Prostate Cancer Awareness Is Essential To Seek The Right Diagnosis And Treatment An Expert Busts 7 Common Myths
Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer and sixth most common cause of death among men worldwide. Although statistics over the last few decades show a lower incidence among Asian men compared to African, African-American and Caucasian populations, it is certainly on the rise.
Significant advances have been made in the treatment of prostrate cancer over the last two decades with development of new drugs for better cancer control. In addition, refinements in surgery and radiotherapy aim at providing higher cancer cure and control rates with reduced complications and long-term morbidity.
Despite these advances, there are several misconceptions about prostate cancer. Better understanding will help to allay fears about this disease.
How We Treat Prostate Cancer
The prognosis for metastatic prostate cancer can be discouraging, but some treatment centerslike the Johns Hopkins Precision Medicine Center of Excellence for Prostate Cancerspecialize in innovative, individualized therapy with the potential to improve outcomes.
Stage Iv Prostate Cancer Prognosis
Prostate cancers detected at the distant stage have an average five-year survival rate of 28 percent, which is much lower than local and regional cancers of the prostate. This average survival rate represents stage IV prostate cancers that have metastasized beyond nearby areas to lymph nodes, organs or bones in other parts of the body.
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Stage 4 Prostate Cancer Treatment Options
I have recurring prostate cancer and it has found its way to 5 different bones, including my left shoulder and two ribs on my right side. I started 6 month Lupron shots but have been told that because it is stage 4 I need additional treatment. My oncologist is recommending either Abiraterone for 33 months or 6 treatments of Docetaxel chemo. She says that they look to have very equal success. With the Zytiga I will also have to take steroids, probably prednisone which I understand includes possible liver damage. Six chemo treatments seems like a better approach but I have heard Zytiiga talked about in a very positive manner. I understand it can be expensive and I do worry my prescription drug coverage could change its formulary and raise my cost significantly as well. I’ve already had that happen with a drug I take for Parkinsons.. Just looking for some general input regarding peoples actual experience either way.
Outlook For Men With Localised Prostate Cancer
Mostlocalised prostate cancer is slow-growing and may not need treatment or shorten a mans life. For many men who have treatment for localised prostate cancer, the treatment will get rid of the cancer. For others, treatment may be less successful and the cancer may come back. If this happens, you might need further treatment.
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What Will Happen In The Last Few Days
It can help to know what is normal in the last few days of life so that you know what to expect. You might not be aware of these changes when they happen because you may be drowsy or unconscious.
If youre supporting someone who is dying, read about what you can do to help and how you can get support.
Many people worry about being in pain when they are dying. Some people do get pain if their prostate cancer presses on their nerves or makes their bones weak. But not everyone dying from prostate cancer has pain. And if you are in pain, there are things that can help to reduce and manage pain.
You should tell your doctor or nurse if youre in pain or if your pain gets worse. They can talk with you about how best to manage your pain and can help keep it under control.
You may find sitting or lying in some positions more comfortable than others, so ask if you need help getting into a different position.
Your doctor can give you medicines to help manage pain. The type of medicines they give you will depend on what is causing the pain and which medicines are suitable.
Your doctor will monitor how the pain medicines are working and may change the type of medicine or the dose. If youre still in pain or get pain in between taking medicines, its important to tell your doctor or nurse.
Sleeping and feeling drowsy
Changes in skin temperature or colour
Changes in breathing
Changes in urinating or bowel movements
About Half Of Men Older Than 50 Have An Enlarged Prostate Here Are Some Of The Basic Facts You Need To Know About This Common Condition
As men age, many experience prostate gland enlargement. This condition is known as benign prostatic hyperplasia .
The prostate gland surrounds the urethra, the hollow tube that carries urine out of the body. When the prostate gets bigger, it can squeeze or partially block the urethra, which leads to problems urinating.
BPH is quite common in older men. In fact, the condition impacts about 50% of men between the ages of 51 and 60. For men 80 and older, the prevalence of BPH is approximately 90%, according to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.
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Staging And Grading For Stage 4 Cancer
Most cancers are staged using some form of the TNM system. Doctors may also use the TNM system to help determine the extent of certain cancers in each stage. The TNM system stands for:
- T , or the size of the original tumor
- N , or whether the cancer is present in the lymph nodes
- M , or whether the cancer has spread to other parts of the body
Not all cancers are staged using the TNM system, though. Some cancers, especially liquid cancers, are staged through different established protocols. The Binet and Rai systems, for example, are used to stage certain types of leukemia. Female reproductive system cancers, such as cervical cancer, are staged with a separate staging system created by the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics .
As your care team gathers information about your cancer for the purposes of staging, they may need to order several tests, including:
Your care team may likely also need to perform a biopsy, a procedure that involves removing a sample of cells and analyzing it for signs of cancer. Imaging scans may be able to tell your care team where your cancer is, but looking at the cancer cells specifically tell them how fast they are likely to growor what grade they are.
Grading is different from staging and is done for most, but not all, cancers.
The grade of your cancer is part of how your cancer care team stages your cancer and determines your prognosis, or outlook.
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What Is The Difference Between Prostate Cancer And Advanced Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer occurs when cells in the prostate gland begin to grow out of control. In the early stages of prostate cancer, the cancer cells are only present in the prostate and have not spread to nearby tissues.
Advanced prostate cancer, also known as stage 4 prostate cancer, occurs when cancer cells have spread to other areas of the body.
Quality Of Life With Advanced Stage Prostate Cancer
Since Huggins and Hodges won a Nobel Prize in 1966 for their work describing the relationship between testosterone and prostate cancer, androgen deprivation has continued to be an important component in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer. It is associated, however, with significant cost in terms of morbidity as well as economics. Side effects of androgen deprivation therapy include hot flashes, osteoporosis, loss of libido or impotence, and psychological effects such as depression, memory difficulties, or emotional lability. Recently Harle and colleagues55 reported insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, metabolic syndrome, and metabolic complications being associated with castration and thus being responsible for increased cardiovascular mortality in this population.
Because of the palliative nature of androgen ablation, quality of life is an important component of evaluating competing therapies. Intermittent androgen deprivation is one approach to hormonal therapy that has been developed with the aim of minimizing the negative effects of therapy while maximizing clinical benefits and the patients quality of life. It can be used in any clinical situation where continuous androgen deprivation treatment could be applied.56
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What Is The Life Expectancy For Stage 4 Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer life expectancy is determined using five-year survival rates. This is the percentage of people who may still be alive five years after being diagnosed.
The five-year survival rate for men with localized prostate cancer, where there is no evidence of cancer spreading outside the prostate, and regional prostate cancer, when cancer has migrated outside the prostate to adjacent structures or lymph nodes exclusively, is approximately 100 percent.
When prostate cancer reaches stage 4 and has spread to other organs such as the lungs, liver, or bones, the five-year survival rate falls below 30%. At stage 4, prostate cancer is unlikely to be cured, although with effective therapy, many people can live for several years. The patients life expectancy is determined by the precise characteristics of his cancer.
However, thanks to routine screening procedures, prostate cancer is often discovered early, before it has spread to other organs, and it is usually not fatal. When diagnosed early, there are several treatment options available, as well as a good likelihood of a cure.
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How Will My Cancer Be Monitored
Your doctor will talk to you about how often you should have check-ups. At some hospitals, you may not have many appointments at the hospital itself. Instead, you may talk to your doctor or nurse over the telephone. You might hear this called self-management.
You will have regular PSA tests. This is often a useful way to check how well your treatment is working. Youll also have regular blood tests to see whether your cancer is affecting other parts of your body, such as your liver, kidneys or bones.
You might have more scans to see how your cancer is responding to treatment and whether your cancer is spreading.
Your doctor or nurse will also ask you how youre feeling and if you have any symptoms, such as pain or tiredness. This will help them understand how youre responding to treatment and how to manage any symptoms. Let them know if you have any side effects from your treatment. There are usually ways to manage these.
What Is The Treatment For Advanced Prostate Cancer
No matter where prostate cancer spreads, its still treated as prostate cancer. Its harder to treat when it reaches an advanced stage.
Treatment for advanced prostate cancer involves targeted and systemic therapies. Most men need a combination of treatments and they may have to be adjusted from time to time.
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Overview Of The Staging System
After a thorough assessment by your oncologist, your cancer will be assigned a stage between I and IV. Prostate cancer stages are based on the American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM system. Using the TNM system, your oncologist:
- Examines the tumor
- Determines if the cancer has spread to any lymph nodes
- Assesses whether the cancer has metastasized
- Considers the prostate-specific antigen level from blood testing
- Assigns a grade group based on how abnormal the cancer appears under a microscope
With this information in mind, you can better understand how stages are assigned and what they mean for patients in general.
What Are The Possible Treatment Options For Prostate Cancer
Staging is not the only information that doctors need. Symptoms and the patients age, life expectancy, co-existing health conditions and personal preferences may also be considered when deciding on treatment. Doctors use a general guideline for treatment based on stage groups.
Stage I prostate cancer:
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Castrate Refractory Prostate Cancer: A Wider Range Of Options
In this section, we explain the treatments available at Birmingham Prostate Clinic for patients once their disease becomes resistant to hormone treatment, called castrate refractory prostate cancer. Two types of treatments are needed to:
- Control the cancer and prevent further spread of cancer
- Control or prevent the symptoms caused by the spread of prostate cancer to the bones
The Tnm System For Prostate Cancer Stages
As they do for most cancers, doctors use the TNM system to describe prostate cancer stages. The system uses three different aspects of tumor growth and spread:
- Tumor. Whatâs the size of the main area of prostate cancer?
- Nodes. Has it spread to any lymph nodes? If so, how far and how many?
- Metastasis. How far has the prostate cancer spread?
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First Line Treatment For Advanced Prostate Cancer
The established first line approach is to control the progression of the disease by reducing levels of testosterone in the body. This is because testosterone increases the speed at which prostate cancer cells reproduce.
There are two different ways to lower testosterone levels. Hormone therapy lowers the levels of testosterone in the body by taking tablets or having injections. It is sometimes referred to as medical castration. The surgical option involves removing the testicles, known as surgical castration or orchidectomy, although this is now rarely used.
Another approach is called anti-androgen treatment. Androgens have to bind to a protein in the cell called an androgen receptor to work. Anti-androgens are drugs that bind to these receptors so the androgens cant, effectively blocking them. The main side-effects are gynaecomastia breast enlargement and breast pain, although a single radiotherapy dose to the breasts can help this side-effect.
Combining anti-androgens with testosterone reduction is known as Maximum Androgen Blockade and may be used if hormone treatment alone is not working sufficiently.
Treating with chemotherapy at the same time as the start of hormone deprivation was found to increase survival by 13 months in all patients and 17 months in men with high-volume disease.
Andy Taylor Diagnosed With Stage 4 Prostate Cancer
– November 14, 2022
Longtime Duran Duran guitarist Andy Taylor has stage 4 prostate cancer. The band announced the news during their induction into the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame Saturday. Taylor did not join his former bandmates due to ongoing treatment.
In a letter read onstage by front man Simon Le Bon, Taylor revealed that he had been diagnosed four years ago.
Many families have experienced the slow burn of this disease and of course, we are no different, Taylor wrote. So I speak from the perspective of a family man but with profound humility to the band, the greatest fans a group could have and this exceptional accolade.
According to the American Cancer Society, nearly 270,000 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer in the United States in 2022. About 34,500 will die from the disease.
Taylors letter is posted in full on the bands website. He is receiving sophisticated life-extending treatment. It allows him to just rock on though he recently suffered a setback. His condition is incurable.
Prostate cancer symptoms tend to develop in the later stages of the disease, however initial warning signs may include:
- Frequent urination, especially at night
- Problems starting or stopping a stream of urine
As the disease progresses, prostate cancer may cause more pronounced symptoms, such as:
- Bone pain that doesnt go away or leads to fractures
- Pain in the pelvic area, lower back, hips or thighs
- Weakened, decreased or interrupted flow of urine
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What Happens When Prostate Cancer Is Left Untreated
While most men undergo some form of treatment for their prostate cancer, some men today choose to not be treated for their prostate cancer. Instead, they may choose to have their healthcare providers monitor their cancer.
Known as active surveillance, it is common when the cancer is expected to grow slowly based on biopsy results, confined to the prostate, not causing any symptoms, and/or small. In active surveillance, healthcare providers will initiate cancer treatment only if cancer starts growing.
Others men may choose to not undergo cancer treatment because of a short life expectancy or other serious medical problems. They may feel that the risks or side effects of cancer treatment outweigh their potential benefits.
This option is certainly OK and reasonable in the right circumstancesrequiring a careful and thoughtful discussion with your healthcare provider and family.
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Grade: How Aggressive Is The Cancer
The pathology team will take a biopsy sample and prepare it with chemicals, then make extremely fine slices of the tissue to examine under the microscope. If prostate cancer is found when looking at biopsied tissue under a microscope, the pathologist assigns a grade to the cancer. There are 2 grading systems currently in use, which can be confusing for patients.
The classical grading system for prostate cancer is called the Gleason score, which ranges from 6 to 10 .
In 2014, the World Health Organization reorganized the Gleason score with the simpler Grade Group system, ranging from 1 to 5 .
Many medical centers report both the Gleason score and the Grade Group, but there may be some that still only report the old Gleason system.
Both systems attempt to communicate a variety of factors in a way that allows the medical team to communicate and compare cases and strategize treatments.
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Data Sources And Patients
Data of primary prostate cancer patients from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database between 2004 and 2016 were utilized for the analysis of this cohort study . Science the reliable prostatic specific antigen data were not available before 2004, this study only analyzed the data after 2004. Patients with prostate cancer were identified by the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, Third Edition histology code . Patients diagnosed with primary prostate cancer were enrolled in the study. Patients were excluded according to the following criteria: missing data of TNM stage, Gleason score, and PSA level patients with survival months of 0 or lost to follow-up patients with T1 or T2 stage and Gleason score< 8 . The survival status of patients was determined based on the death registration system. The follow-up was from the time the patient was diagnosed with prostate cancer until the patient died during the study period or until the publication of the database. This study was based on de-identified data from a publicly available database and did not involve interaction with human subjects. Therefore, this study did not require approval from the Institutional Review Board of The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University.