Male Fertility And Infertility
Fertility refers to having the ability to conceive, or being able to have a child. For males, fertility means they are able to father a child through normal sexual activity. A persons fertility depends on their reproductive organs working as they should and other factors, such as when and how often they are having sex, certain hormones, and if their partner has any problems with fertility.
When a person cannot have a child, this is called infertility, or being infertile. For males, infertility means they are not able to father a child through normal sexual activity. Doctors usually consider a person infertile when they have not been able to conceive a child after 12 or more months of regular sexual activity.
Problems with fertility can also be called reproductive problemsoralterations. They happen when certain hormone levels are abnormally low or high or if reproduction organs are removed or arent working properly. Some people never find out why they are having fertility problems. Many experts believe stress and anxiety can cause changes that play a part in infertility.
People with certain types of cancer or who are getting treatment for cancer may have fertility problems. Children and teenagers who have cancer are often of special concern. You can read more about specific adult and childhood cancers in Cancer A to Z and can learn more about how fertility might be affected in How Cancer and Cancer Treatment Can Affect Fertility.
Surgery To Remove Your Testicles
You might have an operation to remove your testicles . The testicles produce testosterone, which can help prostate cancer grow. So removing the testicles can help to control the growth of prostate cancer. After the removal of the testicles, the level of testosterone in the blood falls quickly.
Having an orchidectomy doesn’t cure prostate cancer. But it can control the cancer and reduce your symptoms.
Some men prefer to have this surgery as it is one treatment compared to having regular injections. Orchidectomy is not reversible. You may find the removal of your testicles upsetting.
Carcinoma In Situ Of The Testicle
Testicular germ cell cancers can start as a non-invasive form of the disease called carcinoma in situ or intratubular germ cell neoplasia. In testicular CIS, the cells look abnormal under the microscope, but they have not yet spread outside the walls of the seminiferous tubules . Carcinoma in situ doesnât always progress to invasive cancer.
It’s hard to find CIS before it becomes an invasive cancer because it generally doesn’t cause symptoms or form a lump that you or the doctor can feel. The only way to diagnose testicular CIS is to have a biopsy . Sometimes CIS is found incidentally when a testicular biopsy is done for another reason, such as infertility.
Experts donât agree about the best treatment for CIS. Since CIS doesnât always become an invasive cancer, many doctors in the United States consider observation to be the best treatment option.
When CIS of the testicle becomes invasive, its cells are no longer just in the seminiferous tubules, they’ve grown into other structures of the testicle. These cancer cells can then spread either to the lymph nodes through lymphatic vessels , or through the blood to other parts of the body.
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Link Between Testicular And Prostate Cancer
Recently, studies have shown that there may be a link between the two cancers. Men who have had testicular cancer may have a higher risk to develop prostate cancer later in life.
Although both cancers are highly treatable, detection remains the key to survival.
Call Northwest Medical Specialties at 428-8700 to schedule an appointment for annual screening tests.
Testicular Cancer Bone Mets
Testicular cancer bone mets are rare, and their true incidence is not known. The most common skeletal sites appear to be the middle and lower spine, humerus , rib, pelvis, femur and sternum. Conventional treatment for testicular cancer is 1-4 lines of chemotherapy, and testicular cancer bone mets often respond to chemotherapy and go into remission (seem to disappear for up to several years.
Testicular cancer bone mets may initially have no symptoms. If asymptomatic bone mets occur, they are sometimes discovered as a result of imaging. On the other hand, bone mets can seriously diminish quality of life due to severe pain, fractures, and spinal cord compression. Medication such as bisphosphonates may be prescribed to strengthen bones, pain medication may be used to control pain, and sometimes radiation to the bone lesion is done to control the tumor growth and reduce pain.
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Prostate Cancer And Incontinence
Incontinence the inability to control urine flow is a common side effect of all therapies directed at the prostate gland. Most patients do eventually regain complete urinary control. Exercises to strengthen the sphincter and surrounding pelvic muscles can help you regain urinary control. These are called Kegel exercises. A training program called biofeedback helps reinforce the proper performance of Kegel exercises. Medications may also help relieve incontinence. A male sling is a surgical option, as is an artificial urinary sphincter which can be surgically inserted in cases of severe incontinence. Ask your doctor about these options.
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Types Of Testicular Cancer
The testicles are made up of many types of cells, each of which can develop into one or more types of cancer. It’s important to know the type of cell the cancer started in and what kind of cancer it is because they differ in how they’re treated and in their prognosis .
Doctors can tell what type of testicular cancer you have by looking at the cells under a microscope.
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What Is Testicular Cancer
Cancer starts when cells begin to grow out of control. Cells in nearly any part of the body can become cancer and spread to other parts of the body. To learn more about how cancers start and spread, see What Is Cancer?
Cancer that starts in the testicles is called testicular cancer. To understand this cancer, it helps to know about the normal structure and function of the testicles.
How Can My Doctor Help
If they don’t know already, your doctor will need to figure out which type of testicular cancer you have. They’ll look for certain proteins in your blood to get that answer. Both seminomas and non-seminomas raise levels of a protein called HCG. Non-seminomas also cause a rise in something called alpha-fetoprotein .
Once they know which you have, they’ll use a variety of tests to see if and where your cancer has spread. They may order:
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How Fast And Where Does Prostate Cancer Spread
Like other cancers, prostate cancer can spread from the site of where it first started to other sites of the body. Once it spreads, the disease may still respond to the treatment, but typically it is now no longer to be cured. Bones, liver, and lungs are the most common sites for prostate cancer metastasis. How do you know that it has spread? And how fast this metastasis?
Since the early detection of the disease is very crucial for the prognosis and outlook of patients , its very important to diagnose the disease as early as possible.
In the U.S, the number of men diagnosed with the disease at later stages decreases drastically due to the implementation of PSA screening test .
Men with many risk factors of prostate cancer should start discussing the test with their doctor earlier. Visit this section for more information about this!
The PSA test is also recommended in other countries . However whether this test is necessary for all men is debatable.
For those who eventually dont have prostate cancer in their life, the choice to take the test may put them at high risk of getting over-diagnosis, making anxiety more likely.
Therefore, some experts agree that the screening prostate cancer test is more recommended for those who have some /many risk factors of the disease. For more advice, consult more with your GP!
How prostate cancer is diagnosed?
PSA screening test
IVU or IVP Intravenous urogram
What Should I Do If I Have Pain
Let your doctor or nurse know about any pain you have as soon as possible. The earlier you ask for help, the easier it will be to get your pain under control. With the right treatment and management, your doctor and nurse should be able to help you control your pain.
Dont think that you are complaining too much or that you should put up with pain. You shouldnt have to accept pain as a normal part of having cancer. Pain will affect your daily life if it isnt properly controlled.
As well as treatments, there are things you can do yourself that might help with your pain.
What questions might my doctor or nurse ask about my pain?
Your doctor or nurse will ask you questions about your pain to try to get as much information about it as possible. This will help them work out the best treatment for you. They might ask you the following questions.
- Where is your pain?
- What does it feel like? For example, is it a stabbing pain, or a dull ache?
- When did the pain start? How often do you get it? How long does it last?
- Does it wake you at night?
- Does anything help?
- Have you tried any pain-relieving medicines? Did they help?
- Does anything make it worse?
- How does your pain make you feel? For example, do you feel anxious or depressed? Does this affect the pain?
- How does the pain affect your daily life?
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Treatment For Metastatic Testicular Cancer
Although metastatic testicular cancer is the most advanced stage of this malignancy, it is still considered treatable. Treatment often consists of surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy or a combination of two or more treatment methods. The specific treatment that is recommended for you will depend on many individual factors, including where the cancer has spread to, the size and type of tumor and your individual health.
If you have been diagnosed with metastatic testicular cancer and would like a second opinion or want to learn about receiving treatment at Moffitt Cancer Center, fill out a new patient registration form online or call . We welcome patients with or without a referral.
Prostate Cancer ‘could Be Transmitted Sexually’
May 23, 2014 — Prostate cancer might be a sexually transmitted disease caused by a common infection, according to a study.
Experts say the research has limitations and is not proof, though.
Scientists at the University of California found evidence of a link between prostate cancer and the STDtrichomoniasis, in which a common parasite is passed on during unprotected sexual contact.
The parasite is believed to infect around 275 million people worldwide. Furthermore, over three-quarters of men harboring it have no symptoms and may not seek treatment, resulting in chronic inflammation of the prostate.
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Where Does Testicular Cancer Spread To
Testicular cancer that reaches an advanced stage may spread, or metastasize, to distant areas of the body. While most cancers range in stage from 1 to 4, testicular cancer stages range from 1 to 3. Stage 3 testicular cancer may remain localized in one or both of the testicles, or it may have spread to nearby or distant areas of the body. When it spreads to distant areas, it is known as metastatic testicular cancer.
There are specific areas of the body where metastatic testicular cancer is more likely to be found. One of the first areas is often the lymph nodes located closest to the testicles. In more advanced cases, metastatic testicular cancer may also be found in the distant lymph nodes in the neck, chest or pelvis. Additional areas where testicular cancer may metastasize include the:
- Lungs Other than the lymph nodes, the lungs are the most common location where testicular cancer spreads to.
- Bones In advanced cases, testicular cancer may spread to the bones. This is also called testicular cancer bone metastasis.
- Liver Another area where advanced testicular cancer may spread is the lungs.
- Brain Testicular cancer may spread to the brain if the type of tumor is a choriocarcinoma. This type of tumor typically does not grow large, but can rapidly spread through the blood.
Symptoms Of Prostate Cancer
Many of these symptoms can be seen in benign conditions including BPH which is very common in men over 65. Always discuss symptoms with your doctor. Early stage prostate cancer usually does not have any symptoms, but these are signs to look for:
- Frequent urination
- Weak flow, interrupted flow, and difficulty emptying bladder
- Frequent night urination
- Erectile dysfunction
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An enlarged prostate can also be the cause of other problems. If the enlarged prostate is causing symptoms, the best treatment would be a natural remedy. In the meantime, there are treatments for a wide range of conditions that cause a man to experience pain. A common surgical procedure involves an electric loop, laser, or electro-stimulation. The procedure is a safe and effective option for treating enlarged or symptomatic BPH.
Whats The Difference Between Prostate And Testicular Cancer
Prostate and testicular cancers occur in different parts of the body, and they commonly affect men at different stages of their life. These two basic differences between prostate and testicular cancer are significant for all men to understand, so they can take appropriate precautions to detect tumors early.
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Bph Vs Prostate Cancer
Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a very common non-cancerous condition that affects many men from the age of about 50.
The prostate gland gets bigger as you get older and sometimes presses on the tube you pass urine through . This can cause problems with passing urine.
In both BPH and prostate cancer, the prostate gland gets larger.
BPH is benign which means its not cancer and it cant spread.
Prostate cancer can spread to other parts of your body.
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Testicular pain may happen in one or both testicles, said the Cleveland Clinic.
The health site continued: Soreness may be acute or chronic .
Potential causes include injury, twisting, infection, hernia, nerve damage, fluid build-up, inflammation and cancer.
Testicular pain may be acute, meaning that its onset is sudden, and its duration is limited.
The pain is considered chronic if it is constant or intermittent and it lasts three months or longer.
Pain may occur in one testicle or both testicles.
The sensation of pain cannot be measured directly, and this is why it is imperative to speak with your GP about the possible cause for this pain.
Blood and urine tests may be performed to rule out any infections as possible causes.
Testicular And Prostate Cancer
The NHS have targeted five symptoms relating to mens health that shouldnt be ignored, and along with moles, feeling depressed and impotence, these include symptoms of testicular and prostate cancer. We have outlined the key signs to look out for with these two cancers and what risk factors might be at play, as well as some useful links at the bottom.
Testicular cancer is one of the lesser common cancers but around 2,200 men in the UK are still diagnosed with it every year – incidence rates are increasing throughout the world and have more than doubled in the UK since the mid-1970s. The good news, however, is that survival rates for testicular cancer have actually risen year on year and the UK now boasts a 95% cure rate.
Testicular cancer usually affects younger men between the ages of 15 and 49, and so if you are within this age bracket and/or experiencing any of the following signs and symptoms, it is important to visit your GP as soon as possible.
The most common symptom is a lump or swelling in one of your testicles. Most of the time testicular lumps or swellings are not a sign of cancer, and in fact research has shown that less than 4% of testicular lumps are cancerous. Nonetheless they should not be ignored.
Other symptoms can include:
Remember it’s always important to be aware of what feels normal for you – get to know your body and make an appointment to visit your GP if you notice any changes.
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What Is Advanced Prostate Cancer
When prostate cancer spreads beyond the prostate or returns after treatment, it is often called advanced prostate cancer.
Prostate cancer is often grouped into four stages.
- Stages I & II: The tumor has not spread beyond the prostate. This is often called early stage or localized prostate cancer.
- Stage III: Cancer has spread outside the prostate, but only to nearby tissues. This is often called locally advanced prostate cancer.
- Stage IV: Cancer has spread outside the prostate to other parts such as the lymph nodes, bones, liver or lungs. This stage is often called advanced prostate cancer.
When an early stage prostate cancer is found, it may be treated or placed on surveillance . If prostate cancer spreads beyond the prostate or returns after treatment, it is often called advanced prostate cancer. Stage IV prostate cancer is not curable, but there are many ways to control it. Treatment can stop advanced prostate cancer from growing and causing symptoms.
There are several types of advanced prostate cancer, including:
If your Prostate Specific Antigen level has risen after the first treatment but you have no other signs of cancer, you have Ã¢biochemical recurrence.Ã¢
Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer
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