Can Prostate Infection Be Sexually Transmitted
Every day, over a million new cases of sexually transmitted infections are reported among the global population. The most common sexually transmitted infections reported include syphilis, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, and chlamydia.
Some of these STIs increase the risk of being infected with others. For example, if a person has syphilis, they are more likely to contract HIV in cases where they do not take proper precautionary measures during sexual activity.
Due to the position of the prostate gland, many people have asked whether a prostate infection can be sexually transmitted. There are cases where an infection in the prostate is related to a sexually transmitted infection, but it is also important to note that this is not always the case.
Additionally, it should also be noted that not every case of prostatitis is linked to a bacterial infection. In some cases, a patient develops chronic inflammation in the prostate. This can lead to the development of chronic prostatitis, even in the absence of bacteria.
With this said, men should still be informed about the possibility of a sexually transmitted infection affecting their prostate gland.
It is quite rare for a case of prostatitis to be related to a bacteria transmitted through sexual activity, yet it does happen in some scenarios. In these situations, it is usually the result of a man being infected with chlamydia following sexual activity.
What Are The Signs & Symptoms Of Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer symptoms do not usually manifest themselves in the early stages of the disease. Less than five percent of men with prostate cancer show early urinary symptoms. The condition has usually progressed to later stages when prostate cancer symptoms do arise.
Some men may experience symptoms that can indicate the presence of prostate cancer. Others may find out during a routine check-up, a blood test, or a rectal exam with their doctor. Because the symptoms of prostate cancer are similar to other symptoms patients, will need to go through further testing to determine whether they actually have prostate cancer.
How Will Your Doctor Diagnose A Prostate Infection
A prostate infection diagnosis is based on your medical history, a physical exam, and medical tests. Your doctor can also rule out other serious conditions such as prostate cancer during the exam. During a physical exam, your doctor will conduct a digital rectal exam to test your prostate and will look for:
- enlarged or tender lymph nodes in the groin
- swollen or tender scrotum
Your doctor may also ask about your symptoms, recent UTIs, and medications or supplements youre taking. Other medical tests that can help your diagnosis and treatment plan include:
- urinalysis or semen analysis, to look for infections
- a prostate biopsy or a blood test for prostate-specific antigen
- urodynamic tests, to see how your bladder and urethra store urine
- cystoscopy, to look inside the urethra and bladder for blockage
Your doctor may also order an ultrasound to get a closer look. The cause will help determine the correct course of treatment.
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Patients And Samples Collection
The study was approved by the institutional review board of University Hospital of Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon . All patients provided written informed consent prior to participation.
We enrolled one hundred thirty subjects who underwent transrectal biopsy following confirmed clinical criteria , or transurethral resection at our institution, between October 2006 and July 2007 for this population based case-control study. Criteria guidelines for TURP were: refractory urinary retention , recurrent urinary infection secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia , recurrent macrohematuria secondary to BPH, bladder calculi secondary to prostatic enlargement, renal insufficiency secondary to BPH, and large or multiple diverticuli secondary to BPH. The case group included all subjects with histopathologic diagnosis of PC. The control group consisted of subjects who underwent a TRB or TURP, but had no pathological evidence of PC.
How Reliable Are The Screening Tests For Prostate Cancer
Neither of the screening tests for prostate cancer is perfect. Most men with mildly elevated PSA levels do not have prostate cancer, and many men with prostate cancer have normal levels of PSA. Also, the DRE can miss many prostate cancers. The DRE and PSA test together are better than either test alone in detecting prostate cancer.
A recent study examining the PSA histories of men enrolled in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging suggests that PSA velocity may be a better indicator of potentially life-threatening cancer than PSA level. PSA velocity is the rate at which serum PSA levels change over time. The study found that men who had a PSA velocity above 0.35 ng/ml per year had a higher relative risk of dying from prostate cancer than men who had a PSA velocity less than 0.35 ng/ml per year. More studies are needed to determine if PSA velocity more accurately detects potentially life-threatening prostate cancer early.
The NCI Early Detection Research Network has a Prostate Collaborative Group, which is applying a variety of strategies to find better ways to detect prostate cancer early. In addition, the NCI’s prostate cancer Specialized Program of Research Excellence program is funding projects to identify new biomarkers to detect prostate cancer.
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Can Prostate Enlargement Lead To Cancer
The size of prostate is similar to a walnut. It is small but it is so important to support the male reproductive system. It is located underneath the bladder and in front of the back passage . Prostate enlargement in elderly men is pretty common. But can it lead to cancer of prostate?
Understanding prostate enlargement in general
Prostate enlargement is a condition of when there is an increase in the number of prostate cells and tissues. The good news, typically these cells are non-cancerous.
This enlargement may cause some discomfort symptoms. Mostly, these are associated with changes in the habit of how you pass urine, because the enlarged prostate can press and affect the urethra .
Common symptoms related to the way of how to pass urine if you have BPH may include:
In rare cases, men with BPH may also experience inability to pass urine at all, infection in the urinary tract, or even blood found in the urine.
What are the causes, risk factors, and how common is it?
BPH is pretty common, but the exact cause of how it occurs is not known yet though some speculations and theories have been proposed. Some experts believe that it is a consequence from the imbalance of some hormones as the age.
Connection Between Ejaculation And Prostate Cancer
The amount of ejaculations included those from sexual intercourse, masturbation and nocturnal emissions . The one study found that men who ejaculated 21 or more time a month had a 33% decreased chance of developing prostate cancer compared to those who ejaculated 4-7 times a month. The second study showed that men who averaged 4-7 ejaculations a week showed a 36% decreased chance of developing prostate cancer, before the age of 70, as compared to men who ejaculated less than 2-3 times a week.
It’s not known how this increased rate of ejaculation leads to a decreased risk of prostate cancer. The theory behind it is that ejaculation expels potentially harmful or irritating substances from the prostate, thereby decreasing the chances of the occurrence of a malignancy.
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Clinical Characteristics Of The Study Sample
A total of 130 men were enrolled in the study. The majority of the subjects were from northwestern Mexico . For men with PC, 47.3% were older than 70 years of age while 24.0% of controls were older than 70 years. The mean age for cases was 71 years and the mean age for controls was 66 years , p = 0.003. There was a statistical difference in PSA values between case and control groups . The median PSA value was 18.30 ng/ml for cases and 6.70 ng/ml for controls. Most men with PC had PSA values > 10.0 ng/ml .
Table 1 Comparison of study groups by PSA value and Gleason score
Different Symptoms Of Bph Vs Prostate Cancer
Other than skin cancer, prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers for American men. One in nine men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer during his lifetime, according to data from the American Cancer Society.
Just because prostate cancer is so common, that doesnt mean the symptoms youve been experiencing are, in fact, cancer. Many symptoms of prostate cancer are the same for other conditions like infections or abnormal cell growth, also known as BPH. The symptoms of BPH vs prostate cancer can be similar. This is what you need to know and when to see a doctor.
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How Is Localized Prostate Cancer Treated
- Radical prostatectomy is a surgical procedure to remove the entire prostate gland and nearby tissues. Sometimes lymph nodes in the pelvic area are also removed. Radical prostatectomy may be performed using a technique called nerve-sparing surgery that may prevent damage to the nerves needed for an erection. However, nerve-sparing surgery is not always possible.
- Radiation therapy involves the delivery of radiation energy to the prostate. The energy is usually delivered in an outpatient setting using an external beam of radiation. The energy can also be delivered in a technique known as brachytherapy, which involves implanting radioactive seeds in the prostate using a needle. Patients with high-risk prostate cancer are candidates for adding hormonal therapy to standard radiation therapy.
- Active surveillance may be an option recommended for patients with early-stage prostate cancer, particularly those who have low-grade tumors with only a small amount of cancer seen in the biopsy specimen. These patients have regular examinations, PSA testing, and sometimes scheduled biopsies. If there is evidence of cancer growth, active treatment may be recommended. Older patients and those with serious medical problems may also be good candidates for active surveillance.
Providing Your Medical History
At first, the doctor will probably ask you about your medical history. Do you have any chronic illnesses? What illnesses and operations have you had in the past? What medications are you taking, if any? Your doctor is also likely to ask about your psychological well-being and lifestyle: Do you suffer from depression? Are you under a lot of stress? Do you drink alcohol? Smoke? Use illegal drugs? Have you felt a loss of affection for your partner? Have you recently grown interested in a new partner?
As part of this health history, be prepared to tell your doctor specific details about the symptoms that brought you to the office and when they began. Your doctor might want to know how often you had sex before the problem started and if there have been weeks or months in the past when youve had erectile dysfunction. Your doctor may conduct a written or verbal screening test.
If the cause is clear a recent operation for prostate cancer, for example the conversation may move directly to your treatment options. Otherwise, you may need to answer more questions to help the doctor narrow down the possible causes and avoid unnecessary testing.
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Mouse Models Of Infection
One of the challenges to establishing a definitive role for inflammation and/or infection as a causative factor in prostate cancer may be evidenced by what is known about other recognized associations between infections, chronic inflammation and cancer. That is, there is often an extended period of time between initial infection with the microbial agent, the induction of chronic inflammation, and the development of cancer. This scenario would imply that chronic inflammation could persist in the prostate of men for many years without symptoms – and indeed, as discussed in detail above, the prevalence of asymptomatic prostatic inflammation in men appears to be quite high in adult men. Whereas in other known associations between infections and cancer, the causative infectious agent is typically present and detectable at the time when cancer develops, we hypothesize that for prostate cancer this may not be the case. We propose that prostatic infections that occur early in life may induce chronic inflammation that persists for months or even years after the initial infection, and possibly independent of persistent presence of the infectious agent. Evidence in support of this hypothesis has come from animal models of prostate infection that have been recently described in the literature that use the bacterium Propionibacterium acnes to elicit prostatic inflammation.
Risk Factors For Prostate Cancer
Some risk factors have been linked to prostate cancer. A risk factor is something that can raise your chance of developing a disease. Having one or more risk factors doesn’t mean that you will get prostate cancer. It just means that your risk of the disease is greater.
- Age. Men who are 50 or older have a higher risk of prostate cancer.
- Race. African-American men have the highest risk of prostate cancerâthe disease tends to start at younger ages and grows faster than in men of other races. After African-American men, prostate cancer is most common among white men, followed by Hispanic and Native American men. Asian-American men have the lowest rates of prostate cancer.
- Family history. Men whose fathers or brothers have had prostate cancer have a 2 to 3 times higher risk of prostate cancer than men who do not have a family history of the disease. A man who has 3 immediate family members with prostate cancer has about 10 times the risk of a man who does not have a family history of prostate cancer. The younger a man’s relatives are when they have prostate cancer, the greater his risk for developing the disease. Prostate cancer risk also appears to be slightly higher for men from families with a history of breast cancer.
- Diet. The risk of prostate cancer may be higher for men who eat high-fat diets.
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What Is Prostate Cancer
In prostate cancer, normal cells undergo a transformation in which they not only grow and multiply without normal controls, but they also change in their microscopic appearance and can invade adjacent tissues. Prostate cancer cells form into malignant tumors or masses, which then overwhelm surrounding tissues by invading their space and taking vital oxygen and nutrients. Cancer cells from these tumors can eventually invade remote organs via the bloodstream and the lymphatic system. This process of invading and spreading to other organs is called metastasis. Common metastatic locations where prostate cancer cells may eventually be found include pelvic lymph nodes, and bones. The lungs and the liver may also show deposits of, or metastases from, prostate cancer, but that is less common.
Almost all prostate cancers arise from the glandular cells in the prostate. Cancer arising from a glandular cell in any organ in the body is known as adenocarcinoma. Therefore, the most common type of prostate cancer is an adenocarcinoma. The most common non-adenocarcinoma is transitional cell carcinoma. Other rare types include small cell carcinoma and sarcoma of the prostate.
Older men commonly have an enlarged prostate, caused by a benign condition called benign prostatic hyperplasia . Prostate gland cells simply keep growing in number in the prostate gland in BPH. BPH can cause urinary symptoms but is not a form of prostate cancer .
Can Infections Cause Cancer
Since the start of the 20th century, its been known that certain infections play a role in cancer in animals. More recently, infections with certain viruses, bacteria, and parasites have been recognized as risk factors for several types of cancer in humans.
Worldwide, infections are linked to about 15% to 20% of cancers. This percentage is even higher in developing countries, but it is lower in the United States and other developed countries. This is partly because certain infections are more common in developing countries, and partly because some other risk factors for cancer, such as obesity, are more common in developed countries.
Infections can raise a persons risk of cancer in different ways. For example:
- Some viruses directly affect the genes inside cells that control their growth. These viruses can insert their own genes into the cell, causing the cell to grow out of control.
- Some infections can cause long-term inflammation in a part of the body. This can lead to changes in the affected cells and in nearby immune cells, which can eventually lead to cancer.
- Some types of infections can suppress a persons immune system, which normally helps protect the body from some cancers.
Any of these changes might lead to a higher risk of cancer.
Many of the infections that influence cancer risk can be passed from person to person, but cancer itself cannot. A healthy person cant catch cancer from someone who has it.
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Bladder Cancer Risk Factors
Whos at risk for bladder cancer? Its four times more likely to be diagnosed in men than women. Smokers are three times more likely than nonsmokers to develop bladder cancer. The risk also increases for people who work in industries that involve cancer-causing chemicals, including pesticides, dyes, rubber, metal, paint, printing inks, leather and some hairdressing solutions. And people with a family history of bladder cancer or who have had prior cancer treatment involving certain drugs or radiation to the pelvis are at increased risk.
To lower your risk, dont smoke, and limit your occupational exposure to cancer-causing chemicals.