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How To Remove Prostate Cancer

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How Do Doctors Perform Prostate Removal

Robotic Surgery to remove Prostate Cancer

During prostate removal the prostate gland and some tissue around the gland, including the seminal vesicles, are removed. A prostatectomy takes about two hours and is performed under general anesthesia.

There are two approaches used for a prostatectomy:

  • Robotic surgery
  • Minimally invasive procedure with faster recovery time
  • Uses smaller incisions and robotic technology
  • Open surgery
  • Uses traditional incisions and tools
  • May be used for more complex cases
  • The surgical process is as follows:

    • The doctor will make a small incision to gain access to the prostate
    • The prostate is removed
    • The bladder is reconnected to the urethra
    • A catheter is connected to the bladder to allow urine to drain while the area heals

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    What Are The Symptoms Of Prostate Cancer

    Early-stage prostate cancer rarely causes symptoms. These problems may occur as the disease progresses:

    • Frequent, sometimes urgent, need to urinate, especially at night.
    • Weak urine flow or flow that starts and stops.
    • Painful urination .
    • Painful ejaculation and erectile dysfunction .
    • Blood in semen or urine.
    • Lower back pain, hip pain and chest pain.
    • Leg or feet numbness.

    Side Effects Of Surgery For Prostate Cancer

    The most commonly experienced side effects of surgery for prostate cancer are urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction.

    According to the patient-reported outcomes from men who participated in the ProtecT trial, men who undergo a radical prostatectomy experience more sexual dysfunction and urinary problems than those treated with radiation therapy.

    While many reported an improvement in the severity of their symptoms six months after surgery, these men continued to report poorer sexual quality of life six years after surgery compared to those who had radiation therapy.

    While men treated with radiation reported experiencing bowel function problems after treatment, the men who had a prostatectomy were generally able to undergo the procedure without experiencing any changes in bowel function after surgery.

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    What Is The Source Of The Information

    Researchers funded by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, a Federal Government research agency, reviewed studies on treatments for localized prostate cancer published between January 1, 2007, and March 7, 2014. The report included 52 studies and was reviewed by health care professionals, researchers, experts, and the public.

    External Beam Radiation For Prostate Cancer

    The Ultimate Guide To Dealing With Prostate Cancer By A ...

    When most patients think of radiation therapy, they think of external beam radiation therapy , in which a beam of radiation is directed at cancerous tissue from outside the body. Technological advances, such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy and image-guided radiation therapy , allow radiation oncologists to use computer-controlled devices and image-guidance technology to see and target a three-dimensional image of the tumor, making the treatment more precise than ever before.

    EBRT used to require 40-45 daily treatments. Now, 25-28 treatments are the norm. This type of protracted, fractionated radiation therapy, however, is now generally considered to be less appropriate for low-risk and favorable intermediate-risk patients. Instead, hypofractionated techniques and brachytherapy techniques are generally more advisable for many patients.

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    What Happens When You Get Gallbladder Stones Disease

    The first thing that comes to mind is- Will I be able to remove gallstones without surgery? When you have gallstones, sometimes there are no symptoms and sometimes there is intense pain in the abdomen. This pain may travel to your shoulder and back. Your body gives you signs of gallbladder stones which must not ignore such as fever, chills, abdominal pain, yellow eyes, nausea, vomiting or gray stool.

    And the cause of gallbladder stones is that the liver secretes more bile than it can resolve. Another reason may be the frequency at which the gallbladder empties is lesser than it should.

    People in India assume that they can remove gallbladder stones without operation with home remedies.

    Are Prostate Problems Always A Sign Of Prostate Cancer

    Not all growths in the prostate are cancerous, and not all prostate problems indicate cancer. Other conditions that cause similar prostate cancer symptoms include:

    • Benign prostatic hyperplasia : At some point, almost every man will develop benign prostatic hyperplasia . This condition enlarges the prostate gland but doesnt increase cancer risk. The swollen gland squeezes the urethra and blocks the flow of semen and urine. Medications, and sometimes surgery, can help.
    • Prostatitis: Men younger than 50 are more prone to prostatitis, inflammation and swelling of the prostate gland. Bacterial infections are often the cause. Treatments include antibiotics or other medications.

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    How Is Prostate Cancer Treated

    Through a virtual conversation, Nathan can help you get ready to talk to your doctor about treatment options.

    Different types of treatment are available for prostate cancer. You and your doctor will decide which treatment is right for you. Some common treatments are

    • Expectant management. If your doctor thinks your prostate cancer is unlikely to grow quickly, he or she may recommend that you dont treat the cancer right away. Instead, you can choose to wait and see if you get symptoms in one of two ways:
    • Active surveillance. Closely monitoring the prostate cancer by performing prostate specific antigen tests and prostate biopsies regularly, and treating the cancer only if it grows or causes symptoms.
    • Watchful waiting. No tests are done. Your doctor treats any symptoms when they develop. This is usually recommended for men who are expected to live for 10 more years or less.
  • Surgery. A prostatectomy is an operation where doctors remove the prostate. Radical prostatectomy removes the prostate as well as the surrounding tissue.
  • Radiation therapy. Using high-energy rays to kill the cancer. There are two types of radiation therapy
  • External radiation therapy. A machine outside the body directs radiation at the cancer cells.
  • Internal radiation therapy . Radioactive seeds or pellets are surgically placed into or near the cancer to destroy the cancer cells.
  • Other therapies used in the treatment of prostate cancer that are still under investigation include

    Prostate Cancer Is A Disease In Which Malignant Cells Form In The Tissues Of The Prostate

    Radical Prostatectomy (Prostate Cancer Surgery)

    The prostate is agland in the malereproductive system. It lies just below the bladder and in front of the rectum . It is about the size of a walnut and surrounds part of the urethra . The prostate gland makes fluid that is part of the semen.

    Prostate cancer is most common in older men. In the U.S., about 1 out of 8 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer.

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    Questions To Ask Your Doctor Or Nurse

    You may find it helpful to keep a note of any questions you have to take to your next appointment.

    • What type of surgery do you recommend for me and why?
    • What type of surgery do you recommend for me? Will you try to do nerve-sparing surgery?
    • How many of these operations have you done and how many do you do each year?
    • Can I see the results of radical prostatectomies youve carried out?
    • What pain relief will I get after the operation?
    • How and when will we know whether the operation has removed all of the cancer?
    • How often will my PSA level be checked?
    • What is the chance of needing further treatment after surgery?
    • What is the risk of having urinary problems or erection problems and what support can you offer me?

    Side Effects Of Prostate Surgery

    The major possible side effects of radical prostatectomy are urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction . These side effects can also occur with other forms of prostate cancer treatment.

    Urinary incontinence: You may not be able to control your urine or you may have leakage or dribbling. Being incontinent can affect you not only physically but emotionally and socially as well. These are the major types of incontinence:

    • Men with stress incontinence might leak urine when they cough, laugh, sneeze, or exercise. Stress incontinence is the most common type after prostate surgery. It’s usually caused by problems with the valve that keeps urine in the bladder . Prostate cancer treatments can damage this valve or the nerves that keep the valve working.
    • Men with overflow incontinence have trouble emptying their bladder. They take a long time to urinate and have a dribbling stream with little force. Overflow incontinence is usually caused by blockage or narrowing of the bladder outlet by scar tissue.
    • Men with urge incontinencehave a sudden need to urinate. This happens when the bladder becomes too sensitive to stretching as it fills with urine.
    • Rarely after surgery, men lose all ability to control their urine. This is called continuous incontinence.

    After surgery for prostate cancer, normal bladder control usually returns within several weeks or months. This recovery usually occurs slowly over time.

    There are several options for treating erectile dysfunction:

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    Approaches To Radical Prostatectomy Surgeons Can Use Different Approaches And Techniques Toremove The Prostate They Can Make A Large Incision To Reach The Prostate They Can Also Use Laparoscopic Orrobotic Techniques Which Are Done Through Smaller Incisions In The Pelvis Laparoscopicand Robotic Types Of Surgery Are Less Invasive Than An Open Radicalprostatectomy Men Often Have Shorter Recovery Times Less Blood Loss Lesspain And Shorter Hospital Stays With These Procedures Retropubic Radicalprostatectomy Is Done Through An Incision In The Lower Abdomen The Surgeoncan Also Remove Lymph Nodes From The Pelvis Through The Same Incision Incanada A Retropubic Radical Prostatectomy Is The Most Common Approach Toremoving The Prostate To Treat Cancer

    Perineal radical prostatectomyis done through an incision in the area between the scrotum and the anus. This surgery usually doesn’t take as long to do as aretropubic radical prostatectomy, but it may lead to more problems with gettingan erection . In addition, surgeons can’t removepelvic lymph nodes through the same incision so they would have to do aseparate procedure through a small cut in the lower abdomen to remove them.

    Laparoscopic radical prostatectomyuses a laparoscope and other surgical instruments passed through small cuts. A laparoscopicprostatectomy has some advantages over an open radical prostatectomy, includingless blood loss and pain, shorter hospital stays, faster recovery and less timewith a catheter.

    Robotic radicalprostatectomy is a type of robotic surgery. The surgeon sits near theoperating table and uses remote controls to move robotic arms. The robotic armshave tiny video cameras and surgical instruments that remove tissue throughsmall cuts. The robotic arms can bend and turn like a human wrist. A roboticprostatectomy also has advantages over an open radical prostatectomy includingless blood loss and pain, shorter hospital stays, faster recovery and less timewith a catheter.

    Certain Factors Affect Prognosis And Treatment Options

    Prostate Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)Patient Version ...

    The prognosis and treatment options depend on the following:

    • The stage of the cancer .
    • The patients age.
    • Whether the cancer has just been diagnosed or has recurred .

    Treatment options also may depend on the following:

    • Whether the patient has other health problems.
    • The expected side effects of treatment.
    • Past treatment for prostate cancer.
    • The wishes of the patient.

    Most men diagnosed with prostate cancer do not die of it.

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    What Are The Different Types Of Prostate Cancer Surgery

    The most common one is called a radical prostatectomy. In this procedure, the entire prostate gland is removed, along with some of the surrounding tissue. In some cases, nearby lymph nodes are removed as well. There are several surgical approaches for this, including traditional open surgery. We can also use minimally invasive procedures, such as laparoscopic surgery and robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery.

    A critical aspect of a radical prostatectomy is tailoring it to the individual features of each mans cancer. One size does not fit all. This means the exact same procedure is not appropriate for every person. The location, size, and other features of the cancer are considered to design an operation that is appropriate for the person.

    In a laparoscopic radical prostatectomy, a surgeon inserts a tiny camera called a laparoscope through a small cut in the abdomen. The camera gives doctors a magnified, high-definition picture of the prostate gland. With that image as a guide, the surgeon can remove the prostate, seminal vesicles, and lymph nodes using special tools.

    To do a robot-assisted procedure, a surgeon sits at a console that has a screen as well as hand, finger, and foot controls. The surgeons hand, wrist, finger, and foot movements control the robotic instruments inside the patient in real time.

    Radical Prostatectomy Retropubic Or Suprapubic Approach

  • You’ll be positioned on the operating table, lying on your back.

  • An incision will be made from below the navel to the pubic region.

  • The doctor will usually perform a lymph node dissection first. The nerve bundles will be released carefully from the prostate gland and the urethra will be identified. The seminal vesicles may also be removed if necessary.

  • The prostate gland will be removed.

  • A drain will be inserted, usually in the right lower area of the incision.

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    Side Effects From Radiation

    Urinary symptoms from radiation treatment for prostate cancer are different from those caused by prostate surgery. Its more like a urinary tract infection-increased urgency and frequency, and men may some have bleeding or pain when they urinate, Calvaresi said. These problems often go away once treatment is complete.

    Radiation also may cause bowel changes, such as constipation, loose stools or both. These can be managed by over-the-counter medication. Men may also see some blood in their stool during treatment-if so, let your health care provider know about this.

    Men undergoing radiation are likely to have ED, but not immediately. It slowly sets in after radiation treatment, Calvaresi said. Treatments for radiation-related ED are the same as ED caused by prostate cancer surgery.

    What Are The Symptoms Of Prostate Stones

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    A large number of men who have prostate stones will not experience symptoms. Sometimes, some symptoms develop that may not be specific to prostate stones. Several other conditions may also be linked to the specific symptoms that the patient complains about.

    For this reason, men should be aware of all symptoms that are generally associated with prostate stones. This can help them realize when it may be appropriate to see a doctor. Even when symptoms do not lead to the diagnosis of prostate stones, another underlying cause may be identified in the process.

    Pain is a relatively common problem that men complain about when they have prostate stones. The pain symptoms may occur in the penis. Some men find that their perineum becomes painful. This is the area between the scrotum and the anus. There are also some cases where men develop lower back pain when they have prostate stones4.

    Urination difficulty is another potential symptom of prostate stones. This is especially the case when the stones cause a man to experience inflammation in his prostate gland.

    The inflammation causes the prostate gland to constrict the urethra. It is important to consider the fact that the urethra runs through the prostate gland. This can make urinating more difficult.

    Signs of prostatitis may include6:

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    Caring For Your Incision

    The incision runs from above the base of the pubic area to below the navel. It is important to keep it clean and dry. Showering once a day should be sufficient. If you notice extreme or increasing tenderness, progressive swelling, more than a small amount of drainage or any pus or redness, notify your doctor right away.

    Can Kidney Stones Affect Your Psa Count

    No. Prostate-specific antigen is a protein produced by cells in the prostate gland. A PSA test is performed through a simple blood draw and shows the PSA level in a mans blood stream. Men who have prostate cancer often have an elevated PSA level. There are conditions that can result in high PSA levels that are not related to cancer. These include prostatitis and benign prostatic hyperplasia .

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    Open Or Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy

    In the more traditional approach to prostatectomy, called anopen prostatectomy, the surgeon operates through a single long skin incision to remove the prostate and nearby tissues. This type of surgery is done less often than in the past.

    In a laparoscopic prostatectomy, the surgeon makes several smaller incisions and uses special long surgical tools to remove the prostate. The surgeon either holds the tools directly, or uses a control panel to precisely move robotic arms that hold the tools. This approach to prostatectomy has become more common in recent years. If done by experienced surgeons, the laparoscopic radical prostatectomy can give results similar to the open approach.

    Other Possible Side Effects

    Types of Surgery to Treat Prostate Cancer

    Anorgasmia is the inability to achieve orgasm regardless of the level of stimulation.

    2) Penile shrinkage

    Removal of the prostate seems to initiate a phase of penile shrinkage that varies between 2 to 3 cm. For men with large organs, this may have little effect. But a man that starts on the small side might be very dismayed about it.

    Early penile rehabilitation may avoid structural endothelial and smooth muscle damage by improving penile oxygenation.

    3) Urine leakage or pain during intercourse

    4) Urine leakage at orgasm

    5) Pain or discomfort at orgasm

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    What Happens During Turp

    TURP requires a hospital stay. Procedures may vary depending on yourcondition and your healthcare providers practices.

    Generally, a TURP follows this process:

  • You will be asked to remove any jewelry or other objects that might get in the way during surgery.
  • You will be asked to remove your clothing and will be given a gown to wear
  • Youll be asked to empty your bladder.
  • An IV line will be put in your arm or hand.
  • You will be positioned on an operating table, lying on your back.
  • You will be given anesthesia to put you to sleep for the procedure. Your legs will be placed in stirrups.
  • Your heart rate, blood pressure, breathing, and blood oxygen level will be monitored during the surgery.
  • Once youre sedated, a breathing tube may be put through your throat into your lungs and you will be connected to a ventilator. This will breathe for you during the surgery.
  • The surgeon may first inspect the urethra and bladder with an endoscope. This is done by passing the scope through the tip of the penis, then into the urethra and bladder. This allows the healthcare provider to examine these areas for any tumors or stones in the bladder.
  • Next, the resectoscope is passed into the urethra. It is used to cut away the pieces of prostate tissue that are bulging or blocking the urethra. Electricity will be applied through the resectoscope to stop any bleeding. The pieces are flushed into the bladder, and then drained out through the urethra.
  • The resectoscope is removed.
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