Urge To Urinate Frequently
Feeling the urge to pee over and over again, especially at night, is considered a significant early warning sign of developing prostate cancer.
This happens because the prostate gland is situated at the lower portion of the bladder that holds the urine and the growing tumor creates pressure on the urethra.
Other indications appear with the urinary problem, such as heaviness of bladder or burning sensation during urination.
What Is The Prostate
To understand the signs of prostate cancer, we must know what the prostate is first. And where it is located.
Because most of the symptoms are explained by the prostates location. When cancer grows, it pushes the surrounding structures, causing those symptoms.
The urethra is like a pipe with a faucet. The prostate would be surrounding it. If it enlarges, it will push against the pipe.
It is a gland located below the bladder, surrounding the urethra . Thats right, part of the urethra runs through the prostate.
Its normal size is that of a nut.
As for the function, it produces part of the semen, around 30% of it. The remaining 70% comes from the seminal vesicles and testicles.
So, as you can imagine, prostate cancer can alter the process of urination and ejaculation.
Some Early Signs Of Prostate Cancer
Some potential early signs of prostate cancer include the following:
In addition, there can be weak and interrupted urine flow, unusual pain around the prostate when sitting, swelling in the lower back, feet, and legs, abnormal bowel function or urinary habits, and weight loss.
Each additional symptom you have could indicate a problem, so do not delay in scheduling a screening appointment with Cleveland Urology in Cleveland, OH.
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Genetic Testing For Prostate Cancer
You may hear a lot about genetics or genomics. Both terms are related to genes and cell DNA, but they are different. These tests are being used to learn more about the DNA of cancer cells, and link DNA mutations with treatments. In the future, genetic testing may be the first step doctors take when diagnosing prostate cancer.
Prostate Cancer Treatment Options: What Are They
Prostate cancer is, most often, a slow-growing cancer.
For some men, prostate cancer causes no symptoms or long-term issues, so treatment isn’t necessary.
In these cases, doctors may recommend active surveillance. That is, they’ll keep an eye on the development of the tumor using various tools and tests, including:
- Digital rectal exams
- Transrectal ultrasounds
- Prostate biopsies
Men who require treatment for their condition are most often treated with surgery, radiation therapy, hormone therapy, or a combination of these modalities.
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What Are Prostate Tests And How Is Prostate Cancer Diagnosed
Tests which check for prostate cancer include:
- A digital rectal exam . In this exam, your provider feels your prostate for lumps or anything unusual by inserting a lubricated, gloved finger into your rectum.
- A prostate-specific antigen blood test. A high PSA blood level may be a sign of prostate cancer. But many other things can cause high PSA levels, too.
- Imaging tests. These tests may use ultrasound or MRI to make pictures of your prostate.
If these tests show that you might have prostate cancer, the next step is usually a prostate biopsy. A biopsy is the only way to diagnose prostate cancer.
During a biopsy, a doctor uses a hollow needle to remove some prostate tissue. The tissue is studied under a microscope to look for cancer cells.
Determining The Proper Treatment
There are a number of treatment options for prostate cancer, according to the Mayo Clinic.
- Radiation. Radiation therapy can be delivered in a few different ways. One is external beam radiation, in which a machine outside the body delivers radiation to the prostate tissue. Another form of therapy, known as brachytherapy, involves using radioactive seeds to deliver a low dose of radiation directly to the prostate tissue.
- Hormones. The hormone testosterone acts as fuel for prostate cancer cells inside the body. By blocking the production of testosterone, you can kill off the cancer. Possible treatments include medications that stop the production of testosterone, medications that block testosterone from reaching cancer cells or, in extreme cases, surgery to remove the testicles.
- Surgery. For life-threatening prostate cancer, surgery to remove the prostate gland and surrounding tissues may be recommended.
- Biological therapy. Biological therapy uses your bodys own immune system to fight cancer. In the case of prostate cancer, your bodys immune cells are engineered in a lab to fight prostate cancer, and then injected back into your body.
- Chemotherapy. Chemotherapy is a traditional cancer treatment thats used to stop its spread. It may be needed for prostate cancer that has spread to other areas of the body.
- Cryosurgery or cryoablation. Freezing prostate tissue and then thawing it out has shown some success in killing prostate cancer when other treatments have failed.
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Im A Doctor And Heres Why Men Must Never Avoid A Rectal Examination
Professor Peter Johnson, NHS national clinical director for cancer said: âIt is so helpful that celebrities like Rod Stewart and Jimmy Tarbuck have been brave enough to speak out about their diagnosis â there is no doubt that they are helping us in the NHS to fight against prostate cancer.
âIt is vital that men come forward for checks when they sense something isnt right, and the NHS Long Term Plan is prioritising action to detect and treat more cancers earlier when the chance of survival is best.â
It comes after former BBC news presenter Bill Turnbull and TV star Stephen Fry also spoke out about their own experiences with prostate cancer.
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What Are The Risk Factors For Prostate Cancer
Some of the greatest risk factors for prostate cancer include:
- Age. Prostate cancer is very rare in men younger than 40 years of age. In contrast, approximately 60% of prostate cancer cases occur in men that are older than 65.
- Race. African-American men tend to be at greater risk for prostate cancer compared to non-Hispanic whites, whereas Asian-Americans and Hispanic/Latino men are less susceptible to this disease.
- Location. Prostate cancer is most common in North America, Europe, Australia, and the Caribbean. It is rarer in Asia, Africa, and Central and South America. This may be because of more intensive screening procedures for the disease in certain countries, although lifestyle factors such as diet could also play a key role in the difference.
- Family history. In many cases, there is a strong hereditary factor associated with the emergence of prostate cancer. In fact, men who have a father or brother with prostate cancer have a much higher risk of developing it themselves.
Other possible risk factors could include a dairy-rich diet, obesity, smoking, and exposure to harmful chemicals.
Staging Of Prostate Cancer
The stage of a cancer describes its size and how far it has spread. The results of your tests help your doctors decide on the stage and plan your treatment.
We understand that waiting to know the stage and grade of your cancer can be a worrying time. Were here if you need someone to talk to. You can:
Macmillan is also here to support you. If you would like to talk, you can:
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Are Prostate Problems Always A Sign Of Prostate Cancer
Not all growths in the prostate are cancerous, and not all prostate problems indicate cancer. Other conditions that cause similar prostate cancer symptoms include:
- Benign prostatic hyperplasia : At some point, almost every man will develop benign prostatic hyperplasia . This condition enlarges the prostate gland but doesnt increase cancer risk. The swollen gland squeezes the urethra and blocks the flow of semen and urine. Medications, and sometimes surgery, can help.
- Prostatitis: Men younger than 50 are more prone to prostatitis, inflammation and swelling of the prostate gland. Bacterial infections are often the cause. Treatments include antibiotics or other medications.
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Different Signs + Different Men = Difficult To Diagnose
Symptoms of prostate cancer can be different for each man, and any of the symptoms can be due to other less serious conditions. This makes diagnosing prostate cancer more difficult for doctors, so screenings are necessary.
This walnut sized gland is needed for sperm to travel to its destination, so its pretty important. It gets larger over time, but that doesnt necessarily mean a man has cancer.
If you have some of the warning signs, it doesnt necessarily mean you have cancer, while at the same time you can be diagnosed with prostate cancer without any of the signs. This is confusing and frustrating for both doctors and patients.
There are few, if any, early signs but there are certain signals that indicate something is wrong.
Prostate Cancer Caregiver Podcast Series
We are proud to announce a new podcast series geared toward helping give support, hope and guidance to prostate cancer caregivers. The goal of this Prostate Cancer Caregiver Podcast Series is to help others connect with a diverse group of people who have felt the impact of prostate cancer in their lives and empower them on their journey.
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What Are The Symptoms Every Man Needs To Know
In most cases, prostate cancer doesnt have any symptoms until the growth is big enough to put pressure on the urethra that tube you pee through.
- Straining and taking a long time while peeing
- Feeling that your bladder hasnt emptied fully
Many mens prostates get larger as they age because of the non-cancerous conditions, prostate enlargement, and benign prostatic hyperplasia.
In fact, these two conditions are more common than prostate cancer but that doesnt mean the symptoms should be ignored.
The signs that cancer has SPREAD include bone, back, or testicular pain, loss of appetite, and unexplained weight loss.
Symptoms Of Prostate Cancer
Though early warning signs of prostate cancer are rare, sometimes men experience symptoms before they are diagnosed. The severity of symptoms may depend on where the cancer is located in the prostate and how advanced it has become. However, having any of these symptoms does not necessarily mean that you have prostate cancer or that the disease has progressed beyond its early stages.
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What Are The Symptoms Of Prostate Cancer
If you have any symptoms that worry you, be sure to see your doctor right away. They may be caused by conditions other than prostate cancer.
Different people have different symptoms for prostate cancer. Some men do not have symptoms at all.
If you have any of the following symptoms, be sure to see your doctor right away
- Difficulty starting urination.
- Weak or interrupted flow of urine.
- Urinating often, especially at night.
- Trouble emptying the bladder completely.
- Pain or burning during urination.
- Blood in the urine or semen.
- Pain in the back, hips, or pelvis that doesnt go away.
- Painful ejaculation.
Keep in mind that these symptoms may be caused by conditions other than prostate cancer.
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Current Psa Screening Recommendations
PSA-based screening refers to testing healthy men without symptoms.
Until recently, physician societies disagreed on screening recommendations, but with the publication of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Guideline in May 2018, all the major physician groups are broadly in agreement, including the American College of Physicians , the American Cancer Society , American Urological Association , and American Society of Clinical Oncology :
- They advise supporting men so that they make informed decisions about screening that reflect their personal preferences and values.
- Routine screening is not recommended in men between ages 40 and 54 of average risk.
- For men ages 55 to 69 years, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force concluded with moderate certainty that the net benefit of PSA-based screening is small for some men, making the decision up to the judgment of the physician and the values of the patient.”
- For men 70 years and older, they recommend against routine screening because the expected harms are thought to outweigh the benefits.
- Your doctor should not screen you unless you express a preference for it.
- A discussion of the benefits and harms of screening should include a family history of prostate cancer, race or ethnicity, any medical conditions that affect your overall health and lifespan, and your values about risk and benefit.
- If you have less than a 10-year life expectancy, screening is not recommended.
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Is Prostate Cancer Curable
On a positive note, this common cancer has a 78% survival rate for 10 years or more from diagnosis2. In many cases, prostate cancer grows slowly, doesn’t reduce your life expectancy, and requires no treatment.
However, sometimes cancers grow more aggressively and spread quickly to other parts of the body. This can be life-threatening, and healthcare experts use stages to determine how much the cancer cells have spread in order to determine the most appropriate prostate cancer treatment options.
Early-stage prostate cancer – which hasn’t spread beyond the prostate – can be cured through treatment . In the case of later stages, treatments may aim to slow or limit its growth, or to ease symptoms.
If you are concerned about your prostate health, you should speak to your healthcare provider.
What Are The Signs That Prostate Cancer Has Spread
“If the cancer grows out of the prostate, it can begin to affect other parts of the body ,” says Dr Mahmood.
The signs of advanced prostate cancer can include:
- Blood appearing in the urine or semen.
- Pain in the back, hips, or pelvis.
- Problems getting or keeping an erection .
- Unexplained weight loss.
“Again, these symptoms can be caused by other health problems, but if you notice a combination of these symptoms then you should contact a healthcare professional,” cautions Dr Mahmood.
If your doctor suspects prostate cancer, they may ask you to have a blood test to see if it is more likely. This is known as a prostate specific antigen test . Another possible option is having a prostate biopsy, a procedure where needles are used to take small samples of tissue from your prostate which are then analysed. This can also indicate how likely it is for the cancer to spread. The biopsy would be done in hospital by a specialist urologist.
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Psa Screening For Prostate Cancer: A Controversial History
The history of the role of the prostate-specific antigen test for prostate cancer is controversial.
The prostate-specific antigen blood test was created in the late 1980s, and tests for elevated levels of the antigen. Elevated levels can be suggestive of prostate cancer. The test itself is insufficient for diagnosing prostate cancer and was initially proposed as a marker of prostate cancer recurrence or disease progression. But doctors quickly began using it for cancer screening throughout the United States. By 1992, PSA testing as a cancer screen was at its peak.
Also, in the late 1980s, surgeons in the United States and Europe perfected the technique of radical prostatectomy, which involves removal of the prostate gland and any cancer within it. Initially, it seemed like an ideal situation: Men could have a simple blood test and prostate cancers that had not spread outside of the prostate gland could be cured.
But as time wore on, problems emerged that had not been anticipated when PSA screening was introduced:
Loss Of Weight Without Any Reason
Unexplained weight loss is a sign that something wrong is going on inside your body. If we are on a diet or during exercise, then we are losing weight is quite reasonable.
But it is an indication of health problems when you are on your regular diet. But it is also essential to keep in mind that weight loss may indicate thyroid, diabetes, and cancer.
So, a medical check-up and testing are necessary if this is happening to you right now. This symptom indicates the advanced stage of prostate cancer.
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Bladder And Urinary Troubles
A prostate tumor that has grown significantly in size may start to press on your bladder and urethra. The urethra is the passage the carries urine from your bladder out of your body. If the tumor is pressing on your urethra, you might have trouble passing urine.
One of the common areas for prostate cancer to spread to is the bladder, because the two organs are close. This can cause additional problems with urination and bladder function.
Some symptoms your bladder and urethra are being affected by cancer include:
- urinating more frequently
- getting up in the middle of the night to pee
- having blood in your urine or semen
- feeling like you have to urinate often and not actually passing anything
Its not as common, but prostate cancer can also spread to your bowel. The cancer first spreads to the rectum, which is the part of your bowel closest to the prostate gland.
Symptoms of cancer thats spread to the bowels include:
- stomach pain