Types Of Prostate Cancer
The different types of prostate cancer start in different cells. Doctors analyze your prostate tissue in a lab to see what kinds of cells have cancer in them. Your own doctor uses this information along with the stage and the grade to help decide how to treat you.
What Are The Symptoms Of Prostate Cancer
Early-stage prostate cancer rarely causes symptoms. These problems may occur as the disease progresses:
- Frequent, sometimes urgent, need to urinate, especially at night.
- Weak urine flow or flow that starts and stops.
- Painful urination .
- Painful ejaculation and erectile dysfunction .
- Blood in semen or urine.
- Lower back pain, hip pain and chest pain.
- Leg or feet numbness.
Other Rare Forms Of Prostate Cancer
Up to 5% of prostate cancers are not adenocarcinomas. They may be one of the following:
Small-cell carcinoma. This kind of cancer is most common in the lungs. Small-cell carcinomas make up about 1% of prostate cancers. It develops in small round cells in the prostate and can spread very quickly. Usually it has already spread to other parts of the body, such as the bones, by the time doctors diagnose it.
Squamous cell carcinoma. This is more often a skin cancer. Fewer than 1% — maybe as few as half of a percent — of men with prostate cancer have this type. It starts in flat cells that cover the prostate. Like small-cell carcinoma, itâs also a faster, more aggressive form.
Transitional cell cancer. This cancer grows in the urethra. Thatâs the tube that carries urine outside the body. Itâs unclear how often it starts in the prostate and spreads here. Most often, it starts in the bladder before it spreads.
Neuroendocrine tumors. These tumors can pop up in neuroendocrine cells anywhere in the body. Those are cells that make hormones to help the function of the organ they occupy, such as the lungs, stomach, and pancreas. About half of all neuroendocrine tumors start in the digestive system. Rarely, tumors grow inside neuroendocrine cells of the prostate.
Don’t Miss: Why Does The Prostate Get Bigger With Age
Prostate Cancer Risk Groups
In addition to stage, doctors may use other prognostic factors to help plan the best treatment and predict how successful treatment will be. Examples of these include the National Comprehensive Cancer Network risk group categories and the Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment risk score from University of California, San Francisco.
Information about the cancers stage and other prognostic factors will help the doctor recommend a specific treatment plan. The next section in this guide is Types of Treatment. Use the menu to choose a different section to read in this guide.
Side Effects Of Chemotherapy
Side effects of chemotherapy are common and may include:
- Digestive issues such as nausea, vomiting and diarrhea
While on chemotherapy, patients are also susceptible to infections because their white blood cell counts are lower. Other common side effects include bruising or bleeding due to fewer blood platelets and fatigue due to the lowered red blood cell count.
Its also possible to experience a severe allergic reaction to some of the drugs used to treat prostate cancer, especially Taxotere® and Jevtana® . The patients care team may recommend medicines before each session to help prevent a reaction.
The prostate chemotherapy drug mitoxantrone may cause leukemia later in life, but this is rare. The prostate chemotherapy drug Emcyt® may increase the risk for blood clots.
During chemotherapy, doctors may also offer supportive care services to help ease side effects. For example, naturopathic providers may suggest supplements to reduce nausea. Also, a mind-body therapist may recommend techniques to help the patient relax and feel less anxious during prostate cancer chemotherapy treatments.
You May Like: What Age To Check Prostate Cancer
Acinar And Ductal Adenocarcinoma
Acinar adenocarcinoma, the most common type of prostate cancer, affects roughly ninety percent of all prostate cancer patients. This type of prostate cancer forms in the cells of the prostate gland. Many individuals with acinar adenocarcinoma are not expected to see the disease spread, though some cancers may grow quicker than others. Symptoms of acinar adenocarcinoma include an urgency to urinate, difficulty passing urine, pain while urinating, and blood in the urine or semen. This kind of cancer does make use of traditional options, including chemotherapy.
Ductal adenocarcinoma cancer forms in cells that line the tubes of the prostate gland. This type of cancer grows and spreads quickly. Because of this, some men with ductal adenocarcinoma may find their condition is in an advanced stage when first diagnosed. Surgery is the most common treatment for ductal adenocarcinoma as it does not respond well to hormone therapy.
Testing Options For Prostate Cancer
There is no one age for prostate cancer testing, but the American Cancer Society makes recommendations about prostate cancer screenings. According to the ACS, patients in any of these groups should consider asking their doctor about testing:
- Men age 50 or older who have an average risk of prostate cancer and a life expectancy of at least 10 more years
- Men age 45 or older with a high risk, including African-American men and those with a first-degree relative who had prostate cancer before age 65
- Men age 40 or older who have a higher risk, such as more than one first-degree relative diagnosed with prostate cancer at an early age
Expert cancer care
You May Like: Does Finasteride Cause High Grade Prostate Cancer
Transitional Cell Carcinoma Of The Prostate
Transitional cell carcinoma of the prostate starts in the cells that line the tube carrying urine to the outside of the body . This type of cancer usually starts in the bladder and spreads into the prostate. But rarely it can start in the prostate and may spread into the bladder entrance and nearby tissues.
This is sometimes called urothelial carcinoma of the prostate. Between 2 and 4 out of 100 prostate cancers are this type.
Can The Gleason Score On My Biopsy Really Tell What The Cancer Grade Is In The Entire Prostate
Because prostate biopsies are tissue samples from different areas of the prostate, the Gleason score on biopsy usually reflects your cancers true grade. However, in about 1 out of 5 cases the biopsy grade is lower than the true grade because the biopsy misses a higher grade area of the cancer. It can work the other way, too, with the true grade of the tumor being lower than what is seen on the biopsy.
Read Also: What Is The Function Of Male Prostate Gland
Small Cell Prostate Cancer
Small cell prostate cancer is the most common neuroendocrine prostate cancer. Most men who have small cell prostate cancer also have common prostate cancer at the same time. And its most common in men whove had hormone therapy for normal prostate cancer. Small cell prostate cancer is aggressive and can spread quickly to other parts of the body.
Neuroendocrine cells dont produce PSA, so a PSA test wont help to diagnose small cell prostate cancer. And it wont be used to monitor it.
Most small cell prostate cancers are diagnosed when they have already spread to other parts of the body and are causing symptoms. This means youll need the following tests to diagnose small cell prostate cancer.
- A biopsy or transurethral resection of the prostate will remove prostate tissue. This is then looked under a microscope to confirm you have small cell prostate cancer.
- Youll also have scans to see if your cancer has spread.
If you have small cell prostate cancer on its own, you probably wont be given hormone therapy as its unlikely to help. But you may be offered a combination of treatments, including chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery.
Your doctor or nurse will tell you what treatment options are available to you.
How Prostate Cancer Is Treated
In cancer care, different types of doctorsincluding medical oncologists, surgeons, and radiation oncologistsoften work together to create an overall treatment plan that may combine different types of treatments to treat the cancer. This is called a multidisciplinary team. Cancer care teams include a variety of other health care professionals, such as palliative care experts, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, oncology nurses, social workers, pharmacists, counselors, dietitians, physical therapists, and others.
The common types of treatments used for prostate cancer are described below. Your care plan may also include treatment for symptoms and side effects, an important part of cancer care.
Treatment options and recommendations depend on several factors, including the type and stage of cancer, possible side effects, and the patients preferences and overall health.
Cancer treatment can affect older adults in different ways. More information on the specific effects of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy on older patients can be found another section of this website.
Because most prostate cancers are found in the early stages when they are growing slowly, you usually do not have to rush to make treatment decisions. During this time, it is important to talk with your doctor about the risks and benefits of all your treatment options and when treatment should begin. This discussion should also address the current state of the cancer:
Don’t Miss: What To Expect After Prostate Biopsy
> > > All Natural Technique Fixes Enlarged Prostate Watch Here< <
Surgical procedures to remove the diseased prostate are usually necessary. Surgical procedures are not always necessary. If the disease is caused by bacterial infections, a doctor can treat the symptoms using alpha-blockers or surgery. Physical therapy, relaxation exercises, and warm baths are all recommended. A physician may also prescribe antibiotics to cure the infection. A bacterial infection can also cause a recurrence of the condition.
An enlarged prostate can be uncomfortable for both men and women. Some of the symptoms of an enlarged male reproductive organ include a weakened urine stream, urgent need to urinate, and urinary tract infections. BPH can also cause damage to the kidneys. A sudden inability to urinate can be life-threatening, as it can lead to bladder and kidney damage. Unfortunately, most men with enlarged prostrates put up with the symptoms for years before they seek treatment. However, many of the men with symptoms finally decide to go to a doctor for proper gynecological evaluation and to begin enlarged prostatic therapy.
What Causes Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer forms when the DNA in prostate cells develops mutations that may disable their ability to control cell growth and division. In many cases, these mutated cells die or are attacked by the immune system. However, some mutated cells may escape the immune system and grow out of control, forming a prostate tumor.
The exact causes of prostate cancer in an individual patient may not be clear. Understanding the risk factors may help men take preventive measures to reduce the likelihood of developing prostate cancer.
You May Like: Where Is The Prostate Gland And What Is Its Function
What You Need To Know About The Prostate Types Of Rare Prostate Cancer That Are Aggressive
The main purpose of the prostate is to produce semen, a milky fluid that sperm swims in. During puberty, the body produces semen in a large number of cases, including enlarged prostate. This fluid causes the prostate to swell and cause a number of bladder-related symptoms. This is why the prostate is important to the body. It can be caused by many factors, including infection and inflammation.
A enlarged prostate can also cause blockages in the urethra. A blocked urethra can also damage the kidneys. A patient suffering from an enlargement of the prostate may have pain in his lower abdomen and genitals. If pain is present, a digital rectal examination will reveal hard areas. A doctor may prescribe surgery or perform an endoscopic procedure. If the enlarged prostate is not completely removed, it will shrink.
While the size of an enlarged prostate will influence the extent of urinary symptoms, men may experience a range of urinary symptoms. Some men have minimal or no symptoms at all. Some men will have a very enlarged prostate, whereas others will have a mild enlargement. Generally, the symptoms can stabilize over time. Some men may have an enlarged prostate but not notice it. If they have an enlarged colon, their physician can perform a TURP procedure.
Questions Related To Aggressive Variant Prostate Cancer
A first question is whether it is possible to distinguish AVPCas with NE differentiation from those without on the basis of the pure morphology, that is, the hematoxylin-eosin-stained sections. The answer is no, because the neoplastic population is quite homogenous in morphology and there is no cellular hint to the presence of NE differentiation, even in cases in which the tumor is composed of cells co-expressing NE and prostate markers. This means that immunohistochemistry has to be performed in all cases of AVPCa to detect an NE differentiation. This is in agreement with the results of the investigation by Labrecque et al , showing that molecular profiling identifies five diverse phenotypes based on the expression of well-characterized AR or NE genes: AR-high tumors, AR-low tumors, amphicrine tumors composed of cells co-expressing AR and NE genes, double-negative tumors, and tumors with small cell or NE gene expression without AR activity .
A further question is whether NE differentiation can be observed in PCas that are still hormone sensitive and therefore not really part of the spectrum of AVPCa. The answer is yes, and they have the morphology of mixed acinar and NE adenocarcinoma .
Another question is what kind of molecular features can be detected in the AVPCa without NE differentiation. The answer is that such tumors can be characterized by the presence of specific alterations in the DNA that can have a role from the therapeutic point of view .
You May Like: Can You Get Disability For Prostate Cancer
The Initial Causes Types Of Rare Prostate Cancer That Are Aggressive
One of the first symptoms of prostate issues is pain or tenderness in the groin or lower back. This can be the result of a noncancerous condition called enlarged prostatic tissue, or it could be an infection of the bladder. In either case, its important to see a doctor as soon as possible. If youre suffering from prostate pain, you may want to consider reducing your caffeine intake.
Another symptom of a potentially enlarged prostate is difficulty starting a stream of urine, leaking, or dribbling. These symptoms are not serious, but theyre still alarming. Most men put up with an enlarged prostate for years before seeking medical attention, but they typically seek treatment as soon as they notice symptoms. Even if you dont have symptoms, its worth getting checked to determine if you have any prostate issues.
If you experience nightly bathroom runs, you may be experiencing an enlarged prostate. You may be having difficulty starting a stream of urine, or you may even be dribbling or leaking during the day. These problems arent life-threatening, but can become a nuisance. You should not ignore these signs and seek treatment as soon as you notice them. If you feel any of these symptoms, you should consult a doctor.
Various Types Of Prostate Cancer You Should Know About
Researchers have identified 5 unique types of prostate carcinoma. Learning about their differences can help people understand how the tumor is growing and spreading, including how to manage the health issue.
Knowing the stage boosts your chances for recovery. Take a look at the different aggressive and non-aggressive forms of cancer to find out more.
Don’t Miss: Can Cialis Shrink Enlarged Prostate
What Is The Gleason Grade Or Gleason Score What Do The Numbers In The Gleason Score Mean For Example 3+4=7 Or 3+3=6
Pathologists grade prostate cancers using numbers from 1 to 5 based on how much the cells in the cancerous tissue look like normal prostate tissue under the microscope. This is called the Gleason system. Grades 1 and 2 are not often used for biopsies most biopsy samples are grade 3 or higher.
- If the cancerous tissue looks much like normal prostate tissue, a grade of 1 is assigned.
- If the cancer cells and their growth patterns look very abnormal, a grade of 5 is assigned.
- Grades 2 through 4 have features in between these extremes.
Since prostate cancers often have areas with different grades, a grade is assigned to the 2 areas that make up most of the cancer. These 2 grades are added to yield the Gleason score . The highest a Gleason score can be is 10.
The first number assigned is the grade that is most common in the tumor. For example, if the Gleason score is written as 3+4=7, it means most of the tumor is grade 3 and less is grade 4, and they are added for a Gleason score of 7. Other ways that this Gleason score may be listed in your report are Gleason 7/10, Gleason 7 , or combined Gleason grade of 7.
If a tumor is all the same grade , then the Gleason score is reported as 3+3=6.
The higher the Gleason score, the more likely it is that your cancer will grow and spread quickly.
What Does It Mean If In Addition To Cancer My Biopsy Report Also Mentions Acute Inflammation Or Chronic Inflammation
Inflammation of the prostate is called prostatitis. Most cases of prostatitis reported on biopsy are not caused by infection and do not need to be treated. In some cases, inflammation may increase your PSA level, but it is not linked to prostate cancer. The finding of prostatitis on a biopsy of someone with prostate cancer does not affect their prognosis or the way the cancer is treated.
Don’t Miss: How To Fix Enlarged Prostate