Talking With Your Doctor
Different kinds of doctors and other health care professionals manage prostate health. They can help you find the best care, answer your questions, and address your concerns. These health care professionals include:
- Family doctors and internists
- Physician assistants and nurse practitioners
- Urologists, who are experts in diseases of the urinary tract system and the male reproductive system
- Urologic oncologists, who are experts in treating cancers of the urinary system and the male reproductive system
- Radiation oncologists, who use radiation therapy to treat cancer
- Medical oncologists, who treat cancer with medications such as hormone treatments and chemotherapy
- Pathologists, who identify diseases by studying cells and tissues under a microscope
View these professionals as your partnersâexpert advisors and helpers in your health care. Talking openly with your doctors can help you learn more about your prostate changes and the tests to expect.
Gene And Protein Expression
About 20,000 protein coding genes are expressed in human cells and almost 75% of these genes are expressed in the normal prostate. About 150 of these genes are more specifically expressed in the prostate with about 20 genes being highly prostate specific. The corresponding specific proteins are expressed in the glandular and secretory cells of the prostatic gland and have functions that are important for the characteristics of semen. Some of the prostate specific proteins, such as the prostate specific antigen , and the Prostatic acid phosphatase.
In the developing embryo, at the hind end lies an inpouching called the cloaca. This, over the fourth to the seventh week, divides into a urogenital sinus and the beginnings of the anal canal, with a wall forming between these two inpouchings called the urorectal septum. The urogenital sinus divides into three parts, with the middle part forming the urethra the upper part is largest and becomes the urinary bladder, and the lower part then changes depending on the biological sex of the embryo.
What Does The Psa Test Involve
The PSA test involves taking a blood sample and sending it to a laboratory for analysis. The results indicate:
Normal levels: Most healthy adult males have PSA levels below 4 nanograms per milliliter .
Borderline levels: PSA levels of 4â10 ng/ml are borderline. There is a 1 in 4 chance that cancer is present.
High levels: If PSA levels are over 10 ng/ml, there is a 50% chance that the person has prostate cancer. The specialist will likely recommend more testing, including a prostate biopsy.
It is important to note that PSA levels can naturally vary from person to person. A person with high levels may not have prostate cancer. On the other hand, about 15% of people who test positive for prostate cancer after a biopsy have PSA levels below 4 ng/ml.
Prostate cancer is not the only cause of high PSA levels. Find out more about the other causes here.
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What Are The Side Effects Of Treatments For Prostate Problems
The side effects of treating prostate problems may include the following:
- The medicines you take for prostatitis and BPH may make you feel sick or uncomfortable. Tell your doctor right away if you think the medicine is causing you to feel this way.
- Surgery for BPH may have a temporary effect on your ability to have sex. Most men recover their ability to have sex within a year of surgery. The exact length of time depends on the type of surgery and how long you had symptoms before surgery.
- You also may have bladder control problems after treatment for BPH. In most cases, these problems go away after several months.
If you have any problems after treatment for prostate problems, talk with your doctor. Chances are good that your doctor can help you.
If your doctor removes your prostate, youre more likely to have long-lasting problems with bladder control and having sex. Your doctor can recommend the best treatment options for these problems.
How To Check Your Prostate
This article was co-authored by Robert Dhir, MD. Dr. Robert Dhir is a board certified Urologist, Urological Surgeon, and the Founder of HTX Urology in Houston, Texas. With over 10 years of experience, Dr. Dhirs expertise includes minimally-invasive treatments for enlarged prostate , kidney stone disease, surgical management of urological cancers, and mens health . His practice has been named a Center of Excellence for the UroLift procedure, and is a pioneer in non-surgical procedures for ED using his patented Wave Therapy. He earned his undergraduate and medical degrees from Georgetown University and was awarded honors in pre-medical studies, urology, orthopedics, and ophthalmology. Dr. Dhir served as chief resident during his urological surgical residency at University of Texas at Houston / MD Anderson Cancer Center in addition to completing his internship in general surgery. Dr. Dhir was voted Top Doctor in Urology for 2018 to 2019, one of the top three Best Rated Urologists in 2019 & 2020 for Houston Texas, and Texas Monthly has named him to the 2019 & 2020 Texas Super Doctors Rising Stars list.wikiHow marks an article as reader-approved once it receives enough positive feedback. This article has 11 testimonials from our readers, earning it our reader-approved status. This article has been viewed 1,025,150 times.
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Gp Examination And Tests
A GP will ask about your symptoms and concerns, and their impact on your quality of life.
You may be asked to complete a chart that records how much liquid you usually drink, how much urine you pass, how often you have to pee on a daily basis and whether you have any leakage.
The GP may do a physical examination. They may examine your stomach and genital area.
They may also feel your prostate gland through the wall of your bottom . This is called a rectal examination.
The GP may order a blood test to check that your kidneys are working properly.
They may advise you to have a prostate-specific antigen blood test to rule out prostate cancer.
You may be offered a urine test, for example to check for sugar or blood in your pee. This is to see if you have diabetes or an infection.
How Is Prostate Cancer Treated
Your treatment will depend on what kind of cancer cells you have, how far they have spread, your age and general health, and your preferences. At HealthPartners and Park Nicollet, we approach cancer treatment by understanding the impact it has both physically and mentally. So, you and your doctor may decide to manage your cancer with active surveillance or to treat it with surgery or radiation.
If youre over age 80 or have other serious health problems, like heart disease, you may choose not to have treatments to cure your cancer. Instead, you can just have treatments to manage your symptoms. This is called watchful waiting.
If youve already been diagnosed with prostate cancer, choosing treatment for prostate cancer can be confusing. Both urologists and oncologists have the specialty training and expertise to treat prostate cancer. They can work with you develop a treatment plan thats right for you.
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How Are Prostate Supplements Related To Urinary Symptoms
The researchers tracked the prostate symptoms and function of the men over the course of six months. The results showed that the supplement was associated with a decrease in the size of the epithelium in the prostate, an area of the gland that is associated with the urinary symptoms caused by prostate enlargement.
Drugs To Treat Cancer Spread To Bone
If prostate cancer spreads to other parts of the body, it almost always goes to the bones first. These areas of cancer spread can cause pain and weak bones that might break. Medicines that can help strengthen the bones and lower the chance of fracture are bisphosphonates and denosumab. Sometimes, radiation, radiopharmaceuticals, or pain medicines are given for pain control.
Side effects of bone medicines
A serious side effect of bisphosphonates and denosumab is damage to the jaw, also called osteonecrosis of the jaw . Most people will need to get approval from their dentist before starting one of these drugs.
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So What Causes Prostate Cancer
The exact cause of prostate cancer is unknown. Most prostate cancers happen by chance, or due to shared environmental and common genetic factors. But what we do know is that prostate cancer happens when some prostate cells become abnormal.
Abnormal cells grow and multiply more quickly than normal cells. And as abnormal cells continue to accumulate, normal cells die and a tumor forms. That tumor can grow and spread to nearby tissue, and those abnormal cells can also spread to other parts of the body.
What Are The Symptoms Of Prostate Problems
The symptoms of a prostate problem may include problems with urinating and bladder control. Bladder control is how well you can delay, start, or stop urination. These problems can cause you to
- go to the bathroom frequently
- feel as if you need to rush to the bathroom, only to find you cant urinate or you urinate only a little
- leak or dribble urine
- have a weak urine stream
Depending on the cause of your prostate problems, you may have other symptoms.
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Not Sure What To Do Next
If you are still concerned about your prostate problems, why not use healthdirects online Symptom Checker to get advice on when to seek medical attention.
The Symptom Checker guides you to the next appropriate healthcare steps, whether its self care, talking to a health professional, going to a hospital or calling triple zero .
You Can Take Action Now To Reduce Your Risk Of Prostate Cancer Later On
You cant control your genes or what the future may hold. But you can take steps to reduce your risk of prostate cancer through lifestyle choices. For starters:
- Maintain a healthy diet. A diet full of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins and healthy fats can contribute to your overall health.
- Exercise regularly. Exercise not only improves your physical health, but also your mood and mental health. Plus, there is some evidence that men who exercise are at a lower risk of developing prostate cancer.
- Try to maintain a healthy weight. Obesity is a risk factor for prostate cancer.
- Talk proactively with your doctor about your risk for prostate cancer. If youre over 40 and havent discussed your risk level with your doctor or urologist, I suggest you make an appointment. Depending on your risk factors, you and your doctor can work together to create an action plan that works best for you, which may include a prostate cancer screening.
Also, if youve been experiencing any unusual urinary or erectile symptoms, dont ignore them. Make a primary care appointment, for starters.
Your doctor will talk with you about your symptoms, answer your questions and recommend treatment next steps if needed. They may also recommend you see a urologist like me. Urologists are experts in urinary and male reproductive health, including prostate cancer diagnosis and treatment.
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What Is The Prostate Gland
The prostate is a gland about the size of a walnut. It is part of the male reproductive system and wraps around the tube that carries urine out of the bladder. It grows larger as you get older. If your prostate gets too large, it can cause health issues. Having prostate problems does not always mean you have cancer.
Sometimes a doctor may find a problem during a routine checkup or by doing a rectal exam. If you think there is something wrong with your prostate, see your doctor right away.
Nurse Counselors And Coordinators
A team of experts assists doctors on the care team. Those experts include oncology nurses, who will administer chemotherapy and other medicines, perform the tests used for monitoring the disease, and help patients cope with side effects. Case managers and patient coordinators are also part of the care team. These experts will help patients coordinate care across the team. They will also help patients make connections with experts, such as nutritionists, who can help with dietary concerns, or endocrinologists, who can help patients who are taking hormone therapy. Social workers with expertise in oncology may also help patients get help with personal challenges such as coping with the emotional burden of prostate cancer as well as helping patients navigate financial concerns, including questions about insurance coverage and family medical leave.
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What Tests Might I Have At The Hospital
If youre given an appointment with a hospital specialist, they may do some of the tests you had at the GP surgery again. You may also have other tests, including the following.
You might be asked to fill in a short questionnaire about your symptoms. This is called the International Prostate Symptom Score and is used to see how bad your symptoms are and how much they are bothering you.
Urine flow test
Youll be asked to urinate into a machine that measures the speed of your urine flow. Men with an enlarged prostate usually have a slower flow than other men. You’ll need a full bladder for the test. The doctor or nurse will tell you how much to drink before you have the test. They may also ask you not to urinate for two to three hours before the test.
This shows how much urine your bladder can hold, and if it is emptying properly. You may have the scan straight after the urine flow test to see how much urine is left in your bladder after you urinate. You may also have an ultrasound scan to look at your kidneys.
Further Tests For An Enlarged Prostate
Depending on your test results, you may have further tests to find out what is causing your symptoms.
Bladder pressure test
This shows how well your bladder is working. The doctor passes thin tubes up your penis and fills your bladder with a clear liquid. Thin tubes are also placed in your back passage . The tubes measure the pressure in your bladder, back passage and urethra. You will then be asked to empty your bladder, and the pressures will be measured again while you urinate. You may have this test if youre thinking about having surgery to treat an enlarged prostate, or if youve had surgery but your symptoms havent improved or are getting worse.
This shows whether you have a blockage or any abnormal tissue in your urethra or bladder. A doctor or specialist nurse will pass a thin tube up your penis into your bladder. Youll be able to feel the tube moving, but anaesthetic gel will be used to make the test more comfortable. The tube has a light and camera on the end so the doctor or nurse can see the inside of your urethra and bladder on a screen. You may have this test if you have severe urinary symptoms, blood in your urine or pain, or if you often get urine infections. You may also have this test if your doctor thinks your urethra or the opening of your bladder may be too narrow this is called a stricture.
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Why Would You See A Urologist
A urologist might treat bladder problems, urinary tract infections , bladder and kidney cancer, kidney blockage, and kidney stones.
Men might also see them for:
Women might also see a urologist for
- Problems holding your pee after pregnancy
Children might need to see a urologist if they have an abnormal urinary tract problem like bedwetting.
Questions You May Want To Consider Asking Your Doctor Include:
- What type of prostate problem do I have?
- Is more testing needed and what will it tell me?
- If I decide on watchful waiting, what changes in my symptoms should I look for and how often should I be tested?
- What type of treatment do you recommend for my prostate problem?
- For men like me, has this treatment worked?
- How soon would I need to start treatment and how long would it last?
- Do I need medicine and how long would I need to take it before seeing improvement in my symptoms?
- What are the side effects of the medicine?
- Are there other medicines that could interfere with this medication?
- If I need surgery, what are the benefits and risks?
- Would I have any side effects from surgery that could affect my quality of life?
- Are these side effects temporary or permanent?
- How long is recovery time after surgery?
- Will I be able to fully return to normal?
- How will this affect my sex life?
- How often should I visit the doctor to monitor my condition?
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What Medications Cause An Enlarged Prostate
Diuretics, or medications that increase urination, can also worsen symptoms. While they are not medications, alcohol and caffeine can also worsen the symptoms associated with prostate enlargement. Many popular nonprescription cold and allergy medications contain decongestants that can cause the bladder neck to contract.
What Is Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer is common among American men. Your chance of getting prostate cancer may be affected by your:
- Age. Men age 50 and older run a greater risk.
- Race. Prostate cancer is most common among African-American men.
- Family history. If your father or brother has had prostate cancer, you are more likely to have it, too.
- Diet. Eating high-fat food with few fruits and vegetables may raise your risk.
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Wednesday 4 October 2017
Hey guys, we know that talking about your prostate can be a little uncomfortable. You might not know where or what it is, or you might have only heard about it in stories about older men having difficulty peeing or the doctor sticking their finger up you know where to check on it.
Below, weve got all the details about what your prostate is, where it is and what it does. Well also discuss how it might change as you age, and any changes or symptoms you should keep an eye on and tell your doctor about.