Painful Or Burning Urination
Prostate cancer causes the gland to enlarge in size, affecting the normal flow of urine. Impedance to urine flow is the reason for painful micturition. It is also possible that painful urination occurs due to cancer spreading to surrounding structures. Prostate cancer is notorious for its nature of local invasion of surrounding structures like the urethra, bladder, and rectum. Burning during urination can be due to suppurative infection or side effects of the treatment of prostate cancer. The enlargement of the gland causes urinary obstruction and retention. Undue retention of urine inside the bladder can lead to infection of urethra and bladder leading to burning during urination.
Antibiotics can relieve the situation for a while, but the doctor needs to start treating prostate cancer to avoid further risks and complications. Discussing this problem with your doctor is the best possible choice to ward off the complications of undiagnosed prostate cancer. Family history and genetics are major risk factors of prostate cancer, but lifestyle changes and diet can make these warning signs more conspicuous as obesity can worsen your condition of painful micturition.
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There May Be No Signs Or Symptoms At All
Prostate cancer often produces no clear signs or symptoms in its early stages of development. Prostate cancer typically grows very slowly and may take years to cause symptoms. Many men may have prostate cancer without even knowing.
Because there are frequently no symptoms of prostate cancer, its important to get screened regularly. Its currently recommended to start screening between the age of 40-49. Annual exams should happen yearly for men ages 50-69.
Screening usually consists of both a prostate-specific antigen test and a digital rectal examination.
Symptoms Of Metastatic Prostate Cancer
Metastatic prostate cancer means that a cancer that began in the prostate gland has spread to another part of the body. It is also called advanced prostate cancer.
If your prostate cancer has spread you might:
- feel generally unwell
- have weight loss for no known reason
You might have specific symptoms depending on where the cancer has spread to. These symptoms can also be caused by other medical conditions so might not be a sign that the cancer has spread.
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Early Prostate Cancer Doesnt Have Symptoms
It can be tricky to identify prostate cancer in its early stages without a screening. Thats because most early prostate cancers are not symptomatic, according to Andrew Hung, MD, a urologist at Keck Medicine of USC and assistant professor of urology at the Keck School of Medicine of USC.
Early prostate cancer is usually caught by an abnormal blood test an elevated prostate-specific antigen test, or PSA test, says Hung.
Men often confuse symptoms of an enlarged prostate with warning signs of prostate cancer, although they are typically independent of each other, Hung explains. Symptoms of an enlarged prostate include problems urinating, like the need to go more frequently, difficulty emptying the bladder or a slow or weak stream.
Symptoms of advanced prostate cancer might include difficulty with urination, fatigue or persistent pain in the back, hips or pelvis.
Us Preventive Services Task Force Issues New Prostate Cancer Screening Guidelines
Prostate cancer is usually though not always a very slow-growing cancer that takes a long time to start affecting the body.
Most often, it only causes symptoms when it grows to pinch the urethra or invade the sphincter or other body parts.
In fact, some men with prostate cancer don’t show any signs or symptoms of their illness, the CDC notes.
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Treating Advanced Prostate Cancer
If the cancer has reached an advanced stage, it is no longer possible to cure it. However, it may be possible to slow its progression, prolong your life and relieve symptoms.
Treatment options include:
- hormone treatment
If the cancer has spread to your bones, medicines called bisphosphonates may be used. Bisphosphonates help reduce bone pain and bone loss.
Its A Good Idea To Ask Your Doctor When You Should Start Getting Screened For Prostate Cancer
Theres not a one-size-fits-all approach to when men should begin prostate cancer screening. The American Cancer Society recommends that average-risk men discuss prostate cancer screening at age 50, while the United States Preventive Services Task Force recommends that some men get screened between the ages of 55 and 69.
Some prostate cancer experts, like Hung, think men should consider screening even earlier.
I recommend that men between the ages of 45 to 49 have a baseline PSA test, he says. Depending on the baseline PSA, they should have a PSA test every one to two years until the age of 70.
Since each man has different risk factors, you and your doctor should discuss your individual situation.
The decision to do a PSA test should be a shared decision between the patient and physician, Hung says.
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Prostate Cancer: Psa Tests And Diagnosis
Though most cases of prostate cancer have a good prognosis, the disease is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in American men, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention .
As with other cancers, early detection and treatment may be important for surviving prostate cancer, at least for advanced forms of the disease.
How The Prostate Changes As You Age
Because the prostate gland tends to grow larger with age, it may squeeze the urethra and cause problems in passing urine. Sometimes men in their 30s and 40s may begin to have these urinary symptoms and need medical attention. For others, symptoms aren’t noticed until much later in life. An infection or a tumor can also make the prostate larger. Be sure to tell your doctor if you have any of the urinary symptoms listed below.
Tell your doctor if you have these urinary symptoms:
- Are passing urine more during the day
- Have an urgent need to pass urine
- Have less urine flow
- Feel burning when you pass urine
- Need to get up many times during the night to pass urine
Growing older raises your risk of prostate problems. The three most common prostate problems are inflammation , enlarged prostate , and prostate cancer.
One change does not lead to another. For example, having prostatitis or an enlarged prostate does not increase your risk of prostate cancer. It is also possible for you to have more than one condition at the same time.
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Prostate Treatment Options And Side Effects
With its close proximity to the bowel, urinary, and reproductive systems, any treatment of the prostate can affect the organs and tissues around it.
For example, an enlarged prostate due to BPH can obstruct or place pressure on the urethra. Treatments that affect the surrounding nerves and muscles can compromise bladder function. Surgery might damage important nerve endings, creating problems with urinary and sexual function.
Because of this, alternatives for treating BPH, like Rezum, are available. Rezum uses minimally invasive transurethral vapor therapy to help minimize the effect of BPH on sexual function. Or theres Greenlight, a laser-based treatment that is found to have less frequent complications than surgical procedures.
As another example, the prostate and rectum are anatomically adjacent. As a result, prostate cancer patients who receive radiation therapy targeting the prostate can experience damage to the rectum and surrounding organs, sometimes causing pain and discomfort.
Fortunately, when considering a treatment option like radiation, there are pre-treatment options to consider such asSpaceOAR Hydrogel, which may help to reduce radiation exposure to the rectum during treatment, potentially minimizing the side effects of radiation treatment.
Eating Problems And Weight Loss
Some men with advanced prostate cancer have problems eating, or dont feel very hungry. You might feel or be sick. These problems may be caused by your cancer or by your treatments. Being worried about things can also affect your appetite.
Problems eating or loss of appetite can lead to weight loss and can make you feel very tired and weak. Advanced prostate cancer can also cause weight loss by changing the way your body uses energy.
What can help?
If you feel sick because of your treatment, your doctor can give you anti-sickness drugs. Steroids can also increase your appetite and are sometimes given along with other treatments.
Try to eat small amounts often. If youre struggling to eat because of nausea , try to avoid strong smelling foods. Cold foods tend to smell less, or it may help if someone cooks for you. Try to eat when you feel less sick, even if its not your usual mealtime. Fatty and fried foods can make sickness worse. Drink plenty of water, but drink slowly and try not to drink too much before you eat.
Tell your doctor if you lose weight. They can refer you to a dietitian who can provide advice about high calorie foods and any supplements that might help. It can be upsetting for your family to see you losing weight, and they may also need support. Macmillan Cancer Support and provide support and information about eating problems in advanced cancer.
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Staging Of Prostate Cancer
The stage of a cancer describes its size and how far it has spread. The results of your tests help your doctors decide on the stage and plan your treatment.
We understand that waiting to know the stage and grade of your cancer can be a worrying time. Were here if you need someone to talk to. You can:
Macmillan is also here to support you. If you would like to talk, you can:
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Breast Cancer: Symptoms And Signs
Have questions about breast cancer? Ask here.
ON THIS PAGE: You will find out more about changes and other things that can signal a problem that may need medical care. Use the menu to see other pages.
Many people with breast cancer do not have any body changes or symptoms when they are first diagnosed with breast cancer. Symptoms are changes that you can feel in your body. Signs are changes in something measured, like by taking your blood pressure or doing a lab test. Together, symptoms and signs can help describe a medical problem.
However, some people do have symptoms or signs when they are first diagnosed with breast cancer. If a person develops one or more of the following symptoms or signs, they should discuss them with a doctor. Many times, the cause of a symptom or sign may be a medical condition that is not cancer.
If you are concerned about any changes you experience, including those listed above as well as other concerning changes that are not, please talk with your doctor. Your doctor will ask how long and how often you have been experiencing the symptom, in addition to other questions. This is to help figure out the cause of the problem, called a diagnosis.
The next section in this guide is Diagnosis. It explains what tests may be needed to learn more about the cause of the symptoms. Use the menu to choose a different section to read in this guide.
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Talking With Your Doctor
Different kinds of doctors and other health care professionals manage prostate health. They can help you find the best care, answer your questions, and address your concerns. These health care professionals include:
- Family doctors and internists
- Physician assistants and nurse practitioners
- Urologists, who are experts in diseases of the urinary tract system and the male reproductive system
- Urologic oncologists, who are experts in treating cancers of the urinary system and the male reproductive system
- Radiation oncologists, who use radiation therapy to treat cancer
- Medical oncologists, who treat cancer with medications such as hormone treatments and chemotherapy
- Pathologists, who identify diseases by studying cells and tissues under a microscope
View these professionals as your partnersâexpert advisors and helpers in your health care. Talking openly with your doctors can help you learn more about your prostate changes and the tests to expect.
No Symptoms In Early Stages
The problem is, early stage prostate cancer is a silent lurker with no symptoms. However, a growing tumor will eventually cause symptoms. Since many noncancerous conditions like infection or normal age-related prostate enlargement can cause similar symptoms, only a doctor can tell the difference.
Here are 10 prostate cancer warning signs you should pay attention to. To help you remember them, I have divided them into three categories: urinary function, sexual function, and pain.
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The Role Of Diet In Prostate Cancer Is Unclear
Most prostate cancer risks are things you cant change: Men over 50, African American men and men with a family history are more at risk for prostate cancer. And although its always a good idea to eat a healthy diet, exercise and not smoke, its uncertain whether diet plays a specific role in prostate cancer.
According to the American Cancer Society, some research has shown that a diet high in calcium, either from dairy products or from calcium supplements, may increase the risk of prostate cancer. However, most studies to date have found that average calcium intake isnt associated with an increased risk.
Recurrent Prostate Cancer Symptoms
Prostate cancer that returns after treatment is considered recurrent. When it returns to the area around the prostate, the disease is classified as a local recurrence. If the cancer is found in another part of the body, the recurrent cancer is considered metastatic. If the cancer metastasizes outside the prostate, it most likely develops in bones first. Metastatic prostate cancer most often spreads to the liver, bones and lungs.
After initial treatment for prostate cancer, PSA levels are expected to drop dramatically. The first sign of recurrent prostate cancer may be a rise in the PSA level. Other symptoms of recurrent cancer may depend on whether and where the cancer has spread. Symptoms include:
- Blood in the urine
- Difficulty breathing
Patients should discuss any symptoms with their doctor and ask about scheduling regular PSA tests after treatment.
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What Should I Expect If Im Told I Have Elevated Psa
If your provider finds an elevated PSA level, youll have repeat tests to check your prostate. Many men with elevated PSA levels even those who have prostate cancer live long, healthy lives. Prostate cancer may not need treatment, depending on how slowly the tumor is growing. Keep up with your regular appointments and tests so your care team can keep tabs on your health.
Knowing the numbers
If you or a loved one has been diagnosed with prostate cancer, you may already be familiar with the Gleason scale. It was developed by physician Donald Gleason in the 1960s. It provides a score that helps predict the aggressiveness of prostate cancer.
A pathologist begins by examining tissue samples from a prostate biopsy under a microscope. To determine the Gleason score, the pathologist compares the cancer tissue pattern with normal tissue.
According to the National Cancer Institute , cancer tissue that looks most like normal tissue is grade 1. If the cancer tissue spreads through the prostate and deviates widely from the features of normal cells, it is grade 5.
Is It Healthy To Massage Prostate
It can help ease pressure and swelling by releasing fluids that build up in the prostate. Small studies have found that massaging the area several times a week — along with taking antibiotics — can give relief from pain and pressure. Sometimes a doctor might do a prostate massage during a prostate exam.
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Signs And Symptoms Of Prostate Cancer
Most prostate cancers are found early, through screening. Early prostate cancer usually causes no symptoms. More advanced prostate cancers can sometimes cause symptoms, such as:
- Problems urinating, including a slow or weak urinary stream or the need to urinate more often, especially at night
- Trouble getting an erection
- Pain in the hips, back , chest , or other areas from cancer that has spread to bones
- Weakness or numbness in the legs or feet, or even loss of bladder or bowel control from cancer pressing on the spinal cord
Most of these problems are more likely to be caused by something other than prostate cancer. For example, trouble urinating is much more often caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia , a non-cancerous growth of the prostate. Still, its important to tell your health care provider if you have any of these symptoms so that the cause can be found and treated, if needed. Some men might need more tests to check for prostate cancer.
Why Does Prostate Cancer Happen
The causes of prostate cancer are largely unknown. However, certain things can increase your risk of developing the condition.
The chances of developing prostate cancer increase as you get older. Most cases develop in men and anyone with a prostate aged 50 or older.
For reasons not yet understood, prostate cancer is more common in men and anyone with a prostate of African-Caribbean African descent. It’s less common in men and anyone with a prostate of Asian descent.
Men and anyone with a prostate who have first-degree male relatives affected by prostate cancer are also at a slightly increased risk.
Read more about the causes of prostate cancer
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Figure 2 Why Understaging May Occur
When the prostate is removed, a pathologist examines slices of the gland for evidence of cancer. A. Under a microscope, the pathologist can distinguish tiny tumors, consisting of clumps of visibly abnormal cells. B. With current imaging technology, it is not yet possible for a pathologist to identify micrometastases individual cancer cells shed from the primary tumor that have gone on to seed adjacent tissue. In this image, for example, cancer cells have already penetrated the capsule and migrated to adjacent tissue, even beyond the margin of tissue removed during surgery.
Individual prostate cancer cells can spread to more remote areas of the body in three ways . Whats more, they can do so without being detected with our current technology, essentially escaping under the radar. So its always possible even if you are diagnosed with early-stage prostate cancer that the cancer has already spread and will manifest in the coming years. How likely is it that an early-stage prostate cancer will become active without treatment? A small study provides some clues .
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