Monday, September 26, 2022

Death From Prostate Cancer Metastasis

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Managing Bone Pain And Weakness

Radium-223 and Metastatic Prostate Cancer

Symptoms like nausea, hot flashes, and pain can usually be relieved with medication. Some people find that complimentary treatments like acupuncture or massage help manage side effects.

Your doctor may also recommend orthopedic surgery to stabilize your bones, relieve pain, and help prevent bone fractures.

Epidemiology Of Advanced Prostate Cancer

Approximately 12.5% of men will develop prostate cancer in their lifetime, with the likelihood increasing with age prostate cancer is most often diagnosed in men age 65 to 74 years, and the median age at diagnosis is 67 years. Since the advent of prostate-specific antigen screening, prostate cancer is being detected and treated earlier.

Overall, incidence rates of prostate cancer began declining in 2000. Acceleration in the decline began in 2008, when organizations began recommending against routine PSA screening From 2011 to 2015, the rate decreased by about 7% per year.

A review of almost 800,000 cases of prostate cancer diagnosed from 20042013 found that although the incidence of low-risk prostate cancer decreased from 2007-2013 to 37% less than that of 2004, the annual incidence of metastatic prostate cancer during those years increased to 72% more than that of 2004. The increase in metastatic prostate cancer was greatest in men aged 5569 years.

At diagnosis, 77% of prostate cancer cases are localized in 13%, the cancer has spread to regional lymph nodes, and 6% have distant metastasis. The 5-year relative survival rate for localized and regional prostate cancer is 100%, compared with 30.5% for metastatic cases.

The mortality rate associated with prostate cancer continues to increase in Europe and in countries such as Australia, Japan, and Russia.

Meduni Vienna Study Generates New Momentum For Diagnosis And Treatment

Date:
Medical University of Vienna
Summary:
Prostate cancers remain localized in the majority of cases, giving affected individuals a good chance of survival. However, about 20% of patients develop incurable metastatic prostate cancer, resulting in approximately 5,000 deaths each year in Austria alone. Medical research has not yet adequately explained why metastases occur in some people and not in others. A research team has now discovered specific changes in a protein that drive the growth and spread of prostate cancer.

Prostate cancers remain localised in the majority of cases, giving affected individuals a good chance of survival. However, about 20% of patients develop incurable metastatic prostate cancer, resulting in approximately 5,000 deaths each year in Austria alone. Medical research has not yet adequately explained why metastases occur in some people and not in others. A research team at MedUni Vienna has now discovered specific changes in a protein that drive the growth and spread of prostate cancer. The study was recently published in the journal Molecular Cancer.

New insights into the transition to metastasis

Diagnosing aggressive progression at an early stage

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What Are The Symptoms Of Prostate Cancer

In most cases, prostate cancer causes no symptoms.

In rare cases, men may experience certain symptoms when they have advanced prostate cancer. However, these symptoms are also present in many men who do not have cancer, so it is best to discuss them with a doctor before jumping to any conclusions. Some of these symptoms can include difficulty emptying the bladder, blood in the urine, and bone pains.

Somatic Genome Alterations In Prostate Cancer Cells

IFITM3 promotes bone metastasis of prostate cancer cells by mediating

Prostate cancer cells typically contain a plethora of somatic genome alterations, including gene mutations, gene deletions, gene amplifications, chromosomal rearrangements, and changes in DNA methylation . In the United States, prostate cancer diagnoses are typically made in men between 60 and 70 years of age, whereas small prostate cancers have been detected at autopsy in nearly 30% of men between 30 and 40 years of age.3 Thus, the somatic genome changes present in prostate cancers have often accumulated over many decades. The acquisition of somatic genome changes in the prostate may be influenced by lifestyle as well: although small prostate cancers have been detected at autopsy in men from geographic regions with low prostate cancer mortality, these small prostate cancers are usually only present in much older men.70-72 Also, in the United States, prostates removed at radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer usually contain more than one prostate cancer lesion .

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What Is A 5

A relative survival rate compares people with the same type and stage of cancer to people in the overall population. For example, if the 5-year relative survival rate for a specific stage of prostate cancer is 90%, it means that men who have that cancer are, on average, about 90% as likely as men who dont have that cancer to live for at least 5 years after being diagnosed.

Where Do These Numbers Come From

The American Cancer Society relies on information from the SEER database, maintained by the National Cancer Institute , to provide survival statistics for different types of cancer.

The SEER database tracks 5-year relative survival rates for prostate cancer in the United States, based on how far the cancer has spread. The SEER database, however, does not group cancers by AJCC TNM stages . Instead it groups cancers into localized, regional, and distant stages.

  • Localized: There is no sign that the cancer has spread outside the prostate.
  • Regional: The cancer has spread outside the prostate to nearby structures or lymph nodes.
  • Distant: The cancer has spread to parts of the body farther from the prostate, such as the lungs, liver, or bones.

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Survival Rates For Prostate Cancer

Survival rates can give you an idea of what percentage of people with the same type and stage of cancer are still alive a certain amount of time after they were diagnosed. These rates cant tell you how long you will live, but they may help give you a better understanding of how likely it is that your treatment will be successful.

Keep in mind that survival rates are estimates and are often based on previous outcomes of large numbers of people who had a specific cancer, but they cant predict what will happen in any particular persons case. These statistics can be confusing and may lead you to have more questions. Ask your doctor, who is familiar with your situation, how these numbers may apply to you.

Half Of Patients Who Die From Prostate Cancer Have Metastases At Diagnosis

About Advanced (Metastatic) Prostate Cancer

the Oncology Nurse Advisor take:

According to a new study published in the journal Prostate Cancer & Prostatic Diseases, researchers sought to determine which types of patients die from prostate cancer in the modern era.

The researchers identified 190 men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer treated between 2008 and 2011 and analyzed the characteristics of the 113 patients who died as a result of prostate cancer.

Of the 113 patients, 56% had identifiable metastases at the time of diagnosis. Of those, 67% had bone metastases, 111% had visceral metastases, and 43% had lymph node metastases. The median time to developing CRPC was 16 months and the median overall survival was approximately 5.2 years.

Among patients who died from prostate cancer, 46% of those initially diagnosed with localized disease had T stage 3 and 38% had a Gleason score 8. Overall, 26% had a Gleason score 6 and 64% were classified as having high-risk prostate cancer. The median overall survival was found to be 8.8 years.

The findings suggest that among those who die from prostate cancer, about half have detectable metastases at diagnosis. Therefore, the researchers recommend that more future studies should be conducted in patients with newly diagnosed metastatic prostate cancer.

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Prostate Cancer Risk Assessment And The Ucsf

Prostate cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed among American men, and causes more deaths annually among men than any other tumor except lung cancer. However, only a small proportion of prostate cancers diagnosed are ultimately lethal. A large majority of men found to have prostate cancer ultimately die of other causes, most commonly cardiovascular disease. All available treatments for prostate cancer carry a risk of complications, side effects, and other impacts to the patient’s long-term quality of life. Before making a decision regarding treatment for prostate cancer it is important to estimate the likelihood that a given tumor will recur after treatment, progress, and pose a threat to life.

Receptor Of Tyrosine Kinase Family

Although receptor tyrosine kinases are important in normal physiology, dysregulation of some RTKs has been implicated in tumor development and progression . Because of cross-talk between RTKs, it has redundant functions and can converge with common downstream cell signaling networks, making it difficult to target independently without the concerns of off-target effects. Cancer cells can acquire RTKs resistance after treatment. Therefore, development of inhibitors for multiple RTKs is an active area of pursuit.

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Where Can I Find Support

It can be very difficult to deal with a diagnosis of advanced prostate cancer. Its natural to wonder if youre doing all you can to fight the cancer and how to handle guilt, intimacy with a partner, and concerns about masculinity. And finding and paying for the best care can, of course, be a challenge.

But emotional and practical support can help you move forward. An important thing to remember is that youre not alone. There are many kinds of help available, and the right cancer resources can make a world of difference.

Ask your doctor for resources you can contact, including social workers and support systems in your community. The Patient Navigator Program of the ACS can be reached at 1-800-227-2345 youll be connected to a patient navigator at a cancer treatment center who can help you with practical and emotional issues.

The Prostate Cancer Foundation has links to in-person and online support groups around the country, and the ACS lists nationwide support programs as well. The PCF also offers resources ranging from help with housing during cancer treatment to finding ways you can look good and feel better while living with cancer.

What Happens When Prostate Cancer Is Left Untreated

A rare intramedullary spinal cord metastasis from prostate carcinoma ...

While most men undergo some form of treatment for their prostate cancer, some men today choose to not be treated for their prostate cancer. Instead, they may choose to have their healthcare providers monitor their cancer.

Known as active surveillance, it is common when the cancer is expected to grow slowly based on biopsy results, confined to the prostate, not causing any symptoms, and/or small. In active surveillance, healthcare providers will initiate cancer treatment only if cancer starts growing.

Others men may choose to not undergo cancer treatment because of a short life expectancy or other serious medical problems. They may feel that the risks or side effects of cancer treatment outweigh their potential benefits.

This option is certainly OK and reasonable in the right circumstancesrequiring a careful and thoughtful discussion with your healthcare provider and family.

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Metastases: Whether The Cancer Has Spread

The spread of cancer is measured in two ways: by lymph node involvement, and by its appearance in other organs or parts of the body, or metastasis.

Lymph node staging, or N-staging, determines whether the cancer is present in nearby lymph nodes. Lymph nodes are tiny organs that are part of the immune system.NX: The regional lymph nodes cannot be evaluated.N0: The cancer has not spread to lymph nodes in the immediate area.N1: The cancer has spread to lymph nodes in the pelvic region.

The M in the TNM system indicates whether the prostate cancer has spread to other parts of the body, such as the lungs or the bones. This is called distant metastasis.

MX: Metastasis cannot be evaluated.M0: The cancer has not metastasized beyond the immediate prostate region.M1: The cancer has metastasized deeper into the body.

  • M1a: The cancer has spread to lymph nodes away from the groin area.
  • M1b: The cancer has spread to the bones.
  • M1c: The cancer has spread to another part of the body, with or without spread to the bones.

The combination of your full staging results, including your grade and your T, N, and M stages, paints a more complete picture of how the cancer is progressing. This enables your doctors to determine which treatments have the best chance or controlling or eradicating your cancer.

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Survival Of Prostate Cancer

Survival depends on many factors. No one can tell you exactly how long you will live.

Below are general statistics based on large groups of people. Remember, they cant tell you what will happen in your individual case.

Survival for prostate cancer is generally good, particularly if you are diagnosed early.

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Comparison With Other Studies

Several studies have reported findings that support those presented here. Stenman and coworkers identified 44 cases of prostate cancer in a cohort of over 20000 Finnish men and reported associations between baseline prostate specific antigen and the risk of clinically detected cancer within six to 10 years.24 Concentrations were also found to be raised five to six years before diagnosis among the 366 participants in the US Physicians Health Study who were identified with palpable prostate cancer.25 More recently, Holmström and colleagues reported on 540 cases of prostate cancer in a Swedish cohort, with a comparable finding to ours that prostate specific antigen less than 1 ng/ml virtually ruled out prostate cancer during a mean follow-up of seven years.26 We have previously reported data from the Malmo cohort showing a strong association between a prostate specific antigen concentration measured at age 44-50 and prostate cancer diagnosed clinically up to 25 years subsequently11 the association was strengthened for cancers that were advanced at diagnosis.27 Our current data, however, are unique in examining the relation of prostate specific antigen concentrations at the age appropriate for screening with lifetime risk of metastases or death from prostate cancer.

How Long Have I Got How Will I Die From Prostate Cancer

New treatment for advanced prostate cancer shows progress

The terrifying thing about the word cancer is its association with an inevitable and often painful death. Many men on hearing that they have prostate cancer assume that it is a matter of days or weeks until they die. They are wrong!

Less than 5% of men diagnosed with prostate cancer will die from it within ten years of their diagnosis. The life expectancy of most men will not be changed by the diagnosis. They will live until they die of something else most notably a heart attack. A recent study, using US statistics, indicated that in a 20 year period more than 87% of men diagnosed with prostate cancer would not die from the disease.

Prostate cancer can, and does, kill thousands of men each year throughout the world. It should not be underestimated or treated lightly. But many more men survive the disease than succumb to it. It is important to know that.

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Causes Of Death Among Men Diagnosed With Metastatic Prostate Cancer

8/13/2021 11:29:34 AM

In a retrospective cohort study using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data reported in JAMA Network Open, Elmehrath et al found that a substantial proportion of men diagnosed with metastatic prostate cancer between 2000 and 2016 in the United States died from causes unrelated to cancer.

As stated by the investigators, Owing to improved survival among U.S. patients with metastatic prostate cancer, patients tend to live long enough after a prostate cancer diagnosis for noncancer-related comorbidities to be associated with their overall survival. Although studies have investigated causes of death among patients with localized prostate cancer, data are lacking regarding causes of death among patients with metastatic prostate cancer.

Study Details

The study involved SEER program data from a sample of 26,168 men who received a diagnosis of metastatic prostate cancer between January 2000 and December 2016. Standardized mortality ratios for causes of death were calculated by dividing the observed number of deaths for each cause of death in the study cohort by the expected number of deaths in the age-matched U.S. male population for the same period with adjustment for age and race/ethnicity.

Key Findings

How Do I Know How Long I Have Left To Live

You might want to know how long you have left to live. This can help you prepare and plan the time you have left. There might be things you want to do or people you want to see. But some men dont want to know how long they have left. Everyone is different.

You can ask your doctor how long you have left to live. They wont be able to give you an exact answer. This can be frustrating and it may feel like your doctor is trying to avoid your questions. But no-one can know for certain how long you have left because everyone’s body and everyone’s cancer is different. However, your doctor will be able to give you some idea based on where the cancer has spread to, how you are responding to treatment, how quickly the cancer has spread, and what problems it is causing.

It can be helpful to talk with your family about this. You may not want to upset them but they might have similar questions and thoughts to you.

If you have months or maybe years left to live, it can be difficult for your doctor to say exactly how long you have left. This is because they dont know how you will respond to different treatments. If your treatment stops working so well, there may be other treatments available. Some men may not respond well to one treatment, but may respond better to another. Read more about treatments for advanced prostate cancer.

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