Do Some Groups Experience Higher Rates Than Others
Cancer death rates differed by cancer type, sex, racial and ethnic group, and residence in an urban or rural county. Healthy People 2030 objectives include reducing death rates for lung cancerexternal icon to 25.1 deaths per 100,000 population, colorectal cancerexternal icon to 8.9 deaths per 100,000 population, female breast cancerexternal icon to 15.3 deaths per 100,000 female population, and prostate cancerexternal icon to 16.9 deaths per 100,000 male population.
NOTES: Deaths were classified using the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision. Cancer deaths were identified using underlying cause-of-death codes C00-C97 . Rates were age-adjusted to the 2000 US standard population. Urban/rural status was based on county of residence, classified using the 2013 NCHS Urban-Rural Classification Scheme for Counties.Healthy People objectivesexternal icon are available.
National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System, Mortality Data.
- 1,153 children younger than 15 years old died of cancer.
- 8,863 adolescents and young adults between 15 and 39 years old died of cancer.
- 151,578 adults between 40 and 64 years old died of cancer.
- 338,340 adults between 65 and 84 years old died of cancer.
- 102,413 adults who were 85 years old or older died of cancer.
Note: Age was not recorded for 3 cancer deaths.
Prognosis For Prostate Cancer
It is not possible for a doctor to predict the exact course of a disease, as it will depend on each persons individual circumstances. However, your doctor may give you a prognosis, the likely outcome of the disease, based on the type of prostate cancer you have, the test results, the rate of tumour growth, as well as your age, fitness and medical history.
Prostate cancer often grows slowly and even more aggressive types tend to grow more slowly than other types of cancer. If diagnosed early, prostate cancer has one of the highest five year survival rates.
Are You At Risk
In the UK, about 1 in 8 men will get prostate cancer in their lifetime.
Find out more about your risk.
See and share our infographic on prostate cancer risk.
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Effectiveness Of Early Detection
Potential Benefits of Screening
To understand the potential benefits of PSA-based screening for prostate cancer, the USPSTF examined the results of the ERSPC, PLCO, and CAP trials and site-specific reports from 4 ERSPC trial sites. To understand the effectiveness of treatment of screen-detected, early-stage prostate cancer, the USPSTF also examined the results of 3 randomized trials and 9 cohort studies.3
The ERSPC trial randomly assigned a core group of more than 160,000 men aged 55 to 69 years from 7 European countries to PSA-based screening vs usual care.8 Four ERSPC sites reported on the cumulative incidence of metastatic prostate cancer. After a median follow-up of 12 years, the risk of developing metastatic prostate cancer was 30% lower among men randomized to screening compared with usual care . The absolute reduction in long-term risk of metastatic prostate cancer associated with screening was 3.1 cases per 1000 men.11 After a median follow-up of 13 years, the prostate cancer mortality rate among men aged 55 to 69 years was 4.3 deaths per 10,000 person-years in the screening group and 5.4 deaths per 10,000 person-years in the usual care group .8 The ERSPC trial did not find a reduction in all-cause mortality.8
Neither the ERSPC, PLCO, or CAP trials, nor any of the ERSPC site-specific analyses, found an overall all-cause mortality benefit from screening for prostate cancer.
Potential Benefits of Treatment
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Data Sources And Methods
The sources and methods used in compiling the estimates in GLOBOCAN 2018 are described in detail elsewhere and also are available online at the Global Cancer Observatory . The Global Cancer Observatory website includes facilities for the tabulation and graphical visualization of the GLOBOCAN database for 185 countries and 36 cancers by age and sex.
The profile of cancer, globally and by world region, is built up in GLOBOCAN using the best available sources of cancer incidence and mortality data within a given country therefore, validity of the national estimates depends on the degree of representativeness and the quality of source information. The methods used to compile the 2018 estimates are largely based on those developed previously, with an emphasis on the use of short-term predictions and modeling of incidence-to-mortality ratios, where applicable. The list of cancer sites, however, has been extended to 36 cancer types in GLOBOCAN 2018, with one of the major additions being estimates of the incidence of, and mortality from, nonmelanoma skin cancer . Together with all cancers combined, cancer-specific estimates are provided for 185 countries or territories worldwide by sex and for 18 age groups .
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Prostate Cancer Incidence And Mortality In 2020
The incidence and mortality of prostate cancer in 2020 of the major countries are shown in Table 1. Globally, more than 1.4 million new prostate cancer cases were diagnosed in 2020. The crude incidence rate was 36.0 per 100,000 males and the ASIR was 30.7 per 100,000 males. Data by continents in Figure 1 showed that, ASIRs in Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, Northern America and Oceania exceeded 59 per 100,000 males, while ASIRs in Africa and Asia were lower than 30 per 100,000 males. However, the regional distribution of ASMR was quite different, with the highest rate in Africa, followed by Latin America and the Caribbean, Europe, Oceania, Northern America and Asia.
Figure 1. Incidence and mortality of prostate cancer in 2020 by continent. Incidence rate Mortality rate ASIR, age-standardized incidence rate ASMR, age-standardized mortality rate.
ASIRs substantially vary more than 123-fold among 174 countries, wherein the highest ASIR was 110.7 per 100,000 males in Ireland from Northern Europe while the lowest ASIR was 0.9 per 100,000 males in Bhutan from South-Central Asia. Similarly, ASMRs varied by more than 77-fold among 174 countries, from the lowest ASMR of 0.54 per 100,000 males in Bhutan from South-Central Asia to the highest ASMR of 41.7 per 100,000 males in Zimbabwe from Eastern Africa, in which the crude mortality rate was only 12.2 per 100,000 .
Better Understanding Of Prostate Cancer
Were using the power of big data, working with partners to analyse and combine data from tens of thousands of men whove been diagnosed and treated for different types and stages of prostate cancer. The aim is to find patterns in when the cancers started, how they developed and how aggressive they are. In the future this could help doctors predict how particular prostate cancers are likely to develop so we can choose the most appropriate treatment for each man.
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Black Women Are Twice As Likely To Die From Uterine Cancer As White Women And 41% More Likely To Die From Breast Cancer Despite Similar Or Lower Incidence Rates
Overall, Black women have an 8% LOWER cancer incidence rate compared with White women. Specifically, Black women are LESS likely to be diagnosed with breast and lung cancer.
However, Black women are MORE likely to be diagnosed with stomach, liver, and pancreatic cancerall of which have low survival rates.
In contrast to the lower overall incidence rate, Black women have a 12% HIGHER overall cancer death rate than White women. Specifically, Black women have double the risk of dying from uterine corpus cancer and are 41% more likely to die from breast cancer even though their incidence rates are similar to or lower than those of White women.
The wide disparity in breast cancer death rates between Black and White women likely reflects fewer cancers being diagnosed at a localized stage , as well as less access to high-quality treatment. Cancers diagnosed at a later, more advanced stage are typically more complicated to treat. Black women have alower 5-year survival rate overall and for every every stage of diagnosis. About 82% of Black women live at least 5 years after their initial breast cancer diagnosis, compared to 92% of White women.
Higher death rates from breast cancer among Black women are also likely related to:
Prostate Cancer Facts And Figures
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Recent Mortality Trends For The 4 Most Common Cancers
The prostate cancer ASMR decreased by 2.9% per year from 1994 to 2016 . This decline is likely due to early detection, which decreased incidence, and to improved treatments -that increased survival from prostate cancer.
The ASMR for breast cancer decreased by 2.4% per year from 1994 to 2016 . This is likely because of:
- greater regular participation in mammography screening, especially after the introduction of Ontarios organized breast screening program
- improved primary treatment
- the use of more effective chemotherapies following breast cancer surgery
The colorectal cancer ASMR has consistently declined in both sexes since 1981 . In males, the mortality rate declined 3.4% per year from 2005 to 2016. The rate decreased similarly among females by 2.7% per year from 2004 onward.
Reasons for these strong declines may be changes in risk and protective factors, earlier diagnosis due to greater uptake of screening, and improvements in treatment.
In males, the ASMR for lung cancer declined by 2.2% per year from 1988 to 2012, followed by a steeper decline of 4.2% from 2012 onward . Among females, the mortality rate was stable from 1999 until 2008 then began a decrease of 1.4% per year onward.
Prostate Cancer Incidence By Age
Prostate cancer incidence is strongly related to age, with the highest incidence rates being in older men. In the UK in 2016-2018, on average each year around a third of new cases were in males aged 75 and over.
Age-specific incidence rates rise steeply from around age 45-49, peak in the 75-79 age group before dropping slightly and remaining stable in the oldest age groups.The highest rates are in in the 75 to 79 age group.
Prostate cancer , Average Number of New Cases per Year and Age-Specific Incidence Rates per 100,000 Male Population, UK, 2016-2018
For prostate cancer, like most cancer types, incidence increases with age. This largely reflects cell DNA damage accumulating over time. Damage can result from biological processes or from exposure to risk factors. A drop or plateau in incidence in the oldest age groups often indicates reduced diagnostic activity perhaps due to general ill health.
The age distribution of prostate cancer cases probably partly reflects the age groups in which prostate specific antigen testing and transurethral resection of the prostate are carried out.
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Mortality By Sex And Cancer Type
In 2016, 29,074 people died from cancer in Ontario, for an age-standardized mortality rate of 190.0 per 100,000 .
The 4 most commonly diagnosed cancers were responsible for almost 50% of all cancer deaths in 2016.
The 4 most commonly diagnosed cancers were responsible for almost 50% of all cancer deaths in 2016. Lung, colorectal and prostate cancers accounted for 44% of all male cancer deaths, while lung, breast and colorectal cancers accounted for 49% of all female cancer deaths .
Analysis by: Surveillance, Analytics and Informatics, Ontario Health Data source: Ontario Cancer Registry , Ontario Health
Some of the less commonly diagnosed cancers made a relatively large contribution to mortality because of their poor prognosis. For example, pancreatic cancer accounted for 6.5% of all cancer deaths in 2016 more than prostate cancer and almost as much as breast cancer .
The highest ASMR for cancers occurring in both sexes combined were for lung , colorectal and pancreatic cancers.
The ASMR for all cancers combined was significantly higher for males than females . Among males, the highest ASMR was for lung , followed by colorectal and prostate cancers. For females, the highest ASMR was for lung , followed by breast and colorectal cancers.
Males had a consistently higher mortality rate than females for each type of cancer except thyroid. Thyroid cancer mortality rates were the same for both sexes.
The greatest differences between male and female mortality rates were seen in:
Obesity Insulin And Physical Activity
Obesity is linked to advanced and aggressive prostate cancer , and high body mass index is associated with more aggressive disease too and a worse outcome .
The possible explanation is that most of the time obese men present with alteration of circulating levels of metabolic and sex steroid hormones, which are known to be involved in prostate development as well as oncogenesis .
Obesity, particularly when combined with physical inactivity, leads to the development of insulin resistance with reduced glucose uptake. That, in turn, leads to chronically elevated blood levels of insulin. Insulin is a hormone that promotes growth and proliferation, thus is reasonable to add it in the list of risk factors that promote prostate cancer initiation and/or progression . Additionally, adipose cells represent a source of inflammation as well as of macrophages in adipose, which releases inflammatory mediators . Three meta-analyses reported a modest but consistent association between obesity and prostate cancer incidence independently of BMI increase . Data from three national surveys in the US population reported that obesity is associated with more aggressive prostate cancer and higher mortality despite its lower incidence .
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Am I At Risk Of Prostate Cancer
In the UK, about 1 in 8 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer in their lifetime. We dont know exactly what causes prostate cancer but there are some things that may mean you are more likely to get it these are called risk factors.
There are three main risk factors for getting prostate cancer, which are things you cant change. These are:
- getting older it mainly affects men aged 50 or over
If you have any of these risk factors or if you have any symptoms, speak to your GP. They can talk to you about your risk, and about the tests that are used to diagnose prostate cancer. You can also get in touch with our Specialist Nurses, who can help you understand your risk of prostate cancer.
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Racial Disparities In Breast Cancer
There is a persistent mortality gap between Black women and white women when it comes to breast cancer. While the incidence of the disease is similar in both groups, Black women have a 40% higher death rate from breast cancer. The disparity is even greater in the younger demographic: The mortality rate among young Black women is double that of young white women.
The decrease in annual deaths can be attributed to enhanced screening measures and improved treatment options. Prostate cancer is now associated with the best overall outcomes, and the five-year relative survival rate of the disease is 97.8%.
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Epidemiology Of Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed non-skin cancer among Canadian men, and is a significant cause of cancer-related death .1,2 In 2008, the Canadian Cancer Society estimated that 24 700 new cases of prostate cancer would be diagnosed, constituting about 26% of all new male cancer cases, and that 4300 men would die of the disease.1 Currently, 1 in 7 men will develop prostate cancer during their lifetime, and 1 in 27 will die of it, a ratio of 1 death per 4 diagnosed, which is very similar to the ratio observed for breast cancer in women.
Age-standardized mortality rates for prostate, lung and colorectal cancer in Canada, 19792008. Rates are standardized to the age distribution of the 1991 Canadian population. Rates for 2005 to 2008 are estimates.2
Age-standardized incidence rates for prostate cancer in Canada, 1979 to 2008. Rates are standardized to the age distribution of the 1991 Canadian population. Rates for 2005 to 2008 are estimates.2
Pearls And Other Issues
PSA Testing: The Controversy
It was originally used as a prostatic tissue stain to help determine the etiology of tumors of unknown origin. Later, serum levels of PSA were used as a prostate cancer screening tool because serum PSA levels start to increase significantly about seven to nine years before the clinical diagnosis of malignancy. While a good indicator of prostatic disorders, PSA elevation is not specific for cancer as it is also elevated in benign prostatic hyperplasia, infection, infarction, inflammation , and after prostatic manipulation. It also cannot reliably distinguish between low-risk/low-grade disease and high-risk/high-grade cancers.
About 80% of the patients currently diagnosed with prostate cancer are initially investigated due to an elevated serum PSA.
While it unquestionably increases prostate cancer detection rates, the value of PSA testing is less clear in avoiding overtreatment, improving quality of life, and lengthening overall survival, which is why routine PSA screening for prostate cancer remains quite controversial.
PSA testing became widely available in the United States in 1992, and since then, prostate cancer detection rates have increased substantially.
More impressively, according to the National Cancer Institute, since 1992, the death rate from prostate cancer in the United States has dropped by an amazing 44% which is substantially due to PSA screenings resulting in earlier prostate cancer diagnosis and treatment.
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