Survival Rates In Prostate Cancer: The Facts
For you as a patient, the disease-specific survival rate is the decisive aspect: what are the chances of surviving prostate cancer? 98 % of our patients who underwent radical prostatectomy, and in whom the tumor was confined to the prostate gland , were still alive 10 years after their operation. Even in patients with an advanced stage tumor , the survival rates are between 72 and 95 %.
Disease-speciic survival rates of our patients after 10 years in percent
The table on the page Results shows the disease-specific survival rate of our patients following surgery, according to the stage of the tumor.
- If the tumor was confined to the protstate or had only spread to the periphery of the prostate, the 10-year survival rate was more than 98%.
- If cancer cells had already spread to the seminal vesicle or to the area surrounding the prostate, the rate was between 87% and 77% respectively.
- If the lymph nodes were affected , 81% of our patients survived.
- If the preoperative PSA value was > 20 ng/mL , the disease-specific survival rate was 93%.
- If the preoperative Gleason Score was 8 or higher, 70% of the patients survived.
What Will Happen After My Treatment
You will have regular check-ups during and after your treatment to check how well it is working. You may hear them called follow-up appointments. Youll have regular PSA blood tests ask the people treating you how often youll have these. If your PSA level goes down, this usually suggests your treatment is working.
Tell your doctor or nurse about any side effects youre getting. There are usually ways to manage side effects.
Make sure you have the details of someone to contact if you have any questions or concerns between check-ups. This might be your specialist nurse or key worker. You can also speak to our Specialist Nurses.
Read more about follow-up after prostate cancer treatments.
A Note About Sex And Gender
Sex and gender exist on spectrums. This article will use the terms male, female, or both to refer to sex assigned at birth. .
- neuroendocrine tumors
Experts believe some males can also have a mixed type, which combines a common and a rare type of prostate cancer. Rare forms of prostate cancer are more likely to metastasize.
Prostate cancer overall is the second most common cancer in males after skin cancer. Doctors discover most prostate cancers in the prostate or nearby tissues. However, about 16% of new cases spread into distant locations.
Between 2012 and 2018, about more cases of prostate cancer occurred in the United States.
Research has shown the incidence of prostate cancer for African American males is that of people who are white. Among African Americans, the cancer types tend to be more aggressive, and deaths are double compared with white Americans.
The differences in outcomes for African American males may originate from:
- Physical: Higher prostate-specific antigen levels in the blood.
- Genetic: Some African American males carry certain gene mutations or chromosomal abnormalities that can increase prostate cancer risk.
- Environmental: Social disparities may cause people from historically marginalized groups to live on a lower income and have limited access to healthy food.
- Social: Disparities in healthcare can limit genetic screening or disease treatment access, leading to underdiagnosis.
Other people should begin screening at the age of 50.
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Prognostic Grouping Of Prostate Cancer
TNM prognostic grouping for prostate cancer is based on the stage, PSA level and Gleason score. This grouping is more accurate in predicting a prognosis than TNM staging alone. It goes without saying that the lower the scores, the best outlook and chance that your cancer can be successfully treated without the cancer coming back .
In contrast, if the prognosis is darker for men with higher scores, there may still be treatment options to control your cancer, improve your quality of life and prolong your survival.
Doctors also use nomograms to predict a prostate cancer prognosis. Nomograms are predictive tools.
Questions To Ask Your Doctor Or Nurse
You may find it helpful to keep a note of any questions you have to take to your next appointment.
- What is my Gleason score?
- How far has my cancer spread?
- What treatments are suitable for me?
- What do they involve?
- What are the advantages and disadvantages of each treatment, including their possible side effects?
- How effective is my treatment likely to be?
- Can I see the results of treatments youve carried out?
- Can I get copies of all my test results and letters about my treatment?
- Is the aim to keep my prostate cancer under control, or to get rid of it completely?
- Are all of the treatments available at my local hospital? If not, how could I have them?
- Can I join any clinical trials?
- How quickly do I need to make a decision?
- After treatment, how often will I have check-ups and what will this involve?
- If I have any questions or get any new symptoms, who should I contact?
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What Are Next Steps
Bone metastasis have a profound effect on the long-term outlook for prostate cancer. But its important to remember that the numbers are only statistics.
The good news is that life expectancy for advanced prostate cancer continues to increase. New treatments and therapies offer both longer life and better quality of life. Speak to your doctor about your treatment options and long-term outlook.
Everyones cancer experience is different. You may find support through sharing your treatment plan with friends and family. Or you can turn to local community groups or online forums like Male Care for advice and reassurance.
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Stages Of Prostate Cancer
In order to determine the stage of a patients prostate cancer, most doctors start by using the TNM staging system, which helps describe different aspects of the cancers growth.
- T the T category measures the size and extent of the Tumor
- N the N category measures whether and how far the cancer has spread to the Lymph Nodes
- M the M category whether the cancer has spread to other organs in the body (a process called Metastasis
The score for each of these categories is determined based on a pre-determined set of criteria. Your doctor cannot feel or see the tumor with a score of T1. A score of T3 means that the tumor has begun to grow outside of the prostate.
After calculating the TNM categories, doctors will combine the TNM score with the patients Gleason score and PSA levels assigning of a specific stage to the patients cancer.
Prostate cancer prognosis and survival rates can help give patients an idea of their chances of surviving the disease based on the stage and time of diagnosis. While some patients may find this information helpful, others may not want to know.
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Where Can I Get Support
Being diagnosed with any kind of prostate cancer can be frightening and overwhelming. No matter what youre feeling or thinking, there is support available if you want it. You can speak to our Specialist Nurses, in confidence or chat with them online. Our Dealing with prostate cancer page looks at things you can do to help yourself and people who can help.
Visit our wellbeing hub for information to help support you in looking after your emotional, mental, and physical wellbeing. If you are close to someone with prostate cancer, find out more about how you can support someone with prostate cancer and where to get more information.
Stage 1 Prostate Cancer
In stage 1, the cancer is confined to the prostate. Stage 1 prostate cancer cant be detected during a digital rectal exam and is usually expected to be slow-growing. The tumor is one half of one lobe of the prostate or even less . There is no regional lymph node metastasis and no distant metastasis. . The PSA level is below 10ng/ml. The Grade Group is 1.
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Survival For All Stages Of Prostate Cancer
Generally for men with prostate cancer in England:
- more than 95 out of 100 will survive their cancer for 1 year or more
- more than 85 out of 100 will survive their cancer for 5 years or more
- almost 80 out of 100 will survive their cancer for 10 years or more
Survival of prostate cancer is also reported in Scotland and Northern Ireland. But it is difficult to compare survival between these countries because of differences in the way the information is collected.
Cancer survival by stage at diagnosis for England, 2019Office for National Statistics
These statistics are for net survival. Net survival estimates the number of people who survive their cancer rather than calculating the number of people diagnosed with cancer who are still alive. In other words, it is the survival of cancer patients after taking into account the background mortality that they would have experienced if they had not had cancer.
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What Types Of Hormone Therapy Are There
There are two basic kinds of hormone therapy for prostate cancer. One class of drugs stops the body from making certain hormones. The other allows the body to make these hormones, but prevents them from attaching to the cancer cells. Some doctors start treatment with both drugs in an effort to achieve a total androgen block. This approach goes by several names: combined androgen blockade, complete androgen blockade, or total androgen blockade.
Hereâs a rundown of the techniques.
Hormone therapy for prostate cancer can cause bone thinning osteoporosis, which can lead to broken bones. However, treatment with bisphosphonates â like Aredia, Fosamax, and Zometaâ may help prevent this condition from developing, says Holden.
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Outlook For Men With Localised Prostate Cancer
Most localised prostate cancer is slow-growing and may not need treatment or shorten a mans life. For many men who have treatment for localised prostate cancer, the treatment will get rid of the cancer. For others, treatment may be less successful and the cancer may come back. If this happens, you might need further treatment.
Treatment Options For Localized Prostate Cancer
If you are diagnosed with low-risk prostate cancer, you may be presented with a number of different treatment options. The most common include:
- Active Surveillance: Your doctor may want to monitor your disease to see if treatment is necessary. With active surveillance, you will have regular check-ups with your doctors, and he or she may perform biopsies regularly. If your test results change, your doctor will discuss your options for starting treatment.
- Watchful Waiting: While some doctors use the terms active surveillance and watchful waiting interchangeably, watchful waiting usually means that fewer tests are done. You will still visit your doctor regularly, but your doctor will discuss changes in your health as they relate to managing your symptoms, not curing your disease.
- Prostatectomy: Removal of the prostate, called prostatectomy, is an option that has a strong likelihood of removing your cancer since you are removing the gland where it is located. However, this is an invasive procedure that can lead to other issues, which will be covered later.
- Radiation: Your doctor may suggest radiation as a means of therapy that targets tumors with radiation, usually through daily treatments in a hospital or clinic over multiple weeks.
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Prognostic Groups For Locally Advanced Prostate Cancer
Doctors divide locally advanced prostate cancer into groups depending on how likely it is that the cancer will grow quickly or spread. In the UK, doctors now divide prostate cancer into 5 groups. This is the Cambridge Prognostic Group . The 5 groups are from CPG 1 to CPG 5. This CPG system does not apply if you have cancer that has already spread to other parts of the body. This is metastatic or advanced prostate cancer.
Your group depends on:
- your Grade Group or Gleason score
- the prostate specific antigen level
- the size of your cancer. This is the T stage
Ask your doctor or specialist nurse if you have any questions about this.
Surgically Removing The Prostate Gland
A radical prostatectomy is the surgical removal of your prostate gland. This treatment is an option for curing prostate cancer that has not spread beyond the prostate or has not spread very far.
Like any operation, this surgery carries some risks.
A recent trial showed possible long-term side effects of radical prostatectomy may include an inability to get an erection and urinary incontinence.
Before having any treatment, 67% of men said they could get erections firm enough for intercourse.
When the men who had a radical prostatectomy were asked again after 6 months, this had decreased to 12%. When asked again after 6 years, it had slightly improved to 17%.
For urinary incontinence, 1% of men said they used absorbent pads before having any treatment.
When the men who had a radical prostatectomy were asked again after 6 months, this had increased to 46%. After 6 years, this had improved to 17%.
Out of the men who were actively monitored instead, 4% were using absorbent pads at 6 months and 8% after 6 years.
In extremely rare cases, problems arising after surgery can be fatal.
Its possible that prostate cancer can come back again after treatment. Your doctor should be able to explain the risk of your cancer coming back after treatment, based on things like your PSA level and the stage of your cancer.
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Survival Of Prostate Cancer
Survival depends on many factors. No one can tell you exactly how long you will live.
Below are general statistics based on large groups of people. Remember, they cant tell you what will happen in your individual case.
Survival for prostate cancer is generally good, particularly if you are diagnosed early.
External Beam Radiation Therapy
With EBRT, radiation usually in the form of X-ray photons is focused from a source outside the body onto the prostate and, if needed, surrounding lymph node areas. In preparation for the therapy, internal markers are implanted in the prostate, using a procedure similar to prostate biopsy they’re used to help align and target the prostate with the radiation beam. A planning CT scan is then performed to locate the prostate gland in relation to the surrounding structures and organs. The resulting images are used to make a treatment plan that targets the prostate gland while protecting healthy surrounding tissues .
Most radiation today is given as a type of EBRT known as intensity-modulated radiation therapy , in which the shape and intensity of several fine radiation beams can be varied during treatment to minimize damage to surrounding tissues. At UCSF, patients also benefit from image-guided radiation therapy , where the prostate is imaged immediately before the start of each treatment session to verify and adjust the position of the gland for added accuracy. Stereotactic body radiation therapy, or SBRT , is a special type of IMRT/IGRT in which high doses of radiation are given over a small number of treatments .
The schedule for EBRT treatments varies. Treatment may be delivered in one of the following ways:
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What Is Localized Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer is the abnormal growth of cells in the prostate gland. Localized prostate cancer has not spread outside the gland. Early prostate cancer usually doesnât cause symptoms.
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men. Most men who get it are older than 65. If your father, brother, or son has had prostate cancer, your risk is higher than average.
Men of African descent have the highest rates of both prostate cancer and deaths from it.
About 21,000 men are diagnosed with prostate cancer in Canada every year.footnote 1 In the United States, about 12 out of 100 men in the U.S. will be diagnosed with prostate cancer sometime in their lifetime.footnote 2 But most men who are diagnosed with prostate cancer donât die from prostate cancer.
Unlike many other cancers, prostate cancer is usually slow-growing. When prostate cancer is found earlybefore it has spread outside the glandit may be cured with radiation or surgery.
Prostate cancer that has grown beyond the prostate is called advanced prostate cancer. Treatment choices are different for that stage of cancer.
Risk Of Progression Of Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer can also be classified based on the risk of recurrence . For this assessment, that can impact your choice of therapeutic approach, we take into account your clinical stage, PSA level, and Gleason score.
Your cancer may be at low risk of spreading if:
- Your PSA level is less than 10 ng/mL
- You Gleason score is 6 or less
- Your cancer is stage T1 or T2a
Your cancer may be at medium risk of spreading if:
- Your PSA level is between 10 and 20 ng/mL
- Your Gleason score is 7
- Your cancer is stage T2b
Your cancer may be at high risk of spreading if:
- Your PSA level is higher than 20 ng/mL
- Your Gleason score is 8, 9 or 10
- Your cancer is stage T2c, T3 or T4
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Accessing Clinical Trials At Ucsf
UCSF is currently conducting research in four main areas:
- Identification of genetic and lifestyle factors that predispose men to clinically significant prostate cancer
- Discovering alterations in genes and proteins to improve current prostate cancer treatment
- Developing new therapies for men with recurrent widespread prostate cancer
- Preventing progression of early-stage untreated disease
To learn more, search for a trial or contact us, visit Cancer Clinical Trials at UCSF.