Current Practice In The Use Of Traditional Medicines For The Treatment Of Prostate Diseases
The current traditional medical practice in the treatment of prostate diseases does not differentiate between prostatitis, benign prostate hyperplasia and prostate cancer with the herbal remedies being advocated for symptomatic relief in all these conditions.
A prevalence of prostate cancer of about 7 % in the Ghanaian population 2,3 raises the possible risk of overlooking a prostate cancer if no attempt is made to undertake further investigations that will allow the diagnosis of prostate cancer when present and also provide appropriate and effective treatment.
To the best of our knowledge, no clinical study has been performed on the use of C. membranaceus for prostate cancer treatment. There is therefore the need to clinically differentiate BPH and prostate cancer to allow for targeted management.
The blanket use of this medication and others to treat prostate diseases including prostate cancer has the potential to lead to under treatment of an underlying prostate cancer that may result in a potential threat to life.
To Learn More About Cam
National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health
The National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health at the National Institutes of Health facilitates research and evaluation of complementary and alternative practices, and provides information about a variety of approaches to health professionals and the public.
- NCCIH Clearinghouse
- Post Office Box 7923 Gaithersburg, MD 208987923
- Telephone: 1-888-644-6226
- TTY : 1-866-464-3615
- E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Vitamin E: Questions And Answers
- Vitamin E and selenium.
- In the Physicians Health Study II, men took either vitamin E supplements, supplements, or both and were followed for about 8 years. The overall rates of prostate cancer were similar in the men who took vitamin E supplements and in those who did not. Vitamin E did not affect the number of new cases of or the number of deaths from cancer.
- A 2011 study of men who took part in The Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial found that, among those who were current smokers, higher blood levels of alpha-tocopherols and gamma-tocopherols were linked with lower risk of prostate cancer. In another study of men who were current smokers or who recently stopped smoking, higher blood levels of alpha-tocopherol were linked to a lower risk of prostate cancer.
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Evidence From Clinical Studies
Prostate cancer patients are progressively using complementary and alternative medicines in order to support the immune system in addition to conventional treatments . This minimizes morbidity related to conventional treatments, enhances the quality of life, eventually, in the hope of finding a cure when conventional treatment fails .
Modified Citrus Pectin: Questions And Answers
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Mediterranean Diet And Prostate Cancer
The Mediterranean diet has received significant attention for its metabolic and cardiovascular health promoting benefits . The traditional Mediterranean diet primarily consists of a high intake of fresh fruits and vegetables, legumes, non-refined cereals including bread, fish, olive oil, a moderate consumption of red wine, and a low consumption of red meats . There have been multiple epidemiological studies evaluating various components of this diet. However, an area that has not received enough attention is the use of culinary herbs including rosemary, basil, oregano, sage, and others. One herb in particular, rosemary , has long been associated with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. A population-based study has even suggested that an overall risk reduction in cancer incidence is correlated with patients consuming herbs including rosemary .
Current Treatment Available For Prostate Cancer
General awareness and timely screening have significantly added to the survival of PCa. Localized PCa in general has a good prognosis. PCa that has attained metastatic state, however, carries a poor prognosis with significantly reduced survival. In this condition, resection surgery, ADT, and radiation alone or in combination are standard treatment options castration resistance, a more aggressive form of PCa , invariably develops resistance to these treatments within 2 years . These advanced treatments increase the median failure-free survival to 11 months with 29% 2 years FFS, and median overall survival to 42 months with 2 years OS of 72% .
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Gtee Induces Cell Cycle Arrest And Inhibits Expression Of Cell Cycle
To unravel the mechanism responsible for the inhibition of GTEE-mediated cell growth, the cell cycle distribution was examined by flow cytometric analysis. The results showed that the significant decreases in the numbers of G2/M transition cells at concentrations of 0.6 and 0.9 mg/mL GTEE were observed in DU145 cells compared to vehicle-treated cells . In addition, the cell numbers in G0/G1 transition and S phase were increased by GTEE in DU145 cells . However, PC-3 cells treated with GTEE resulted in the distinct decreases in the cell numbers of G0/G1 and G2/M transitions compared to vehicle-treated cells . The decreases in the cell numbers in G0/G1 and G2/M transitions were accompanied by changes in the cell numbers in S phase . The flow cytometric data indicate that GTEE alters the progression of the cell cycle leading to the inhibition of mPCa cell growth.
Traditional Medical Practitioners Engaged In The Management Of Prostate Diseases
In Ghana, it is estimated that the ratio of traditional medical practitioners to the population is 1: 400.35,36 This group is a heterogeneous one with different categories of healers. They include bonesetters and herbalists who specialize in the use of herbs and plants, with or without fetish in treating patients.
It has been observed that each village has its traditional practitioner who uses local plant remedies and in many cases rituals as well, to achieve healing for the population.
The TMPs have been noted to play a very important role in health delivery in the rural areas where there is less access to orthodox facilities with 70 80% of Ghanaians using traditional medicines.18,19 Its importance in Ghana is attributed to the fact that a number of Ghanaians believe that some diseases are not curable with orthodox western medicines.
The combination of mystical powers and the herbs is believed to offer a more lasting solution or cure for some of these diseases. Formal training in the use of traditional herbal medicines has been institutionalized in some of the tertiary institutions in Ghana. These graduates have also set up various scientific herbal clinics that are apparently using more standardized remedies in their traditional medicine practice. This group has been noted not only to manage the primary health care diseases but also tertiary care ones such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus and prostate diseases.
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Compounds Inhibiting Metastasis Of Prostate Cancer Cells
Metastasis development is still a huge challenge in prostate cancer treatment. Most of the treatment failures of prostate cancer are generally ascribed to the formation of bone metastases .
Pretreatment with 28 M celastrol significantly slowed down PC3 cell migration . After celastrol administration, the number of cells penetrating a gel layer in a classical invasion assay was significantly decreased, and their bone invasive ability was significantly undermined. Pretreatment with celastrol inhibited the tumorigenicity of PC-3 cells, and almost no bone invasion occurred in an in vivo mouse model . Celastrol could target the VEGFR-2 signaling pathway and inhibit the formation of blood vessel .
Curcumin is a well-known natural compound of curcuminoids. Yang et al. found that curcumin could suppress prostate cancer by reducing the function of the PSA promoter and inhibiting PSA and AR protein expression in LNCaP cells . Meanwhile, 10 M curcumin was demonstrated to inhibit prostate cancer by upregulating miR-143 and FOXD3 and downregulating PGK1 expression in DU145 and PC3 cells . Furthermore, 1050 M curcumin could inhibit the metastasis and survival of DU145 and PC3 prostate cancer cells via the Notch-1 signaling pathway .
Estrogen And Prostate Issues
What appears to be more causal is higher amounts of estrogen. This is both endogenous as well as exogenous estrogen, and likely other forms of endocrine disruption.
A Japanese study clearly found associations of estrogen and enlarged prostates. They stated, an estrogen-dominant environment plays an important role in the development of BPH. 5
Other studies have found similar results. Estrogens and estrogen receptor are clearly linked to the development and progression of prostate cancer. 6
This begins to make more sense. Older men tend to have androgen levels decline and estrogen levels rise directly with age. Many men end up with higher estrogen levels than postmenopausal women!
This is further exacerbated by the xeno-estrogens, such as BPA, and other endocrine disruption rampant in our environment. In fact, the rise of BPH and prostate cancer correlates precisely with the increase of these in our environment. In The Natural Testosterone Plan, Stephen Buhner states that Rises in estrogenic pollutants in the environment exactly parallel the increase in prostate disease in men. And youll see that it is in combating the estrogens that some of our herbs for prostate health come in later
Estrogen may not be the only factor , but its an important component. To sum up, the problem is largely from endocrine disrupting chemicals which are becoming ever more prevalent in modern day society.
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Selenium: Questions And Answers
Population studiesThe Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial
- Vitamin E and a .
- Selenium and a placebo.
- Vitamin E and selenium.
Compounds Inhibiting The Proliferation Of Prostate Cancer Cells
Arsenic sulphide is a main component of realgar , and 0.51 M arsenic sulphide can repress the overexpression of miRNA-372 in DU145 and PC3 prostate cancer cell lines . An in vivo study confirmed that repressing the overexpression of miR-372 by 2 mg/kg/day of As4S4 for 3 weeks could inhibit the proliferation and migration of prostate cancer cells .
Baicalin, isolated from the dried roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, is widely used in China for its anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic, and anti-hypersensitivity properties . Baicalin could inhibit the proliferation of DU145, PC-3, LNCaP, and CA-HPV-10 prostate cancer cells, and, particularly, of the androgen-independent DU145 cells. It was confirmed that this effect was associated with the induction of apoptosis, although the exact mechanisms are not clear .
Pang et al. indicated that celastrol could inhibit prostate cancer development and angiogenesis and that its effects were correlated with the extent of inhibition of AKT/mTOR/P70S6K signaling . Celastrol could suppress PC-3 cell proliferation by downregulating IL-6 gene expression through the NF-kappaB-dependent pathway . In addition, Yang et al. first reported that celastrol was a natural proteasome inhibitor with a great potential for prostate cancer prevention and treatment .
Triptolide could inhibit the proliferation of RM-1 cells in mice by decreasing the expression of Bcl-2 and increasing the expression of caspase 3 at a dose of 10 and 20 ng/mL .
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Basic Constituents/pharmacology Of Croton Membranaceus
A study by Aboagye FA showed that C.membranaceus inhibited the enzyme activity of 5-reductase in rat 23 serum leading to a reduction in the levels of dihydrotestosterone levels in vitro however no significant reductions in the serum levels of dihydrotestosterone was observed in vivo.
This led him to conclude that inhibition of 5-reductase activity may not be the major mechanism by which the extract exerts its action on patients with LUTS due to BPH.23 Thus the exact mechanism of action of the C. membranaceus is yet to be established.
The compound Julocrotine, a glutarimide alkaloid has been isolated from the plant.24 A study by Baylor et al. identified a cytotoxic diterpenoid from C. membranaceus which was felt could underlie claims of its use for cancer treatment.25 A methanolic extract of the roots has also been shown to have cytotoxic activities against two cancer cell lines.26 A bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract revealed that the cytotoxic activity resided mostly in the ethyl acetate fraction. Six compounds were isolated from this fraction, including a furanoclerodane diterpenoid, for which the name crotomembranafuran was suggested.26 This compound exhibited an IC50 value of 4.1 µg/mL against human prostate cancer cells, which might provide some support for the traditional use of C. membranaceus in the treatment of cancers.26
Pine Pollen For Prostate Health
Pine Pollen is heavily focused on for its androgen promoting effects as well as being highly nutritious.
It shouldnt come as a surprise that it has helped multiple men with prostate issues, though there is no science to back this upat least not yet.
Below, I share a few reviews from our customers.
Before getting your pine pollen, when I would urinate I either had to sit on the toilet or stand with my legs spread over it so that I could dribble into the toilet without showering the whole area. As of the morning after the megadose test, I can stand about six inches away from the toilet, and hit the back wall of the toilet with a steady stream of urine.
Dr. Clifford N. Alfred
If we think about this in a couple of different ways, pine pollen working like this makes sense. It is the pollen of a tree, thus the reproductive part, and so is similar in nature and energetics to the male seed of which the prostate plays a big role. Even though it is lacking in clinical research, this kind of anecdotal evidence makes this one of my favorite herbs for prostate support. And thats just one thing it does!
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Study Analysis And Discussion
The possibility of treating prostate cancer conservatively has always been intriguing to the patient and a concern for the clinician. Previous studies have commonly grouped Gleason 7 scores with Gleason 5 and 6 scores within the designation of moderately well differentiated cancers. Ostensibly, this would give patients with Gleason 7 scores improved odds for cure while decreasing the chance for success in patients with Gleason 5 and 6 scores. This assumes the higher the Gleason score, the lower the chance for cure . Increasing evidence through analyses now suggests that Gleason 7 prostate cancer responds better than a Gleason 810 but not as well as a Gleason 5 or 6 . Additionally, it is believed that Gleason scores of 57 may comprise almost 90% of all cancers encountered as 35%62% of men in most study groups analyzed are identified in the Gleason 6 category .
Chinese Medicine Formulas In The Treatment Of Prostate Cancer
PC-SPES is a Chinese medicine formula containing eight herbal medicines. It was launched into the market as a health care product in 1996 by Botanic Lab . The New England Journal of Medicine first reported the biological activity and the clinical effect of PC-SPES in 1998 . A series of reports showed that PC-SPES can significantly reduce serum testosterone and prostate-specific antigen in patients with prostate cancer in a time- and dose-dependent manner . However, in 2001, patients taking PC-SPES showed diffuse intravascular coagulation and bleeding tendency . In 2002, some batches of PC-SPES were found to contain diethylstilbestrol, warfarin, and indomethacin, which made the efficacy and side effects of PC-SPES controversial . Considering the stability and safety of Chinese herbal remedies, National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine suspended research on PC-SPES and its related compounds and withdrew it from the USA market in February 2000 .
From 2010 to 2012, Lin et al. reported a series of clinical data on prostate cancer treated with Chinese medicines. Firstly, they found that traditional Chinese medicine treatment was only a complementary treatment rather than an alternative treatment. Then, they found that TCM treatment showed an increasing trend in popularity among prostate cancer patients in Taiwan. Later, they confirmed that TCM treatment was popular among prostate cancer patients in Taiwan .
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