What Are The Factors Responsible For Having Prostate Cancer
1. Poor Eating Habits: Excessive eating of red meat, fats, dairy products and consumption of alcohol have been associated with prostate ca
2. Obesity: BMI more than 30 is not good for your health and especially for your prostate
3. Sedentary lifestyle: An inverse relationship has been found between physical activity and prostate cancer in several meta-analytical studies
4. Smoking & Alcohol: Smoking and alcohol consumption have also been associated with Prostate Ca
5. Age: There is a positive relationship between age and the development of prostate cancer. So as you grow older check your prostate from time to time
6. Heredity: Men who have a family member who lived or is living with PCa are at greater risk of having it as well.
7. Race: PCa has been found to be more common and likely among people of African origin than men of other races with men from African origin having almost 20% chance more of being diagnosed with prostate cancer than men from other races.
A Note On Suspicious Results
A suspicious result indicates that the biopsy sample contained some abnormalities but no cancer was found. There are a couple of potential explanations for a suspicious prostate biopsy result, including:
- Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia refers to changes within prostate cells that are abnormal, but not indicative of cancer. This condition is low-grade or high-grade, depending on how abnormal the cells are. Low-grade PIN is very common and isn’t associated with prostate cancer. High-grade PIN, however, is associated with a higher risk of prostate cancer. If you have high-grade PIN after a prostate biopsy, your doctor may recommend that biomarker tests be performed on the sample to learn more about the cells. Alternatively, another prostate biopsy may be suggested.
- Atypical small acinar proliferation indicates that the biopsy sample contains some cells that appear to be cancerous, but not enough to confirm the diagnosis. In most cases, this finding suggests that another prostate biopsy is needed.
- Proliferative inflammatory atrophy describes a prostate biopsy that reveals inflammation in the prostate and abnormally small prostate cells. While these cells arent cancerous, having PIA may be associated with an increased risk of developing prostate cancer.
Upm3 A New Molecular Urine Test For The Detection Of Prostate Cancer
Fradet Y, Saad F, Aprikian A, et al.
Urology. 2004 64:311-316
Similarly, Fradet and associates conducted a multicenter trial to evaluate the diagnostic performance of this new molecular test, uPM3. Of 517 patients undergoing biopsy at 5 centers, 443 had an assessable sample. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for the assay were 66%, 89%, 75%, and 84%, respectively. Compared with tPSA cutoffs of 2.5 ng/mL and 4.0 ng/mL, the accuracy of this novel urine molecular test was almost doubled at 81%.
These 2 studies from different regions of the world clearly demonstrate the superiority of urinary uPM3 assay to tPSA. With a significantly higher positive predictive value, unnecessary biopsies can be minimized, and rebiopsy can be better planned. Unfortunately, this assay is limited to a degree by the adequacy rate, which is dependent on the amount of manipulation of the prostate before urine collection. Additional technical refinement will further enhance the tests sensitivity.
Also Check: What Is The Definition Of Prostate Gland
Advanced Genomic Testing For Prostate Cancer
The most common lab test for prostate cancer is advanced genomic testing, which examines a tumor to look for DNA alterations that may be driving the growth of the cancer. By identifying the mutations that occur in a cancer cells genome, doctors may get a clearer picture of the tumors behavior and be able to tailor a patients treatment based on the findings.
Lymph Node Biopsy As A Separate Procedure
A lymph node biopsy is rarely done as a separate procedure. Its sometimes used when a radical prostatectomy isnt planned , but when its still important to know if the lymph nodes contain cancer.
Most often, this is done as a needle biopsy. To do this, the doctor uses an image to guide a long, hollow needle through the skin in the lower abdomen and into an enlarged node. The skin is numbed with local anesthesia before the needle is inserted to take a small tissue sample. The sample is then sent to the lab and looked at for cancer cells.
You May Like: Does An Enlarged Prostate Affect A Man Sexually
What Are The Top 5 Tricks And Tips To Detect Prostate Cancer Early And Prevent Death
1. Get screened or encourage your spouse , father or any male in your life to get screened. The screening test is Prostate-specific Antigen The PSA test is a blood test that enables the diagnosis of prostate cancer as well as other prostate-related health issues.
2. Eat right: Food vegetables like garlic, onions, tomatoes are good for your prostate
3. Exercise: At least 30 min of moderate to rigorous exercise is important for your prostate. Walk more
4. Quit smoking and use alcohol moderately
5. Check your prostate again and let your doctor examine you
Vitamin E And Selenium
In a clinical study known as the SELECT trial, researchers studied whether selenium and vitamin E, taken together or alone, could help prevent prostate cancer.
As reported in the 2011 results, men who took vitamin E supplements alone had a 17 percent relative increase in prostate cancer. For this reason, we suggest you avoid taking vitamin E supplements and focus instead on consuming foods rich in vitamin E. These include nuts , vegetable oils , seeds, wheat germ, whole grain products, and spinach and other dark, green leafy vegetables.
As reported in the studys 2008 and 2011 results, there were more cases of diabetes in men taking only selenium, and men taking selenium alone or in combination with vitamin E were more likely to develop prostate cancer. The findings were not statistically significant and cannot be definitely linked to selenium. However, we recommend against taking selenium supplements. The best source of selenium is food. Foods rich in selenium include Brazil nuts, wheat germ, bran, brown rice, whole wheat bread, barley, onions, garlic, turnips, soybeans, mushrooms, fish, and eggs.
Don’t Miss: Does Enlarged Prostate Affect Ejaculation
How To Check Prostate Cancer
When youre checking for prostate cancer, its important to know the symptoms. When youre aware of the signs, prostate cancer can be caught early. Because prostate cancer doesnt typically show signs early on, this particular cancer is typically found through PSA blood test or digital rectal exams.
But, there are typically five major warning signs of prostate cancer however, as cancer progresses, symptoms typically involve the urinary system. Because the prostate is located close to the urethra and bladder, symptoms might include 1 :
- Frequent urination
- Hip or back pain
- Leg swelling or weakness
Contact your doctor if you notice any of the above symptoms. And if you do catch any of these symptoms, try not to panic. These particular symptoms can often have to do with non-cancerous conditions of the prostate, as well as bladder infections.
Its important to know that there are also several different types of prostate cancer. The most common types found in prostate cancer patients include:
Benefits Of Screening In Studies Have Not Been Clear
Doctors are still studying if screening tests will lower the risk of death from prostate cancer. The most recent results from 2 large studies were conflicting, and didnt offer clear answers.
- Early results from a large study done in the United States found that annual screening with PSA and DRE did detect more prostate cancers than in men not screened, but this screening did not lower the death rate from prostate cancer. However, questions have been raised about this study, because some men in the non-screening group actually were screened during the study, which might have affected the results.
- A European study did find a lower risk of death from prostate cancer with PSA screening , but the researchers estimated that about 781 men would need to be screened to prevent one death from prostate cancer.
- Neither of these studies has shown that PSA screening helps men live longer overall .
Prostate cancer is often slow-growing, so the effects of screening in these studies might become clearer in the coming years. Both of these studies are being continued to see if longer follow-up will give clearer results. Prostate cancer screening is being studied in several other large studies, as well.
Factors That Might Affect Psa Levels
One reason its hard to use a set cutoff point with the PSA test when looking for prostate cancer is that a number of factors other than cancer can also affect PSA levels.
Factors that might raise PSA levels include:
- An enlarged prostate: Conditions such as benign prostatic hyperplasia, a non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate that affects many men as they grow older, can raise PSA levels.
- Older age: PSA levels normally go up slowly as you get older, even if you have no prostate abnormality.
- Prostatitis: This is an infection or inflammation of the prostate gland, which can raise PSA levels.
- Ejaculation: Thiscan make the PSA go up for a short time. This is why some doctors suggest that men abstain from ejaculation for a day or two before testing.
- Riding a bicycle: Some studies have suggested that cycling may raise PSA levels for a short time , although not all studies have found this.
- Certain urologic procedures: Some procedures done in a doctors office that affect the prostate, such as a prostate biopsy or cystoscopy, can raise PSA levels for a short time. Some studies have suggested that a digital rectal exam might raise PSA levels slightly, although other studies have not found this. Still, if both a PSA test and a DRE are being done during a doctor visit, some doctors advise having the blood drawn for the PSA before having the DRE, just in case.
- Certain medicines: Taking male hormones like testosterone may cause a rise in PSA.
Some things might lower PSA levels :
Experts In Urology Care
If you are experiencing symptoms consistent with urinary issues, we urge you to complete our urologic cancer risk assessment form.
Not everyone should get a PSA test. Why? Because many men in this country are treated for low-risk prostate cancer that is discovered through the PSA test, even when it is unlikely that the disease will ever cause symptoms or lead to death. And treatment is associated with significant side effects, including impotence and incontinence . So a PSA test is recommended only for men who might be at greater risk for dying of prostate cancer for example, younger men with a family history of prostate cancer or African-American men.
To avoid the risks of over-treatment, Roswell Park follows the guidelines established by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network . The NCCN brings together world-renowned experts from 30 of the nations top cancer centers to write guidelines that specify the best ways of preventing, detecting and treating cancer. The guidelines are updated at least every year, on the basis of the latest research.
Michael Kuettel, MD, PhD, MBA, Chair of Roswell Park’s Department of Radiation Medicine, serves on the NCCN Prostate Cancer Panel.
The NCCN recommends that only men in these categories receive a PSA test for early detection of prostate cancer:
Don’t Miss: What Happens To The Prostate Later In Life
Use In Men Who Might Have Prostate Cancer
The PSA blood test is used mainly to screen for prostate cancer in men without symptoms. Its also one of the first tests done in men who have symptoms that might be caused by prostate cancer.
PSA in the blood is measured in units called nanograms per milliliter . The chance of having prostate cancer goes up as the PSA level goes up, but there is no set cutoff point that can tell for sure if a man does or doesnt have prostate cancer. Many doctors use a PSA cutoff point of 4 ng/mL or higher when deciding if a man might need further testing, while others might recommend it starting at a lower level, such as 2.5 or 3.
- Most men without prostate cancer have PSA levels under 4 ng/mL of blood. Still, a level below 4 is not a guarantee that a man doesnt have cancer.
- Men with a PSA level between 4 and 10 have about a 1 in 4 chance of having prostate cancer.
- If the PSA is more than 10, the chance of having prostate cancer is over 50%.
If your PSA level is high, you might need further tests to look for prostate cancer.
To learn more about how the PSA test is used to look for cancer, including factors that can affect PSA levels, special types of PSA tests, and what the next steps might be if you have an abnormal PSA level, see Screening Tests for Prostate Cancer.
Positron Emission Tomography Scan
A PET scan is similar to a bone scan, in that a slightly radioactive substance is injected into the blood, which can then be detected with a special camera. But PET scans use different tracers that collect mainly in cancer cells. The most common tracer for standard PET scans is FDG, which is a type of sugar. Unfortunately, this type of PET scan isnt very useful in finding prostate cancer cells in the body.
However, newer tracers, such as fluciclovine F18, sodium fluoride F18, and choline C11, have been found to be better at detecting prostate cancer cells.
Other newer tracers, such as Ga 68 PSMA-11 and 18F-DCFPyl , attach to prostate-specific membrane antigen , a protein that is often found in large amounts on prostate cancer cells. Tests using these types of tracers are sometimes referred to as PSMA PET scans.
These newer types of PET scans are most often used if its not clear if prostate cancer has spread. For example, one of these tests might be done if the results of a bone scan arent clear, or if a man has a rising PSA level after initial treatment but its not clear where the cancer is in the body.
The pictures from a PET scan arent as detailed as MRI or CT scan images, but they can often show areas of cancer anywhere in the body. Some machines can do a PET scan and either an MRI or a CT scan at the same time, which can give more detail about areas that show up on the PET scan.
Recommended Reading: Perineural Invasion In Prostate Cancer
What Tests Detect Prostate Cancer Early
Because prostate cancer cant necessarily be detected at home, its a good idea to learn about the tests that provide early detection 2 . Keep in mind that these tests cant decipher whether or not you have prostate cancer and, following the test, your doctor will most likely suggest a prostate biopsy. If youre wondering how to check for prostate cancer at home, your best bet is to leave it to your health care professional.
What If A Screening Test Shows An Elevated Psa Level
If a man who has no symptoms of prostate cancer chooses to undergo prostate cancer screening and is found to have an elevated PSA level, the doctor may recommend another PSA test to confirm the original finding. If the PSA level is still high, the doctor may recommend that the man continue with PSA tests and DREs at regular intervals to watch for any changes over time.
If a mans PSA level continues to rise or if a suspicious lump is detected during a DRE, the doctor may recommend additional tests to determine the nature of the problem. A urine test may be recommended to check for a urinary tract infection. The doctor may also recommend imaging tests, such as a transrectal ultrasound, x-rays, or cystoscopy.
If prostate cancer is suspected, the doctor will recommend a prostate biopsy. During this procedure, multiple samples of prostate tissue are collected by inserting hollow needles into the prostate and then withdrawing them. Most often, the needles are inserted through the wall of the rectum . A pathologist then examines the collected tissue under a microscope. The doctor may use ultrasound to view the prostate during the biopsy, but ultrasound cannot be used alone to diagnose prostate cancer.
Also Check: How To Stop Leaking After Prostate Surgery
How Do I Detect Prostate Cancer Early
Prostate cancer doesnt typically have early warning signs. As a result, its important to work with your healthcare practitioner to know your risk. Prompt Prostate Genetic ScoreTM provides men with their personalized lifetime risk of prostate cancer. Using a simple cheek swab, Prompt PGS is able to identify those men at greatest risk of prostate cancer and empower them and their healthcare practitioners to take action by getting screened before its too late.
Prostate cancer doesnt typically have early warning signs. As a result, its important to work with your healthcare provider to know your risk. Prompt Prostate Genetic ScoreTM provides men with their personalized lifetime risk of prostate cancer. Using a simple cheek swab, Prompt PGS is able to identify those men at greatest risk of prostate cancer and empower them and their healthcare providers to take action by getting screened before its too late.
Once you understand your personalized risk, you and your healthcare practitioner may decide to move forward with a prostate-specific antigen test. An exam can also be conducted to feel the prostate gland to detect any abnormalities. If the results of these tests are abnormal, then further testing may be conducted.
If prostate cancer is found as a result of early screening, it may be in an earlier and more treatable stage than if no screening were done at all.