Learn More About Screening For Prostate Cancer
Pay attention to warning signs.Unfortunately, there often arent any early warning signs for prostate cancer. A growing prostate tumor usually does not push against anything to cause pain, so the disease may be silent for many years. However, there are certain signs and symptoms you should bring to your doctors attention. In some cases, often when the disease is advanced, prostate cancer can cause symptoms that include:
- A need to urinate frequently, especially at night, sometimes urgently
- Difficulty starting or holding back urination
- Weak, dribbling, or interrupted flow of urine
- Painful or burning urination
- Pressure or pain in the rectum
- Pain or stiffness in the lower back, hips, pelvis, or thighs
Keep the conversation open. Sharing health information can feel uncomfortable. Many people feel that their health is a private matter, and many people feel embarrassed about their health problems. In some families and cultures, its almost taboo to discuss problems.
Its normal to feel a need for privacy around your health, but the first person in a family to learn they carry a mutation can give the greatest possible gift to their children, their siblings, and their cousins when they share that knowledge.
Watch for breast, ovarian, prostate, pancreatic, and colorectal cancers in particular, as these are known to arise in families sharing certain genetic mutations.
What Are The Most Common Prostate Problems
For such a little gland, the prostate seems to cause a lot of concern. Like a troubled, war-torn country, itâs in the news all the time and something always seems to be going wrong there, but you donât really know where it is or why itâs important.
All men are at risk for prostate problems. Thatâs because all men have a prostate. Take a look at this overview of prostate problems to assess your risk for trouble with your prostate.
- Age 31-40: one in 12
- Age 51-60: about one in two
- Over age 80: more than eight in 10
However, only about half of men ever have BPH symptoms that need treatment. BPH does not lead to prostate cancer, although both are common in older men.
Prostate Cancer. Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men . About one man in six will be diagnosed with prostate cancer in their lifetime. Letâs keep these numbers in perspective, though. Because prostate cancer is usually slow growing, only about one in 35 men will die of prostate cancer.
Like BPH, the risk for prostate cancer increases with age. About two out of every three men with prostate cancer are over age 65. No one knows exactly what causes prostate cancer, but risk factors associated with it include:
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What Is A Normal Psa Test Result
There is no specific normal or abnormal level of PSA in the blood. In the past, PSA levels of 4.0 ng/mL and lower were considered normal. However, some individuals with PSA levels below 4.0 ng/mL have prostate cancer and many with higher PSA levels between 4 and 10 ng/mL do not have prostate cancer .
In addition, various factors can cause someones PSA level to fluctuate. For example, the PSA level tends to increase with age, prostate gland size, and inflammation or infection. A recent prostate biopsy will also increase the PSA level, as can or vigorous exercise in the 2 days before testing. Conversely, some drugsincluding finasteride and dutasteride, which are used to treat BPHlower the PSA level.
In general, however, the higher a mans PSA level, the more likely it is that he has prostate cancer.
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Reach Out To Us Today
Prostate screenings are crucial to have so that men can catch any signs of prostate cancer early on. Once a man reaches the ages of 40 and above, it is best that he begins to consult with a doctor about this test.
If you have questions about getting a prostate screening and the importance of them, then reach out to our office so that we can help you further. Give us a call or stop by our office today and wed be happy to assist you in any way that we can.
Request an appointment here: or call Center for Adult Medicine and Preventive Care at for an appointment in our Passaic office.
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Who Should Get A Psa Test
Not everyone should get a PSA test. Why? Because many in this country are treated for low-risk prostate cancer that is discovered through the PSA test, even when it is unlikely that the disease will ever cause symptoms or lead to death. And treatment is associated with significant side effects, including impotence and incontinence . You should discuss whether prostate cancer early detection is right for you with your personal primary care physician.
To avoid the risks of over-treatment, Roswell Park follows the guidelines established by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network . The NCCN brings together world-renowned experts from 30 of the nations top cancer centers to write guidelines that specify the best ways of preventing, detecting and treating cancer. The guidelines are updated at least every year, on the basis of the latest research.
Michael Kuettel, MD, PhD, MBA, Chair of Roswell Park’s Department of Radiation Medicine, serves on the NCCN Prostate Cancer Panel.
If you decide that Prostate Cancer Early Detection is right for you, the NCCN recommends PSA testing as follows:
A Prostate Cancer Gene 3 Rna Test May Be Used For Certain Patients
If a man had a high PSA level and a biopsy of the prostate did not show cancer and the PSA level remains high after the biopsy, a prostate cancer gene 3 RNA test may be done. This test measures the amount of PCA3 RNA in the urine after a DRE. If the PCA3 RNA level is higher than normal, another biopsy may help diagnose prostate cancer.
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What Is Done If A Screening Test Shows An Elevated Psa Level
If someone who has no symptoms of prostate cancer chooses to undergo prostate cancer screening and is found to have an elevated PSA level, the doctor may recommend another PSA test to confirm the original finding. If the PSA level is still high, the doctor may recommend that the person continue with PSA tests and digital rectal exams at regular intervals to watch for any changes over time .
If the PSA level continues to rise or a suspicious lump is detected during a DRE, the doctor may recommend additional tests to determine the nature of the problem. These may include imaging tests, such as magnetic resonance imaging or high-resolution micro-ultrasound.
Alternatively, the doctor may recommend a prostate biopsy. During this procedure, multiple samples of prostate tissue are collected by inserting hollow needles into the prostate and then withdrawing them. The biopsy needle may be inserted through the wall of the rectum or through the perineum . A pathologist then examines the collected tissue under a microscope. Although both biopsy techniques are guided by ultrasound imaging so the doctor can view the prostate during the biopsy procedure, ultrasound cannot be used alone to diagnose prostate cancer. An MRI-guided biopsy may be performed for patients with suspicious areas seen on MRI.
Gene Mutations Should Be Tested Routinely For Ovarian Cancer Say Scientists
by Mike Addelman, University of Manchester
Scientists from The University of Manchester have shown that testing for two gene families linked to a lifetime epithelial ovarian cancer risk of between 5% and 20% has a much higher than expected detection rate.
Routine testing for mutations in homologous recombination and mismatch repair genes in women with the disease who also have a family history of ovarian, breast and other cancers, would save lives, they say.
The study, published in the journal Genetics in Medicine, is the largest study of cancer causing genetic mutations in ovarian cancer to date. The research team tested 277 women with ovarian cancer whose close relatives had been diagnosed with the disease over their lifetime. Of those who tested negative for BRCA1 and 2 gene mutations, 22% were positive for HR and MMR, twice as high as the equivalent detection rate in breast cancer.
Currently, doctors routinely test for cancer causing BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes which are associated with a lifetime risk of 20% to 60% and 10% to 25% respectively. However, though they do test for the other genesit is not routine.
HR genes work in combination with BRCA genes and MMR genes are associated with Lynch syndrome, a condition passed from parents to children which increases the risk of different cancers. One of the HR genesknown as BRIP1was the single gene responsible for most cancers after BRCA1 and BRCA2.
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Prostate Cancer Is The Most Common Nonskin Cancer Among Men In The United States
Prostate cancer is found mainly in older men. In the U.S., about one out of every 8 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer. Most men diagnosed with this disease do not die from it. Prostate cancer causes more deaths in men than any other cancer except lung cancer. Prostate cancer occurs more often in African American men than in White men. African American men with prostate cancer are more likely to die from the disease than White men with prostate cancer.
What Is The Psa Test
PSA stands for prostate specific antigen. Its a protein made by both normal and cancerous prostate cells. It’s normal for all men to have some PSA in their blood.
A high level of PSA can be a sign of prostate cancer. But your PSA level can also be raised because of other conditions that aren’t cancer. This includes:
- a urine infection
- a benign enlarged prostate
The PSA test can also miss some prostate cancers. Research has shown that 1 in 7 men with a normal PSA level have prostate cancer. And that 1 in 50 men with a normal PSA level have a fast growing prostate cancer.
Because of this, the PSA test on its own is not recommended as a screening test for prostate cancer. But men over 50 can usually ask their GP for a PSA blood test if they want. Your GP will explain the potential benefits and risks of having a PSA test.
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Referrals From Your Gp
The symptoms of prostate cancer can be very similar to some other prostate problems, so it can be very difficult for GPs to decide who may have a suspected cancer and who may have something much more minor that will go away on its own.
There are particular prostate symptoms that mean your GP should refer you to a specialist straight away. The National Cancer Control Programme has produced guidelines for GPs in Ireland. The guidelines help GPs decide which patients need to be seen urgently by a specialist called a urologist. A urologist is a doctor who specialises in treating disorders of the urinary tract, including the kidney,, bladder and prostate.
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How Are Researchers Trying To Improve The Psa Test
Scientists are investigating ways to improve the PSA test to give doctors the ability to better distinguish cancerous from benign conditions and slow-growing cancers from fast-growing, potentially lethal cancers. None has been proven to decrease the risk of death from prostate cancer. Some of the methods being studied include:
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Understanding Your Psa Test Results
PSA is usually measured in nanograms per millilitre of blood . There is no one PSA value that is considered normal. The value varies from man to man and increases as you get older. Most men have a PSA level of less than 3ng/ml.
Your GP or specialist may suggest further tests if your PSA level is higher than would be expected for someone of your age. Talk to your doctor about your PSA level and what this means for you.
Screening For Prostate Cancer
There is no national screening programme for prostate cancer in the UK. This is because there isnt a reliable test that can pick up prostate cancer that needs treatment at an early stage.
Overall research has shown that current tests dont reduce the number of men dying from prostate cancer. Research is going on to find a new test. Or see if the current test is more effective if used in a different way and can find the cancers that need treatment more accurately.
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Should I Have A Prostate Cancer Screening Test
Routine testing for prostate cancer in all men without symptoms is not recommended in New Zealand at present. Being tested for prostate cancer is your choice. Learning about the pros and cons of prostate testing can help you decide if it is right for you.
To help you decide if a prostate check is right for you, the Ministry of Health has developed the Kupe website. It will help you understand the risks, benefits and implications of prostate testing, so you can have an informed conversation with your doctor.
If you are unsure about whether you need to get tested for prostate cancer, contact your GP for a discussion on the risks and benefits of testing.
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The Initial Causes What Age Should You Get Tested For Prostate Cancer
One of the first symptoms of prostate issues is pain or tenderness in the groin or lower back. This can be the result of a noncancerous condition called enlarged prostatic tissue, or it could be an infection of the bladder. In either case, its important to see a doctor as soon as possible. If youre suffering from prostate pain, you may want to consider reducing your caffeine intake.
Another symptom of a potentially enlarged prostate is difficulty starting a stream of urine, leaking, or dribbling. These symptoms are not serious, but theyre still alarming. Most men put up with an enlarged prostate for years before seeking medical attention, but they typically seek treatment as soon as they notice symptoms. Even if you dont have symptoms, its worth getting checked to determine if you have any prostate issues.
If you experience nightly bathroom runs, you may be experiencing an enlarged prostate. You may be having difficulty starting a stream of urine, or you may even be dribbling or leaking during the day. These problems arent life-threatening, but can become a nuisance. You should not ignore these signs and seek treatment as soon as you notice them. If you feel any of these symptoms, you should consult a doctor.
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Tests Are Used To Screen For Different Types Of Cancer When A Person Does Not Have Symptoms
Scientists study screening tests to find those with the fewest harms and most benefits. Cancer screening trials also are meant to show whether early detection helps a person live longer or decreases a person’s chance of dying from the disease. For some types of cancer, the chance of recovery is better if the disease is found and treated at an early stage.
Other Prostate Cancer Tests
There are still different ways to test for prostate cancer. One of the next prostate cancer tests is issued to determine how aggressive the prostate cancer is. The most common way to determine the aggressiveness of your prostate cancer is the Gleason score. It is also important to test or determine how far the cancer has spread. There are a number of different imaging tests to determine the extent of the cancer, which is necessary in order for treatment to begin.
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