The Bottom Line For African American Men
Because low-grade prostate cancer has more aggressive features in African Americans, many physicians have questioned whether active surveillance is still an appropriate option for them.
The findings from Dr. Huangs study dont mean that African Americans shouldnt be offered active surveillance, Dr. Parnes stressed. After up to 18 years of follow-up, the largest prospective study of active surveillance for men with low-risk prostate cancer reported only two deaths from prostate cancer among the 1,298 participants, 96 of whom were African American, he noted.
These findings should be part of the conversation between patients and their doctors, Dr. Parnes said.
As should the risks of treatment, he added. I think overtreatmentactively treating people who may not benefitis still the bigger problem, he said.
The benefits of treatment are relatively small in men with low-risk prostate cancer and, therefore, we should take into account the potential harms of intervention, such as erectile dysfunction and bladder and bowel complications, before recommending surgery or radiation therapy to men with low-risk prostate cancer, said Dr. Parnes.
Myth: Prostate Cancer Is For Older Men
Fact: While its true that the majority of men diagnosed with prostate cancer are older, it can strike younger men, too. About 40 percent of all cases occur in men younger than 65, according to the ACS. Its not uncommon at all for men in their fifties and some in their forties to have prostate cancer, says Sartor.
The exact age you should start getting regularly screened for prostate cancer is still an area of confusion and debate. At least start talking to your doctor about PSA testing once youre 50 years old, the ACS recommends. The exception to this is if the disease runs in your family, in which case its a good idea to start PSA screening earlier, at age 40 or 45.
Stages Of Prostate Cancer
In order to determine the stage of a patients prostate cancer, most doctors start by using the TNM staging system, which helps describe different aspects of the cancers growth.
- T the T category measures the size and extent of the Tumor
- N the N category measures whether and how far the cancer has spread to the Lymph Nodes
- M the M category whether the cancer has spread to other organs in the body (a process called Metastasis
The score for each of these categories is determined based on a pre-determined set of criteria. Your doctor cannot feel or see the tumor with a score of T1. A score of T3 means that the tumor has begun to grow outside of the prostate.
After calculating the TNM categories, doctors will combine the TNM score with the patients Gleason score and PSA levels assigning of a specific stage to the patients cancer.
Prostate cancer prognosis and survival rates can help give patients an idea of their chances of surviving the disease based on the stage and time of diagnosis. While some patients may find this information helpful, others may not want to know.
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What Is Pancreatic Cancer
Your pancreas, tucked away behind your stomach, is an inconspicuous organ tirelessly producing essential enzymes and hormones your body needs for digestion, and to regulate blood sugar. Pancreatic cancer is a disease in which cancerous cells form in the tissues of the organ, disrupting its necessary functions.
You Experience Nausea And Vomiting Especially After Eating Fatty Foods
Fatty foods can do a number on you, and othersfor proof, just visit a mens room on a Monday morning . However, if you are repeatedly experiencing nausea and vomiting, especially after eating fatty foods like fries, pizza, or even avocados, it may be a sign that something is wrong with your pancreas. Why? Pancreatic cancer symptoms can arise when pressure from a pancreatic cyst or tumor is growing on the stomach or small intestine, causing a block of the digestive tract. As the growth becomes bigger, it can actually cause a partial block by entwining itself around the far end of the stomach.As well, your pancreas produces digestive enzymes that help your system break down fat, among other things. Diseases that affect the pancreas tend to mess with your bodys fat-digesting capabilities, leading to nausea and possible vomiting. A sudden onset of these symptoms, though, is more likely to indicate pancreatitis, an inflammation of the pancreas.The Rx: There are myriad reasons for an upset stomach, so dont quickly jump to conclusions. If nausea or vomiting after eating persists, make sure to see a doctor so you can find out whats going on.
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Is Prostate Cancer Curable
Prostate cancer is the most common type of cancer among men, second only to skin cancer. Learning that one has any type of cancer isnt easy, but the first question on most patients minds after diagnosis is, is prostate cancer curable?
The short answer is yes, prostate cancer can be cured, when detected and treated early. The vast majority of prostate cancer cases are discovered in the early stages, making the tumors more likely to respond to treatment. Treatment doesnt always have to mean surgery or chemotherapy, either. Non-invasive radiation therapy can effectively treat prostate cancer in the case of Pasadena CyberKnife, radiosurgery treatment generally takes less than a week, and you can typically resume your normal activities the same day you receive treatment.
Myth: Prostate Cancer Treatment Always Causes Impotence
Fact: According to research published in the December 2014 issue of the International Journal of Urology, theres been progress in developing models to predict erectile dysfunction after localized treatment for prostate cancer. Sartor says avoiding impotence depends on many factors, including the skill of the surgeon who is operating on you. But as surgical techniques are improving, people are recovering faster and having fewer side effects.
According to Sartor, one year after surgery, approximately 25 percent of patients will say their function is fine, 25 percent will have mild dysfunction, 25 percent will have moderate dysfunction, and 25 percent say they have severe dysfunction.
Age can also be a complicating factor, adds Wei: As men get into their sixties and seventies, a lot of them already have some compromise of sexual function. Prostate cancer treatment certainly wont correct this problem, but it also isnt likely to make it significantly worse for most men.
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General Prostate Cancer Survival Rate
According to the American Cancer Society:
- The relative 5-year survival rate is nearly 100%
- The relative 10-year survival rate is 98%
- The 15-year relative survival rate is 91%
Note: Relative survival rate means the percentage of patients who live amount of years after their initial diagnosis.
Keep in mind, however, that because the compiled list figures are of cancers diagnosed up to 15 years ago, you may have an even greater chance of survival than these indicate due to advances in prostate cancer treatment technology
Driver Found For More Deadly Prostate Cancer
A transcription factor that aids neuron function also appears to enable a cell conversion in the prostate gland that can make an already recurrent cancer even more deadly, scientists say.
BRN4 is mostly expressed in the central nervous system and inner ear, but now scientists have the first evidence it’s amplified and overexpressed in patients with the rare but increasing neuroendocrine prostate cancer, they report in the journal Clinical Cancer Research.
As their name implies, neuroendocrine cells also are more common in the brain, but the walnut-sized prostate gland also has a small percentage of them and they appear to become more numerous and deadly in the face of newer, more powerful hormone therapy.
The sex hormone androgen is a major driver of prostate cancer so hormone therapy to suppress it or its receptor — called chemical castration — is a standard frontline therapy, says Dr. Sharanjot Saini, cancer biologist in the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology at the Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University.
Still as high as 40 percent of patients develop castration-resistant prostate cancer within a few years.
This more aggressive cancer is harder to treat, and patients may get a newer, more powerful hormone therapy like enzalutamide, which was first approved in 2012 for this recurring prostate cancer.
It’s the far more common luminal cell type in the prostate gland that typically becomes cancerous, says Saini, the study’s corresponding author.
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What Is The Deadliest Cancer Of The Female Reproductive System
Ovarian cancer that has the highest incidence and mortality rate. Around 21,000 new diagnoses and 13,000 deaths occur each year in the United States as a result of ovarian cancer. Though the overall five-year survival rate is 49%, the majority of cases occur when the tumor has already metastasized, dropping that survival rate to 30%.
How Do I Know If I Have Prostate Cancer
The PSA blood test looks for prostate-specific antigen in the blood. Experts are divided on who should have a PSA test and when to have it:
- The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends that for men aged 55 to 69, the decision to have PSA testing should be an individual one based on a conversation about risks and benefits with their doctor.
- The American Cancer Society recommends a discussion between the doctor and patient about the pros and cons of PSA tests. Men shouldn’t get the test unless their doctor has given them this information, the group says. It also recommends that the discussion start at age 50 for most men at average risk for prostate cancer, or ages 40 to 45 for those at high risk of prostate cancer.
- The American Urological Association also recommends that men talk with their doctor about the pros and cons of the PSA test. That discussion should typically take place between the ages of 55 and 69. For those at higher risk for prostate cancer, the discussion can take place as early as ages 40 to 54.
PSA levels in blood are higher if there is prostate cancer, making it a valuable tool in finding early prostate cancer. But PSA levels can also be high from infection or inflammation in the prostate or from an enlarged prostate.
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Working To Treat A Deadly Form Of Prostate Cancer
– July 11, 2018
A deadly form of advanced prostate cancer is more common than experts previously thought.
A new study looked at about 200 men with prostate cancer that had spread and were resistant to standard treatment. It found that about 17 percent of the men had developed a deadlier subtype of prostate cancer called treatment-emergent small cell neuroendocrine prostate cancer.
Clinical recognition of the emergence of small cell carcinoma during the usual progression of prostate cancer is increasing, said Moffitt pathologist Dr. Jasreman Dhillon. The increase is largely attributed to the use of more effective androgen deprivation therapies in recent years. This type of prostate cancer progresses rapidly and combinational chemotherapy is the only treatment option at this time.
The studys findings suggest the deadly cancer subtype could also be successfully treated with targeted therapy, a type of treatment that is tailored to individual tumors.
Moffitt is already using a type of individualized treatment called adaptive therapy. It utilizes mathematical models to analyze a patients response to treatment to create a unique and constantly evolving treatment strategy.
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But, like all organs in the body, it can be invaded by cancer – when cells in the gland start to grow uncontrollably.
One in eight British men will get prostate cancer in their lifetime.
Many will live long lives and not experience too many nasty symptoms.
But in others, their cancer will spread, which is when the disease can turn deadly.
Prostate cancer currently kills 10,900 men a year, but Prostate Cancer UK warns that this number could surge to 15,000-a-year by 2026.
Worryingly the majority of men don’t know anything about the disease and, of those that do have a shred of a clue, 60 percent aren’t confident naming the signs and symptoms, according to a male cancer charity Orchid.
A survey by the charity revealed men over 45 knew the least about the killer disease and more than half of black African and Caribbean men did not know their ethnicity increased their risk.
Rebecca Porta, Orchid chief executive said: “Too many men are not seeking help and advice early enough.
“If we can tackle this from both sides, by getting many more men and GPs to talk about prostate cancer risk, we can help to improve outcomes in the longer term both for patients and the health service.”
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Prostate Cancer Survival Rates
Answering the question of how curable is prostate cancer? first requires understanding what doctors mean when they refer to curability. Regardless of the type of cancer, doctors consider cancer cured when a patient remains cancer-free for a specified period after treatment. The higher the number of patients who stay cancer-free for five years or longer, the higher the curability of that particular disease.
Prostate cancer, therefore, has one of the highest curability rates of all types of cancer, thanks in large part to early detection standards and advances in treatment, such as the stereotactic body radiation therapy offered by Pasadena CyberKnife. When the cancer is detected in the early local or regional stages that is, before the cancer has spread or when it has only spread to limited areas in the pelvic regions the five-year survival rate is nearly 100 percent.
Survival rates decline significantly when cancer is detected at later stages however, the good news is that only about five percent of men are diagnosed after the cancer has become widespread throughout the body. In short, more than 90 percent of men who are diagnosed with prostate cancer live for five years or longer after treatment, making it one of the most curable forms of cancer.
Myth: Psa Tests Are Bad For You
Fact: Some prostate cancer experts recommend against regular PSA testing, but not necessarily because of the test itself which is just a simple blood test. PSA screening certainly isnt perfect, but it doesnt pose any actual danger to your health. The real hazard is anxiety and sometimes faulty decision-making when it comes to interpreting and acting on PSA results. According to the ACS, PSA levels usually go above 4 when prostate cancer develops. However, a PSA level between 4 and 10 results in a prostate cancer diagnosis only about 25 percent of the time.
Causes of a high PSA can range from things like bicycling to ejaculation. As a result, some men are given invasive biopsies that arent needed. Or, if they do have cancer, they may be treated aggressively for slow-growing tumors that might never have caused any issues.
Which is not to say that PSA tests arent valuable or that they cant save lives. In the years since theyve been widely used, says Dr. Wei, prostate cancer diagnoses have gone up but the death rate is going down. This is at least in part because PSA tests lead to more investigation, which can find cancer early when its more receptive to treatment. Talk with your doctor about whether and how often you should be screened for prostate cancer.
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What Are The Symptoms Of Prostate Cancer
In most cases, prostate cancer causes no symptoms.
In rare cases, men may experience certain symptoms when they have advanced prostate cancer. However, these symptoms are also present in many men who do not have cancer, so it is best to discuss them with a doctor before jumping to any conclusions. Some of these symptoms can include difficulty emptying the bladder, blood in the urine, and bone pains.
How Is Prostate Cancer Diagnosed
Doctors describe the growth and spread of prostate cancer in stages. Doctors use these stages as guides when choosing treatment options or offering prognoses to their patients.
Prostate cancer staging is based on a number of different factors, including prostate cancer screening tests such as a digital rectal exam or prostate-specific antigen test and imaging studies like bones scans, MRIs, CT scans, and trans-rectal ultrasounds.
Deadly Form Of Advanced Prostate Cancer Is Common Calls For Distinct Treatment
- University of California – San Francisco
- A new study of prostate cancer in 202 men, whose cancers had spread and were resistant to standard treatment, found that a surprisingly large number of these cancers — about 17 percent — belong to a deadlier subtype of metastatic prostate cancer.
A new study of prostate cancer in 202 men, whose cancers had spread and were resistant to standard treatment, found that a surprisingly large number of these cancers — about 17 percent — belong to a deadlier subtype of metastatic prostate cancer.
Previously, it was thought that these cancers constituted less than 1 percent of all prostate cancers.
The study, which was led by researchers at UC San Francisco and published online July 9 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, suggests that this prostate cancer subtype, called treatment-emergent small cell neuroendocrine prostate cancer , might in the future be routinely and more successfully treated with targeted drugs that already are being developed or tested in clinical trials.
The research team identified specific genetic mutations and patterns of gene expression that are found in t-SCNC, but are distinct from the more common type of prostate cancer known as adenocarcinoma. Among the patterns identified in t-SCNC was higher activity of specific “transcription factor” proteins — proteins that switch on production of other proteins that drive cancer growth.
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