What Is Advanced Prostate Cancer
When prostate cancer spreads beyond the prostate or returns after treatment, it is often called advanced prostate cancer.
Prostate cancer is often grouped into four stages, with stages III and IV being more advanced prostate cancer.
- Early Stage | Stages I & II: The tumor has not spread beyond the prostate.
- Locally Advanced | Stage III: Cancer has spread outside the prostate but only to nearby tissues.
- Advanced | Stage IV: Cancer has spread outside the prostate to other parts such as the lymph nodes, bones, liver or lungs.
When an early stage prostate cancer is found, it may be treated or placed on surveillance . Advanced prostate cancer is not curable, but there are many ways to treat it. Treatment can help slow advanced prostate cancer progression.
There are several types of advanced prostate cancer, including:
With biochemical recurrence, the prostate-specific antigen level has risen after treatment using surgery or radiation, with no other sign of cancer.
Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer
Non-Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer that no longer responds to hormone treatment and is only found in the prostate. This is found by a rise in the PSA level, while the testosterone level stays low. Imaging tests do not show signs the cancer has spread.
Metastatic Prostate Cancer
- Lymph nodes outside the pelvis
- Other organs, such as liver or lungs
Metastatic Hormone-Sensitive Prostate Cancer
Staging Prostate Cancer Grades And Stages
Overview by Professor Chris Foster
Professor of Molecular and Clinical Cancer Medicine
Medical Director of Pathology HCA Healthcare UK
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Staging prostate cancer
Grades and Stages are used to describe what a cancer looks like under a microscope and the size and spread of the tumour.
The Cancer GradeThe Cancer StageThe TNM Staging system
- Tumour : How large is the primary tumour ? Where is it located ?
- Node : Has the tumour spread to the lymph nodes? If so, where, and how many ?
- Metastasis : Has the cancer metastasized to other parts of the body? If so, where and how much?
Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial Risk Calculator
The Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial Risk Calculator was developed to help clinicians decide whether a biopsy is needed. It takes into account many clinical factors, including:
- PSA level
- Family history
- Biopsy history
The results of the calculator may not apply to all individuals. Clinicians should only use it for those who:
- Are 55 or older
- Havent been diagnosed with prostate cancer in the past
- Have results from a PSA or DRE that are less than 1 year old
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Physical Emotional And Social Effects Of Cancer
Cancer and its treatment cause physical symptoms and side effects, as well as emotional, social, and financial effects. Managing all of these effects is called palliative care or supportive care. It is an important part of your care that is included along with treatments intended to slow, stop, or eliminate the cancer.
Palliative care focuses on improving how you feel during treatment by managing symptoms and supporting patients and their families with other, non-medical needs. Any person, regardless of age or type and stage of cancer, may receive this type of care. And it often works best when it is started right after a cancer diagnosis. People who receive palliative care along with treatment for the cancer often have less severe symptoms, better quality of life, and report that they are more satisfied with treatment.
Palliative treatments vary widely and often include medication, nutritional changes, relaxation techniques, emotional and spiritual support, and other therapies. You may also receive palliative treatments similar to those meant to get rid of the cancer, such as chemotherapy, surgery, or radiation therapy.
Before treatment begins, talk with your doctor about the goals of each treatment in the treatment plan. You should also talk about the possible side effects of the specific treatment plan and palliative care options.
What Are Prostate Cancer Survival Rates By Stage
Staging evaluation is essential for the planning of treatment for prostate cancer.
- A basic staging evaluation includes the patient examination, blood tests, and the prostate biopsy including ultrasound images of the prostate.
- Further testing and calculations may be performed to best estimate a patients prognosis and help the doctor and patient decide upon treatment options.
Prognosis refers to the likelihood that the cancer can be cured by treatment, and what the patients life expectancy is likely to be as a consequence of having had a prostate cancer diagnosis.
If a cancer is cured, your life expectancy is what it would have been had you never been diagnosed with prostate cancer. If the cancer cannot be cured due to it recurring in distant locations as metastases, or recurs either locally or in an area no longer able to be treated in a curative manner, then estimates can be made of what is likely to be your survival based again on group statistics for people who have been in the same situation.
Nomograms are charts or computer-based tools that use complex math from analysis of many patients treatment results.
The prognosis for prostate cancer varies widely, and depends on many factors, including the age and health of the patient, the stage of the tumor when it was diagnosed, the aggressiveness of the tumor, and the cancers responsiveness to treatment, among other factors.
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What Is The Prognosis For People Who Have Prostate Cancer
Because prostate cancer tends to grow slowly, most men die from something other than the disease. Early detection is key to better outcomes. Almost all men 97% to 98% diagnosed with localized cancer that hasnt spread outside of the prostate live at least five years after diagnosis. When metastatic cancer has spread outside of the gland, one-third of men continue to survive after five years.
Differentiating The Stages Of Prostate Cancer
Author: Brian Hildebrandt, Last Updated: March 11, 2016
There are differant stages of prostate cancer you may go through during the progression of your treatment.
The main differance between the prostate cancer stages is the cancerâs size, and the locations it has spread to, from inside the prostate gland to the rest of the body.
The TNM is a concise scale for classifying your prostate cancer.
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Metastases: Whether The Cancer Has Spread
The spread of cancer is measured in two ways: by lymph node involvement, and by its appearance in other organs or parts of the body, or metastasis.
Lymph node staging, or N-staging, determines whether the cancer is present in nearby lymph nodes. Lymph nodes are tiny organs that are part of the immune system.NX: The regional lymph nodes cannot be evaluated.N0: The cancer has not spread to lymph nodes in the immediate area.N1: The cancer has spread to lymph nodes in the pelvic region.
The M in the TNM system indicates whether the prostate cancer has spread to other parts of the body, such as the lungs or the bones. This is called distant metastasis.
MX: Metastasis cannot be evaluated.M0: The cancer has not metastasized beyond the immediate prostate region.M1: The cancer has metastasized deeper into the body.
- M1a: The cancer has spread to lymph nodes away from the groin area.
- M1b: The cancer has spread to the bones.
- M1c: The cancer has spread to another part of the body, with or without spread to the bones.
The combination of your full staging results, including your grade and your T, N, and M stages, paints a more complete picture of how the cancer is progressing. This enables your doctors to determine which treatments have the best chance or controlling or eradicating your cancer.
Changing Role Of Caregivers
Family members and friends may also go through periods of transition. A caregiver plays a very important role in supporting a person diagnosed with cancer, providing physical, emotional, and practical care on a daily or as-needed basis. Many caregivers become focused on providing this support, especially if the treatment period lasts for many months or longer.
However, as treatment is completed, the caregiver’s role often changes. Eventually, the need for caregiving related to the cancer diagnosis will become much less or come to an end. Caregivers can learn more about adjusting to life after caregiving.
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How Prostate Cancer Staging Is Done
Initial staging is based on the results of PSA blood tests, biopsies, and imaging tests. This is also called clinical staging.
PSA refers to a protein made by the prostate measured by a lab test.
- A higher level of PSA can indicate a more advanced cancer.
- The doctors will also look at how fast the PSA levels have been increasing from test to test. A faster increase could show a more aggressive tumor.
A prostate biopsy is done in your doctor’s office. The results can indicate:
- How much of the prostate is involved.
- The Gleason score. A number from 2 to 10 that shows how closely the cancer cells look like normal cells when viewed under a microscope. Scores 6 or less suggest the cancer is slow growing and not aggressive. Higher numbers indicate a faster growing cancer that is more likely to spread.
Prostate Cancer Stages 1
Stages of Prostate Cancer Defined
stages of prostate cancer is definedstages 1-10
Prostate Cancer Stage 1Prostate Cancer Stage 2Prostate Cancer Stage 3Prostate Cancer Stage 4T1:
- T1a: Cancer is discovered by chance during a transurethral resection of the prostate that was conducted for benign prostatic hyperplasia . Cancer is in no greater than 5% of the tissue abstracted.
- T1b: Cancer is found during a TURP but is in over 5% of the tissue abstracted.
- T1c: Cancer is discovered by needle biopsy that was conducted because of an increased PSA.
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The Importance Of Early Detection
Detecting prostate cancer at its earliest stage usually means better treatment outcomes.
Because of this, men must undergo DRE and PSA testing regularly. The age by which they need to start testing varies. But, if you have a very high risk of prostate cancer, due to family history and other risk factors, its important to consider testing at the age of 40.
Learn more about Prostate Cancer here.
Hello Health Group does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.
Staging Of Prostate Cancer
The stage of a cancer describes its size and how far it has spread. The results of your tests help your doctors decide on the stage and plan your treatment.
We understand that waiting to know the stage and grade of your cancer can be a worrying time. We’re here if you need someone to talk to. You can:
Macmillan is also here to support you. If you would like to talk, you can:
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What Are The 4 Stages Of Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer is cancer that develops in the prostate glands of men. It is one of the most common types of cancer. It is usually seen in men older than 50 years of age. The prostate is a small walnut-shaped gland in men that produces seminal fluid. This fluid nourishes and transports sperm.
Prostate cancer is slow growing. Often, it is confined to the prostate gland, requiring minimal or no treatment. It can take up to 15 years for cancer to spread from the prostate to other parts of the body , typically the bones. In many cases, prostate cancer does not affect the man’s natural lifespan. In many cases, prostate cancer does not affect the man’s natural lifespan. Certain types of prostate cancer can be aggressive and spread quickly to other parts of the body. If prostate cancer is detected early and is confined to the prostate gland, the prognosis is excellent.
Stages of prostate cancer
What Are Prostate Cancer Treatment Side Effects
Some prostate cancer treatments can affect the bladder, erectile nerves and sphincter muscle, which controls urination. Potential problems include:
- Incontinence: Some men experience urinary incontinence. You may leak urine when you cough or laugh, or you may feel an urgent need to use the bathroom even when your bladder isnt full. This problem can improve over the first six to 12 months without treatment.
- Erectile dysfunction : Surgery, radiation and other treatments can damage the erectile nerves and affect your ability to get or maintain an erection. Some men regain erectile function within a year or two . In the meantime, medications like sildenafil or tadalafil can help by increasing blood flow to the penis.
- Infertility: Treatments can affect your ability to produce or ejaculate sperm, resulting in male infertility. If you think you might want children in the future, you can preserve sperm in a sperm bank before you start treatments. After treatments, you may undergo sperm extraction. This procedure involves removing sperm directly from testicular tissue and implanting it into a womans uterus.
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Pathological Stage: A Look At The Actual Cancer Cells And Their Distribution Within The Pelvic Area
This system assesses how pervasive the cancer cells are within and around the prostate. These stages begin at T2.
T2: The tumor is located in the prostate only.T3: The tumor has breached the prostate border on 1 or more sides.T3b: The tumor has begun to grow in the seminal vesicles.T4: The tumor has grown into other neighboring structures, like the bladder, the rectum, or the pelvic wall.
Remission And The Chance Of Recurrence
A remission is when cancer cannot be detected in the body and there are no symptoms. This may also be called having no evidence of disease or NED.
A remission can be temporary or permanent. This uncertainty causes many people to worry that the cancer will come back. Although there are treatments to help prevent a recurrence, such as hormonal therapy and radiation therapy, it is important to talk with your doctor about the possibility of the cancer returning. There are tools your doctor can use, called nomograms, to estimate someone’s risk of recurrence. Understanding your risk of recurrence and the treatment options may help you feel more prepared if the cancer does return. Learn more about coping with the fear of recurrence.
In general, following surgery or radiation therapy, the PSA level in the blood usually drops. If the PSA level starts to rise again, it may be a sign that the cancer has come back. If the cancer returns after the original treatment, it is called recurrent cancer.
When this occurs, a new cycle of testing will begin again to learn as much as possible about the recurrence, including where the recurrence is located. The cancer may come back in the prostate , in the tissues or lymph nodes near the prostate , or in another part of the body, such as the bones, lungs, or liver . Sometimes the doctor cannot find a tumor even though the PSA level has increased. This is known as a PSA-only or biochemical recurrence.
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Repeat And Saturation Biopsies
Repeat biopsies are indicated after high-grade PIN or ASAP is found, when previous biopsies are normal but the PSA continues to rise, when DRE is suspicious for cancer, or to confirm the presence of viable cancer after treatment if further treatment would be considered.
In one series in which cancer was detected in 57% of men having prostate biopsy but clinical suspicion of cancer remained after biopsy, in those having repeat biopsies the cancer detection rate fell to 23% at the second biopsy and 21% at the third. Although the number of cancer cases detected by repeat biopsy was significant, these tumours were of smaller volume and lower grade.
When clinical suspicion for cancer remains high after initial biopsy, saturation’ biopsies may sometimes be taken, requiring 20 or more cores. These may be taken throughout the gland or targeted to suspicious areas of the gland that have been seen upon imaging. Compared with the standard biopsy technique, the saturation biopsy technique increases the rate of diagnosis in repeat procedures in patients with previously negative biopsies, but it does not give a significantly greater rate of diagnosis when carried out as an initial test.
The Stages Of Prostate Cancer: What You Need To Know
After a prostate cancer diagnosis, your oncologist will refer to the stage of your cancer. All cancers are categorized into four distinct stages, each of which identifies the progress of the growth of cancerous cells within clinically defined standards. These stages help doctors determine the most appropriate care for each patient based on his or her condition, and can also provide easy-to-understand context for your diagnosis. Learn more about the stages of prostate cancer, how each stage will affect your treatment plan and the survival rates for each stage, then contact Regional Cancer Care Associates to schedule a consultation.
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More Detail On Staging
The standardized Tumor, Node, and Metastasis system is used to stage prostate cancer. The T category is based on the extent of the tumor itself. The N category is based on whether the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes. The M category is based on whether the cancer has spread beyond nearby lymph nodes.
Prognosis For Prostate Cancer
It is not possible for a doctor to predict the exact course of a disease, as it will depend on each person’s individual circumstances. However, your doctor may give you a prognosis, the likely outcome of the disease, based on the type of prostate cancer you have, the test results, the rate of tumour growth, as well as your age, fitness and medical history.
Prostate cancer often grows slowly and even more aggressive types tend to grow more slowly than other types of cancer. If diagnosed early, prostate cancer has one of the highest five year survival rates.
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