Why Arent More Men Screened With A Psa Test
There is much debate about whether ordering the PSA test for a routine annual prostate cancer screening is a good idea. For years,the PSA test was used to screen for prostate cancer without any clear evidence for or against it.
However, this all changed in 2009 when the results of two large trials – one from the US and one from Europe – were published. In short, the US trial found that the PSA test had no survival benefit for average risk men, while the European trial found a small benefit.2
Is It Easy To Orgasm This Way
Lets say it may take some practice and patience.
Actual clinical research on prostate-induced orgasms is seriously lacking, so we dont know how common it is or if its possible for everyone with a prostate to have this type of orgasm.
Every body is different, so some experimenting to see what feels good is in order. If you do manage to have one, reproducing it will be easy.
Bladder And Urinary Troubles
A prostate tumor that has grown significantly in size may start to press on your bladder and urethra. The urethra is the passage the carries urine from your bladder out of your body. If the tumor is pressing on your urethra, you might have trouble passing urine.
One of the common areas for prostate cancer to spread to is the bladder, because the two organs are close. This can cause additional problems with urination and bladder function.
Some symptoms your bladder and urethra are being affected by cancer include:
- urinating more frequently
- getting up in the middle of the night to pee
- having blood in your urine or semen
- feeling like you have to urinate often and not actually passing anything
Its not as common, but prostate cancer can also spread to your bowel. The cancer first spreads to the rectum, which is the part of your bowel closest to the prostate gland.
Symptoms of cancer thats spread to the bowels include:
- stomach pain
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The Warning Signs Of Prostate Cancer
Each year there are more than 30,000 prostate cancer deaths that could be prevented through prostate cancer screening, which helps to find prostate cancer early, before there are any symptoms. In fact, most prostate cancer does not have any symptoms at all. However, when prostate cancer is not caught early, often urinary changes are the first thing that men notice. While urinary problems can be a result of the normal aging process, it can also be a sign that something is wrong. For individuals with symptomatic prostate cancer, they may experience:
- A painful or burning sensation during urination or ejaculation.
- Frequent urination, especially getting up at night to go to the bathroom
- Difficulty stopping or starting urination.
- Slower flow of urine
- Blood in urine or semen
As cancer advances people may also have:
- Unexplained pain in the back or spine
- Unexplained weight loss
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What Questions Should I Ask My Healthcare Provider
If you have prostate cancer, you may want to ask your healthcare provider:
- Why did I get prostate cancer?
- What is my Gleason score? What is my Grade Group? What do these numbers mean for me?
- Has the cancer spread outside of the prostate gland?
- What is the best treatment for the stage of prostate cancer I have?
- If I choose active surveillance, what can I expect? What signs of cancer should I look out for?
- What are the treatment risks and side effects?
- Is my family at risk for developing prostate cancer? If so, should we get genetic tests?
- Am I at risk for other types of cancer?
- What type of follow-up care do I need after treatment?
- Should I look out for signs of complications?
A note from Cleveland Clinic
Prostate cancer is a common cancer that affects males. Most prostate cancers grow slowly and remain in the prostate gland. For a small number, the disease can be aggressive and spread quickly to other parts of the body. Men with slow-growing prostate cancers may choose active surveillance. With this approach, you can postpone, and sometimes completely forego, treatments. Your healthcare provider can discuss the best treatment option for you based on your Gleason score and Group Grade.
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What Are The Prostate Cancer Symptoms I Need To Look Out For
In its early stages, prostate cancer may not show any symptoms. Symptoms of early prostate cancer can include:
- difficulty passing urine
- a slow, interrupted flow of urine
- frequent passing of urine, including at night
Symptoms associated with advanced prostate cancer include:
- blood in urine
- pain during urination
- lower back or pelvic pain.
These symptoms are also found in men who may have benign prostatic hyperplasia , a common, non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate gland.
If you experience these symptoms, visit your doctor.
What Is The Chance Of A Diagnosis Of Prostate Cancer
Around 17,000 new cases of prostate cancer are diagnosed each year in Australia. It affects mostly men in older age groups and is rare in men under 50 years of age.
The chance of developing prostate cancer is significantly higher in men who have a close relative with prostate cancer the risks are higher if the relative was diagnosed before the age of 60.
If you have a family history of prostate cancer, talk to your doctor.
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The Top 7 Signs Of Advanced Prostate Cancer
In the early stages, you may not notice any symptoms related to prostate cancer. This is why screenings are important. Symptoms can sometimes be noticed for the first time when the cancer advances.
Advanced prostate cancer, also called metastatic cancer, means the cancer has spread to other areas of your body beyond your prostate gland. The most common areas for prostate cancer to spread are your bladder, rectum, and bones. It can also spread to your lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and other body tissues.
Whether youve just been diagnosed or youre in treatment, its also important to know the signs of advanced cancer. Cancer can behave differently depending on your genetics, so not every person will experience the same symptoms in the same way.
Read on to learn more about the seven top symptoms of advanced prostate cancer and how to spot them.
What Causes Prostate Cancer
The exact cause of prostate cancer is unknown. One in three men older than 50 years has some cancer cells in the prostate. Luckily, eight out of 10 tumors are found to be small and harmless after the biopsy. Although the reason for prostate cancer is unknown, there are many risk factors that increase the risk of prostate cancer:
- Age over 55 years
- Ethnicity: Common in blacks as compared to Caucasians.
- Genetic/family history
- Poor dietary habits: High fat, unhealthy diet
- Cigarette smoking
Should I Have A Psa Test
If you have no symptoms of prostate cancer and are thinking about having a PSA test, you should ask your doctor about the risks and benefits.
While some studies suggest PSA reduces mortality on a population basis, the test picks up large numbers of cancers that would have caused no symptoms or harm in the patient. This is known as overdiagnosis. Overdiagnosis of prostate cancer can lead to unnecessary treatments that have side effects such as sexual impotence, urinary incontinence and bowel problems.
It is important to balance the potential benefit of detecting a prostate cancer early against the risk that detection and treatment may not be necessary. Treatment may affect your lifestyle but it may also save your life.
Make your own decision about whether to be tested after a discussion with your doctor. Ensure you get good quality information to make an informed decision.
Screening tests for breast, bowel and cervical cancer can save lives, but there is still confusion around PSA testing for prostate cancer. Find more information here.
Remember, if you have any concerns or questions, please contact your doctor.
How Is Prostate Cancer Detected
There is no single test to detect prostate cancer. The two most common tests are the prostate specific antigen blood test and the digital rectal examination .
The PSA test measures the level of PSA in your blood. It does not specifically test for cancer. Virtually all PSA is produced by the prostate gland. The normal range depends on your age. A PSA above the typical range may indicate the possibility of prostate cancer. However, two-thirds of cases of elevated PSA are due to noncancerous conditions such as prostatitis and BPH.
A DRE is generally conducted by a urologist to feel the prostate. While DRE is no longer recommended as a routine test for men who do not have symptoms of prostate cancer, it may be used to check for any changes in the prostate before doing a biopsy.
If either of these tests suggest an abnormality, other tests are necessary to confirm a diagnosis of prostate cancer, usually a magnetic resonance imaging scan and transrectal ultrasound biopsy.
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Who Can Be More At Risk
13 out of 100 men in America have a risk of developing prostate cancer at some point and time in their lives, and at least two of these men may die of it. The main risk factor is just being a man. However, some of the characteristics are specific, and they may include these:
- If you are African American
- If you are 50 years old or above
- If any of your immediate family members has a history of having this disease
- If you consume a diet with high amounts of saturated fats, or if you are obese
- If you have developed very high levels of testosterone
Do you know that prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in American men next to skin cancer? Do you know that the prostate is a vital part of a mans reproductive system? Do you know men can have both benign and cancerous growths in the prostate gland? Most importantly, do you know the five warning signs of prostate cancer? Every man should know when to take action.
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What Happens Without Treatment
Physicians will sometimes talk about a particular diseases natural history or typical progression if it is left untreated indefinitely.
With regard to prostate cancer, most cases of the disease are discovered while the cancer is still confined to the prostate itself. This is called local disease or localized disease.
The disease is easiest to treat while it is confined to the prostate. At this stage, surgery and radiation are most likely to be curative and completely kill or remove whatever cancer cells are present.
If left untreated, however, prostate cancer can proceed on a number of different paths.
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What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of Prostate Cancer
A patient with early prostate cancer is usually asymptomatic. However, prostate cancer symptoms associated with enlargement of the prostate due to prostate cancer, which may occur with early and late-stage/advanced-stage disease, include the following:
- Frequent urination, during the day and/or at night
- Difficulty in starting , maintaining, or stopping the urine stream
- A weak or interrupted urine stream
- Straining to urinate
- increasing shortness of breath while doing activities previously well-tolerated
- low-impact fracture of bone without a lot of trauma and
- swelling of the legs related to obstruction of the lymph tissue by prostate cancer.
It is always best to find and diagnose prostate cancer at an early stage and hopefully still confined to its site of origin. At that point, treatments can cure it. When prostate cancer is widespread or metastatic, it can be treated, but it cannot be cured.
What You Need To Know About Prostate Cancer
Unless it causes problems, most men dont give a lot of thought to their prostate. The small gland is responsible for producing seminal fluid , and its located beneath the bladder and around the urethra, the tube that transports fluid to the penis.
Most types of prostate cancer are known as adenocarcinomas, which are cancers that develop from gland cells, the Mayo Clinic says.
While some forms of prostate cancer grow and spread quickly, others grow quite slowly. The American Cancer Society notes that some people can have undetectable prostate cancer for decades without it causing any problems. But the risks of prostate cancer are quite serious, particularly as it begins to spread to other areas of the body.
What Is Psa And Psa Test
The cells inside the prostate gland produce a protein called Prostate- Specific Antigen . The prime function of this protein is to keep the semen in a healthy liquid condition such that the sperms easily swim in it.
A PSA test is one of the most frequently used testing tools when it comes to prostate cancer screening. It is simply a blood sample test which will detect the levels of PSA circulation inside your body. Other than being a common approach to diagnose prostate cancer, it is also used to keep track of cancer treatments, including radiations, chemo, hormone therapy, and so on. An escalation in the levels of PSA may also be a signal to conditions which are not necessarily cancerous, such as inflammation or augmentation of the prostate gland.
For the past practices so far, a level reading 4ng/ml or less has been rated normal. Those men who have their results notifying values above the standard may have prostate cancer and would usually be advised to get a biopsy for confirmation. Research has shown that men who developed prostate cancer may have lower levels of PSA. On the other hand, the ones who did not have cancer can show a higher level of PSA. One out of four men with higher levels of PSA will be confirmed to have prostate cancer.
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Signs Of Advanced Prostate Cancer
If youre experiencing these symptoms, you may have a more advanced or aggressive prostate cancer. If you are experiencing a combination of these symptoms and are concerned about prostate cancer, set up a visit with your physician to discuss screening options.
- Pain or burning when urinating
- Difficulty starting or stopping urination and dribbling
- Increased frequency of urinating
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Benefits Of Psa Screening
- May help you detect prostate cancer early.
- Cancer is easier to treat and is more likely to be cured if itsdiagnosed in the early stages of the disease.
- PSA testing can be done with a simple, widely available blood test.
- For some men, knowing is better than not knowing. Having the testcan provide you with a certain amount of reassurance – either thatyou probably dont have prostate cancer or that you may have it andshould consider biopsy.
- The number of deaths from prostate cancer has gone down sincePSA testing became widely available.
So What Are The Warning Signs Of Prostate Cancer
Unfortunately, there usually arent any early warning signs for prostate cancer. The growing tumor does not push against anything to cause pain, so for many years the disease may be silent. Thats why screening for prostate cancer is such an important topic for all men and their families.
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In rare cases, prostate cancer can cause symptoms. Contact your doctor for an evaluation if you experience any of the following:
- A need to urinate frequently, especially at night, some- times urgently
- Difficulty starting or holding back urination
- Weak, dribbling, or interrupted flow of urine
- Painful or burning urination
- Difficulty in having an erection
- A decrease in the amount of fluid ejaculated
- Painful ejaculation
- Blood in the urine or semen
- Pressure or pain in the rectum
- Pain or stiffness in the lower back, hips, pelvis, or thighs
What about difficulty in having an erection? Again, this is most likely not caused by cancer but by other factors such as diabetes, smoking, cardiovascular disease, or just plain getting older.
That said: Symptoms are symptoms, and no matter whats most likely to be causing them, you should get them checked out by a doctor.
Download or order your free copy of the Prostate Cancer Patient Guide now with COVID-19 Appendix.
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Early Detection Saves Lives
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer affecting Australian men .
Prostate cancer is the growth of abnormal cells in the prostate gland. This gland is only found in males and is about the size of a walnut.
The causes of prostate cancer are not understood and there is currently no clear prevention strategy.
Impact Of Age On Treatment
The rising number of men diagnosed with prostate cancer is a result of increasing life expectancy as well as the current practice of screening by prostate-specific antigen blood tests. Besides PSA and Gleason score, age is considered a key prognostic factor in treatment decision making. Although organ-confined disease can be cured by radical prostatectomy and full-dose local radiation therapy, treatment options for advanced- stage disease remain palliative. They include active surveillance, or watchful waiting, early versus delayed hormonal therapy to control disease progression, and continuous or intermittent androgen deprivation. Observational studies of older men with early stage disease have suggested conservative management as a viable option.,
Chodak and associates evaluated 828 men who were managed expectantly in a series of nonrandomized trials. Median follow-up was approximately 6.5 years. Patients with poorly differentiated cancers had a 10-fold increased risk of death from prostate cancer as compared with men showing highly differentiated prostate cancer. A 5-year disease-specific survival of only 34% was found in men with poorly differentiated prostate cancer. In contrast a 5-year disease-specific survival of 87% was described in men with well-or moderately differentiated cancers.
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