The 10 Most Relevant Signs & Symptoms Of Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer is one of the most fearsome types of cancer in men as it grows silently and manifestations only arise when the tumor is big enough to start causing problems. Different from benign prostatic hyperplasia, cancer usually grows opposite to the urinary bladder, and the first clinical manifestations are detected through a rectal exam. But we should take extra care at certain signs and symptoms, especially after 40 years of age. These signs and symptoms are not necessarily caused by prostate cancer, but they should serve as a warning to look for professional medical advice and perform the appropriate tests to rule out this fearsome disease.
The most relevant signs and symptoms of prostate cancer are as follows:
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Recurrent Prostate Cancer Symptoms
Prostate cancer that returns after treatment is considered recurrent. When it returns to the area around the prostate, the disease is classified as a local recurrence. If the cancer is found in another part of the body, the recurrent cancer is considered metastatic. If the cancer metastasizes outside the prostate, it most likely develops in bones first. Metastatic prostate cancer most often spreads to the liver, bones and lungs.
After initial treatment for prostate cancer, PSA levels are expected to drop dramatically. The first sign of recurrent prostate cancer may be a rise in the PSA level. Other symptoms of recurrent cancer may depend on whether and where the cancer has spread. Symptoms include:
- Blood in the urine
- Difficulty breathing
Patients should discuss any symptoms with their doctor and ask about scheduling regular PSA tests after treatment.
Diagnosis Of Prostate Cancer
Diagnosis of any type of cancer is a crucial step to identify the condition of the patient and prepare a treatment plan for them.
These diagnostic tests help your oncologist determine the stage and adversity of cancer.
Some of the tests that can be done to diagnose prostate cancer are:
- MRI Magnetic resonance imaging is an imaging technique to determine the position of the tumour. It helps doctors to plan treatment according to the position of cancerous tissue that has to be removed.
- Biopsy It is a general process that is used to diagnose any type of cancer. This technique involved taking out a sample of tissue from the diseased organ and observing it for cancerous cells. Similarly, a biopsy is used to diagnose prostate cancer.
- Ultrasound Ultrasound is also a method to get an image of the prostate gland. A small tube is inserted into the body of the patient through the rectum to get a better look at the tumour. It uses sound waves to create images of the prostate gland.
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Symptoms Of Prostate Cancer
Though early warning signs of prostate cancer are rare, sometimes men experience symptoms before they are diagnosed. The severity of symptoms may depend on where the cancer is located in the prostate and how advanced it has become. However, having any of these symptoms does not necessarily mean that you have prostate cancer or that the disease has progressed beyond its early stages.
Should I Have A Psa Test
Because the results of the PSA test are not as reliable as doctors would like, other tests and investigations are needed to diagnose prostate cancer.
A PSA test cannot identify prostate cancer on its own, and changes in PSA levels alone are not a good reason to start treatment.
If you are thinking about asking for a PSA test, it is important that you first discuss whether it is right for you with your GP so you understand what the results might mean.
The Prostate Cancer Risk Management Programme has information on the risks and benefits of the PSA test to help you decide whether or not to have it.
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Treating Advanced Prostate Cancer
If the cancer has reached an advanced stage, it is no longer possible to cure it. However, it may be possible to slow its progression, prolong your life and relieve symptoms.
Treatment options include:
- hormone treatment
If the cancer has spread to your bones, medicines called bisphosphonates may be used. Bisphosphonates help reduce bone pain and bone loss.
Warning Signs Of Prostate Cancer
One of the challenges of prostate cancer is that it often doesnt present symptoms that alert men to its presence, particularly in the early stages. But the Urology Care Foundation notes that there may be some warning signs that you have problems related to your prostate, including the following:
If you get screened for prostate cancer, there are additional warning signs based on how the prostate gland cells look under a microscope, notes the American Cancer Society. Cells that may be concerning will exhibit some level of what is known as prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia . These cells may exhibit low-grade PIN, in which something is slightly off with the cells, or high-grade PIN, when they show clear abnormalities.
Under a microscope, prostate gland cells may also exhibit what is known as proliferative inflammatory atrophy . PIA indicates cells that are smaller than normal and show some signs of inflammation. These cells may be worth additional monitoring because they could develop high-grade PIN and ultimately prostate cancer.
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What Causes Prostate Cancer
Put simply, prostate cancer is caused by changes in a person’s genetic code or DNA. There are two important types of genes that may play a role in the development of prostate cancer:
- Genes that help cells grow, divide, and stay alive are called oncogenes.
- Genes that keep cell growth under control, repair mistakes in our DNA, or trigger cellular death at the right time are called tumor suppressor genes.
If either gene type changes , then it can result in cells growing out of control e.g., cancer.
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How Is Prostate Cancer Diagnosed
Screenings are the most effective way to catch prostate cancer early. If you are at average cancer risk, youll probably have your first prostate screening at age 55. Your healthcare provider may start testing earlier if you have a family history of the disease or are Black. Screening is generally stopped after age 70, but may be continued in certain circumstances.
Screening tests for prostate cancer include:
- Digital rectal exam: Your provider inserts a gloved, lubricated finger into the rectum and feels the prostate gland, which sits in front of the rectum. Bumps or hard areas could indicate cancer.
- Prostate-specific antigen blood test: The prostate gland makes a protein called protein-specific antigen . Elevated PSA levels may indicate cancer. Levels also rise if you have BPH or prostatitis.
- Biopsy: A needle biopsy to sample tissue for cancer cells is the only sure way to diagnose prostate cancer. During an MRI-guided prostate biopsy, magnetic resonance imaging technology provides detailed images of the prostate.
Is Early Onset Prostate Cancer Common
The average age for a first prostate cancer diagnosis is 68. In the U.S., about 10% of men newly diagnosed with prostate cancer are under 55. You may also develop prostate cancer when youâre much younger, in your teens or as a young adult, though this is extremely rare.
Around the world, thereâs been an increase in early onset prostate cancer in men between 15 and 40 years old.
Experts arenât sure why thereâs an increase. It may be related to certain risk factors. It may also be because of changes in how itâs diagnosed. Screenings are more frequent, and thereâs more awareness that prostate cancer can happen in younger men.
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The Symptoms Of Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men. It causes more than 8,000 deaths, or about 1 death per hour. Pain, fatigue What are the signs of a prostate tumour? At the advanced stage?
Its the cancer more common in men with about 50,000 new cases discovered each year in France. the prostate cancer is responsible for more than 8000 deaths, that is 1 death every hour. On the occasion of Movember who promotes the prostate cancer screening each November, we took stock of the signs that can alert of prostate cancerwhether at beginning disease or a more advanced stagewith Dr Natacha Naoun, oncologist specializing in Genito-Urinary oncology at Gustave Roussy.
What Is The Prognosis For People Who Have Prostate Cancer
Because prostate cancer tends to grow slowly, most men die from something other than the disease. Early detection is key to better outcomes. Almost all men 97% to 98% diagnosed with localized cancer that hasnt spread outside of the prostate live at least five years after diagnosis. When metastatic cancer has spread outside of the gland, one-third of men continue to survive after five years.
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How You Might Feel
When prostate cancer is advanced, it can no longer be cured. But treatment can control it for some time and help to relieve symptoms.
Finding out that your cancer cant be cured is distressing and can be a shock. Its common to feel uncertain and anxious. ItÃ¢s normal not to be able to think about anything else.
Lots of information and support are available to you, your family and your friends. It can help to find out more about your cancer and the treatments you might have. Many people find that knowing more about their situation can make it easier to cope.
Talk to your doctor or nurse to understand:
- what your diagnosis means
How Common Is Prostate Cancer And Who Is At Risk
Prostate cancer most often affects men between ages 55 and 69. There is a huge gap between the proportion of men diagnosed with prostate cancer and those whose health and lifespan are affected by the disease. American men have a 16 percent lifetime risk of developing prostate cancer, but only 2.9 percent of men die from it.
In fact, many prostate cancers are believed to be slow growing, with men dying from causes other than prostate cancer. Autopsy studies support this, with one analysis of 19 different autopsy studies finding a high prevalence of undiagnosed prostate cancer in men as young as 30, and in more than half of men over age 80.
There are some factors that increase risk for prostate cancer, including:
Race African-American men are far more likely to develop prostate cancer than white men 203.5 vs. 121.9 cases per 100,000 men. They are also more than twice as likely as white men to die of prostate cancer 44.1 vs. 19.1 deaths per 100,000 men.
Family History Positive family history of prostate cancer is another risk factor.
Obesity Obesity is another risk factor linked to an increased risk of prostate cancerspecific mortality and biochemical recurrence in men with prostate cancer.
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Painful Or Burning Urination
Prostate cancer causes the gland to enlarge in size, affecting the normal flow of urine. Impedance to urine flow is the reason for painful micturition. It is also possible that painful urination occurs due to cancer spreading to surrounding structures. Prostate cancer is notorious for its nature of local invasion of surrounding structures like the urethra, bladder, and rectum. Burning during urination can be due to suppurative infection or side effects of the treatment of prostate cancer. The enlargement of the gland causes urinary obstruction and retention. Undue retention of urine inside the bladder can lead to infection of urethra and bladder leading to burning during urination.
Antibiotics can relieve the situation for a while, but the doctor needs to start treating prostate cancer to avoid further risks and complications. Discussing this problem with your doctor is the best possible choice to ward off the complications of undiagnosed prostate cancer. Family history and genetics are major risk factors of prostate cancer, but lifestyle changes and diet can make these warning signs more conspicuous as obesity can worsen your condition of painful micturition.
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Prostate cancer is one of the deadliest forms of cancer for men, and its also one of the most common. A new report published this week revealed an alarming discovery that could explain why the disease is so fatal: Late detection.
Favorite Online Support Networks And Advocacy
PHEN is an organization geared toward African-American men a group that has the nations highest prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates. It offers support groups, survivor networks, and a monthly newsletter that features new treatments and clinical trials. Their annual Fathers Day Rally event takes place at churches nationwide.
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/13do Not Ignore Signs Of Recurrent Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer can also be recurrent, that means it can return after treatment. When it occurs again around the prostate, it is known as local recurrence. If it has spread to other parts, it is considered metastatic.
That said, the first sign of recurrent prostate cancer may be a rise in the Prostate-Specific Antigen level.
Other symptoms include: Blood in urine, difficulty in urination, fatigue, lower back ache, jaundice.
If you have battled prostate cancer, continue going for screenings.
How Can Prostate Cancer Be Treated
Prostate cancer can be treated in a number of different ways depending on factors such as the severity of cancer and the rate at which it is growing.
Maslow explains, In my 20 years of oncology experience, I have seen many changes on the front of prostate cancer. All treatment forms depend on the aggressiveness of the disease and the patients current health status. Radiation often plays a big part in treatment of prostate cancer. This comes in many formsexternal beam radiation, prostate seed implants, proton therapy, high intensity focused ultrasound, and chemotherapy. In some cases for advanced disease, radioactive isotopes can be administered to make the patient more comfortable.
Low-grade prostate cancer may not require treatment, especially if you arent experiencing any symptoms. In these instances, a doctor may recommend active surveillance, which involves closely monitoring symptoms and undergoing regular blood testing, rectal exams, and prostate biopsies.
Other treatments for prostate cancer include hormone therapy, freezing or heating the prostate tissue, surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and targeted drug therapy. Your doctor can recommend the best prostate cancer treatment for you based on your unique condition.
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Is It Always Cancer
HOWEVER, as we said, most prostate tumors dont happen in the central gland, but in the peripheral zone. And this zone is far from the urethra.
So, many times, when we have these symptoms they are NOT because of cancer.
They are because of something else like benign prostatic hyperplasia . This disorder is way more frequent and many men suffer it after a certain age .
Whats more, pain and burn are also caused by prostatitis .
So how can we tell between cancer and the others ?
Warning Signs Of Early Cancer In Men
For men, recognizing and getting tested for early symptoms of cancer can significantly improve their chances of long-term survival. This is especially critical for men as the National Cancer Institute has stated that men are more likely to die from this disease than women are.
As a prostate cancer surgeon, I want men to not only be aware of early symptoms of prostate cancer, but of all cancers that afflict men. However, the only way to know for sure is to know early cancer warning signs, get tested and if diagnosed with cancer, get treated as soon as possible.
Below are possible warning signs of cancer in men. Any man with any of these symptoms should schedule a visit with their primary care physician right away:
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Causes Of Prostate Cancer
It’s not known exactly what causes prostate cancer, although a number of things can increase your risk of developing the condition.
- age risk rises as you get older and most cases are diagnosed in men and anyone with a prostate over 50 years of age
- ethnic group prostate cancer is more common among men and anyone with a prostate of African-Caribbean and African descent than in men and anyone with a prostate of Asian descent
- family history having a brother or father who developed prostate cancer under the age of 60 seems to increase the risk of you developing it having a close female relative who developed breast cancer may also increase your risk of developing prostate cancer
- obesity there may be a link between obesity and prostate cancer
- exercise men and anyone with a prostate who regularly exercises have also been found to be at lower risk of developing prostate cancer
- diet research is ongoing into the links between diet and prostate cancer a diet high in calcium is linked to an increased risk of developing prostate cancer
In addition, some research has shown that prostate cancer rates appear to be lower in men and anyone with a prostate who eat foods containing certain nutrients including lycopene, found in cooked tomatoes and other red fruit, and selenium, found in brazil nuts. However, more research is needed.
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