflamed, causing the prostate gland to swell. Any bacteria that can cause a urinary tract infection can also cause prostatitis, and it may be caused by sexually transmitted diseases including chlamydia and gonorrhea.

Both conditions are treated medically but some individuals with BPH may require surgical treatment.

Prostate cancer is differentiated from the above conditions by identifying cancer cells in a biopsy of the prostate.

Gleason Score For Grading Prostate Cancer

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Prostate cancer is also given a grade called a Gleason score. This score is based on how much the cancer looks like healthy tissue when viewed under a microscope. Less aggressive tumors generally look more like healthy tissue. Tumors that are more aggressive are likely to grow and spread to other parts of the body. They look less like healthy tissue.

The Gleason scoring system is the most common prostate cancer grading system used. The pathologist looks at how the cancer cells are arranged in the prostate and assigns a score on a scale of 3 to 5 from 2 different locations. Cancer cells that look similar to healthy cells receive a low score. Cancer cells that look less like healthy cells or look more aggressive receive a higher score. To assign the numbers, the pathologist determines the main pattern of cell growth, which is the area where the cancer is most obvious, and then looks for another area of growth. The doctor then gives each area a score from 3 to 5. The scores are added together to come up with an overall score between 6 and 10.

Gleason scores of 5 or lower are not used. The lowest Gleason score is 6, which is a low-grade cancer. A Gleason score of 7 is a medium-grade cancer, and a score of 8, 9, or 10 is a high-grade cancer. A lower-grade cancer grows more slowly and is less likely to spread than a high-grade cancer.

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How Is Prostate Cancer Diagnosed

Prostate cancer is diagnosed with a biopsy of the prostate. A biopsy is usually done if symptoms or a screening raises concern. A prostate cancer screening is a test your doctor uses to look for the disease before you have symptoms. There are two screening tests available: a digital rectal exam and a prostate-specific antigen test. You and your doctor will decide if you need a screening. However, these tests can only tell your doctor whether or not your prostate is healthy. Abnormal test results dont always mean you have cancer. How often you should be screened depends on your age and your personal risk factors.

During a DRE, your doctor will insert his or her gloved, lubricated finger a few inches into your rectum to feel your prostate gland. A normal prostate feels firm. If there are hard spots on the prostate, your doctor may suggest additional testing to check for prostate cancer.

During a PSA test, you will get a blood test. A blood test involves inserting a small needle into a vein in your arm to take a sample of blood. The test measures the level of PSA in your blood. Men who have prostate cancer may have a higher level of PSA in their blood. However, a PSA level can also be high because of less serious causes, such as infection or an enlarged prostate.

If your screening test results are abnormal, your doctor may recommend additional other tests to check for cancer. Those tests may include:

What Is The Prognosis For People Who Have Prostate Cancer

Because prostate cancer tends to grow slowly, most men die from something other than the disease. Early detection is key to better outcomes. Almost all men 97% to 98% diagnosed with localized cancer that hasnt spread outside of the prostate live at least five years after diagnosis. When metastatic cancer has spread outside of the gland, one-third of men continue to survive after five years.

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