Thursday, May 19, 2022

Do All Mammals Have Prostates

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What Symptoms Indicate An Issue With The Female Prostate

The three different ways mammals give birth – Kate Slabosky

Because this type of cancer is rare, there arent a lot of case studies. That means recognizing symptoms of this type of cancer may be difficult.

If you experience bleeding out of your urethra, you should see a doctor. That may be a symptom of cancer of the Skenes glands. Or its more likely a symptom of another issue with your urethra. The bleeding may not be accompanied by any pain, and it may happen on and off over a period of time.

Its always best to see a doctor if you notice any abnormal symptoms, especially if they recur. Early diagnosis can help improve your outlook for most conditions. You should see your doctor if you have any of these symptoms, which could indicate other conditions:

  • painful or frequent urination, or if its difficult to pass urine
  • blood in your urine, or passing blood from your urethra
  • painful sexual intercourse
  • feeling of pressure behind the pubic bones
  • abnormal menstrual cycle, or sudden changes to your menstrual cycle

There are conditions other than cancer that may be related to the Skenes glands, and which may cause noticeable symptoms.

female prostatitis has been diagnosed as an infection of the urethra, but may actually be an infection of the Skenes glands. In the past this has been diagnosed as infection of the urethra. Doctors are increasingly aware that the female prostate can be a separate site of infection that should be treated separately.

Symptoms of infection of the Skenes glands may include:

Psa In Other Biologic Fluids And Tissues

Concentration of PSA in human body fluids

Fluid
female serum 0.01 – 0.53

It is now clear that the term prostate-specific antigen is a misnomer: it is an antigen but is not specific to the prostate. Although present in large amounts in prostatic tissue and semen, it has been detected in other body fluids and tissues.

In women, PSA is found in female ejaculate at concentrations roughly equal to that found in male semen. Other than semen and female ejaculate, the greatest concentrations of PSA in biological fluids are detected in breast milk and amniotic fluid. Low concentrations of PSA have been identified in the urethral glands, endometrium, normal breast tissue and salivary gland tissue. PSA also is found in the serum of women with breast, lung, or uterine cancer and in some patients with renal cancer.

Tissue samples can be stained for the presence of PSA in order to determine the origin of malignant cells that have metastasized.

How Is Prostate Disease Treated

Treatment depends on the diagnosis, and the type of disease that is present.

Diseases associated with excessive hormone levels are typically treated by neutering the dog. Because testosterone and estrogen are both formed in the testicles, neutering is generally an effective treatment. The prostate will return to its normal size within one month after surgery. Certain medications or hormone replacements, such as finasteride, megestrol acetate, and GnRH, may be used to treat specific prostatic conditions.

Paraprostatic cysts and prostatic abscesses require surgery to drain and remove them.

Diseases involving primary or secondary bacterial infections are treated with aggressive and prolonged antibiotic therapy. Because it is difficult for antibiotics to penetrate into the prostate gland, treatment for several weeks to months is usually necessary. Antibiotics that can penetrate the prostate include enrofloxacin, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, chlorhamphenicol, doxycycline, and trimethoprim-sulfonamides each having varying pros and cons. Since the prostatic infections are typically secondary to another disease, treating the prostatic infection is only part of the overall treatment.

“Because it is difficult for antibiotics to penetrate into the prostate gland, treatment for several weeks to months is usually necessary.”

Contributors: Ryan Llera, BSc, DVM; Ernest Ward, DVM

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Causes And Signs Of Prostate Problems In Dogs

    An enlarged prostate is a common condition that affects men in their senior years. But men are not the exception because male dogs and other male mammals all have prostate and can thus suffer from prostate problems. These problems are mostly common in older non-fixed male dogs.

    While enlarged prostate in dogs can be a health condition itself, it can also be a symptom of some other prostate disease. In this article, we will take a closer look at the prostate, the common symptoms of prostate problems in dogs, and what you can do to prevent or fix these issues.

    Nipples Don’t Always Come In Pairs

    Male Reproduction

    Some peopleâmen and womenâhave more than two nipples.

    • More than two nipples? Anywhere from 2% to 5% of people may be born with a third nipple . So a third nipple is rareâin the US, fewer than 200,000 people have themâbut definitely not atypical or unusual, either. The third nip is usually less developed and not fully functioning… in fact, it is sometimes located somewhere other than the chest!
    • More than three nipples? Yes, there are records of people who have as many as six extra nipples . That’s as many as cats usually have!
    • Two nipples on one areola? Sometimes, two nipples will grow from one areola. This is called a double or bifurcated nipple.

    Before and during the 1800s, a man’s extra nipple was considered a mark of virility.

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    + Things About Men’s Nipples You Always Wanted To Know

    When people hear the word “nipple,” most often their minds picture a woman’s. Nipples and breasts just seem to go together in most people’s minds.

    But of course, men have nipples, too. Even though men’s are the only nipples we are allowed to see in public, they are oddly mysterious, overlooked and ignored. What are they even for?

    What is a nipple?

    The nipple and areola are two different things. Think of a bullseye: The nipple is at the center and the areola is the darker skin that surrounds it.

    What Are The Signs Of Prostatic Disease

    Enlargement of the prostate gland is common with most prostatic diseases. Since the urethra passes through the prostate, enlargement of the gland compresses the urethra and urination becomes difficult and uncomfortable.

    Complete urethral obstruction rarely occurs with prostatic problems, but an affected dog will spend a prolonged time urinating and will often produce only a thin stream of urine. If the prostate is very enlarged, the colon, located just above the prostate, may also become compressed, causing difficulty with passing bowel movements. Dogs with prostatic enlargement often have a history of straining to urinate or defecate.

    “A dog with prostatic enlargement often has a history of straining to urinate or defecate.”

    In addition, some dogs with prostatic disease will have blood in the urine; however, bloody urine is not specific for prostatic disease as this is a sign for other diseases affecting the urinary system.

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    Why Do Men Have Nipples

    During early development, just after fertilization, male and female embryos start out alike, with the same genetic material. In the first four to five weeks, nipples start to develop, but it isn’t until after six or seven weeks that the sex chromosomes assert any differences. So most humans have nipples in common.

    But why would a body go through the effort of growing nipples if they have no use? Actually, male nipples do serve a purpose, although it’s one people don’t often discuss. According to one study, for almost 52% of men, nipple stimulation enhances sexual arousal. So a majority of men report erogenous uses for their nipples.

    Still, male nipples are relatively mysterious. Here are # things you might not know about them.

    Structure Of The Monotreme Prostate

    Why Do People Have Periods When Most Mammals Don’t?

    The glandular tissue surrounding the monotreme urethra most likely represents a rudimentary prostate. There are no periurethral glands in reptiles. Hence, the evolution of the prostate gland is unique to mammals. Primordial periurethral glands have been described in the platypus as secretory glandular tissue surrounding the length of the urethra. The periurethral tissue exhibits regional swelling, being widest immediately beneath the bladder and progressively reducing in thickness along the length of the urethra. Surrounding the periurethral glands is a urethral muscularis. Observations in the platypus of the periurethral glands were non-committal as to homology with the prostate. Subsequently, the periurethral tissue in the echidna was definitively identified as a rudimentary prostate. This is supported by:

  • anatomically these glands are placed at their widest at the base of the bladder, which is similar in location for the prostate in other mammals,
  • histologic lining of the echidna urethra with transitional epithelium , and not post-prostate urethral lining of pseudostratified or stratified columnar epithelium observed in eutherian mammals,
  • location of periurethral glands with 9-11 buds per cross section surrounding and exiting into the urethra,
  • histology of simple columnar secretory cells lining compound alveolar glands,
  • the glandular tissue is surrounded by a muscularis to facilitate expulsion of secretory products into the urethra,
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    Prostatic Diseases In Small Animals

    , DVM, MBA, PhD, DACT, Oregon State University

    When prostatic calculi occur , there is usually some other prostatic disease as well. Radiopaque prostatic calculi are rare incidental findings on abdominal radiographs.

    Depending on the disorder, clinical signs may include:

    • tenesmus during defecation

    • recurrent urinary tract infections

    • caudal abdominal discomfort

    However, many intact males with benign prostatic hyperplasia are asymptomatic or present with signs of hemospermia and/or infertility only. Additional nonspecific signs, such as fever, malaise, anorexia, severe stiffness, and caudal abdominal pain, can be seen with acute bacterial infections, abscesses, and neoplasia. Prostatic adenocarcinoma with bony involvement of the pelvis and lumbar vertebrae may cause hindlimb gait abnormalities. Less commonly, prostatic diseases may cause urinary incontinence. Prostatic adenocarcinoma may cause complete urethral obstruction.

    Prostatic massage may produce septicemia in dogs with acute bacterial prostatitis or a prostatic abscess. Neoplastic cells are often not recovered in specimens obtained by ejaculation or prostatic massage.

    How To Prevent Prostate Problems In Dogs

    The best prevention of prostate problems in dogs is neutering the dog before he reaches sexual maturity. Neutering will prevent prostate gland from developing and thus prevent most of the possible health issues related to this gland.

    Even if you decide to neuter your pooch after he has reached adulthood, his prostate will shrink and the risk of a prostate disease will drop significantly.

    Below are some of the most common prostate problems in dogs.;If you notice some of the mentioned symptoms, you need to take your pooch to the vet to get the problem diagnosed and develop a treatment plan if needed.

    There are a few common conditions which can affect a dogs prostate and we will take a look at what they are and what to do about them.

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    What Does The Prostate Do

    The prostate is a male gland that releases;prostate fluid, one of the components of semen.

    The muscles of the prostate gland help propel this fluid into the urethra;during ejaculation.

    It is a;muscular gland that is often described as walnut or small apricot-sized.

    An enlarged prostate can be a sign of prostate cancer, the third biggest cancer killer.

    Animals Besides Humans That Mate For Pleasure

    Enlarged Prostate Gland

    If an animal must mate to reproduce, the entire future of its species depends on having sex. The most obviously beneficial adaptation for such a species is, therefore, pleasurable sex. While it’s difficult to ask them if they enjoy doing the deed, a quick look at their behavior shows that, at the very least, most mammals and birds experience sexual pleasure.

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    The Role Of Zinc In Normal Prostate Function And Metabolism

    To produce and secrete high levels of citrate, the prostate accumulates high levels of zinc in specialized acinar epithelial cells of the peripheral zone. Zinc levels and citrate metabolism are linked in the prostatic gland. Zinc inhibits mitochondrial aconitase . M-aconitase is responsible for the catalyzation of the oxidation of citrate to isocitrate as part of the first step in the Krebs cycle. The inhibitory effect of zinc results in the accumulation of citrate in the mitochondria before it is exported to the cytosol and secreted as a major component of prostatic fluid . Thus, the high levels of zinc in the prostate ensure the inhibition of M-aconitase while zinc that occurs outside the prostate in lower levels cannot act as a competitive inhibitor . The zinc transporter ZIP1 is responsible for the uptake of zinc into prostate cells. The upregulation of ZIP expression in prostate cells ensures the accumulation of zinc in the prostate , a process that may be regulated by testosterone and prolactin .

    Intriguingly, both zinc and citrate are diminished in prostate cancer, implicating an essential role of high zinc levels for maintaining a non-malignant prostate.

    Food Tips To Help Lower Your Risk

    We have a lot more to learn about diet and prostate cancer. Although we have some encouraging studies to point to, none of the foods mentioned below have been absolutely proven to prevent the disease. Still, these tips will most likely not only help reduce your risk of prostate cancer, but improve your health in general.

    1. Eat at least three servings of cruciferous vegetables a week.

    Men who ate three servings a week of cruciferous vegetables reduced their risk of prostate cancer by 41%, according to a new study from the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle. It’s suggested that the possible protection from these vegetables occurs in the early stages of prostate cancer.

    What do they have that’s so special? Cruciferous veggies boast two phytochemicals: glucosinolates and isothiocyanates, which are thought to help deactivate cancer-causing substances. Some studies have suggested that people who eat the most of these vegetables have lower rates of prostate cancer as well as other cancers such as lung, stomach, colon, bladder and breast.

    2. Enjoy tomato products almost every day.

    3. Switch to soy sometimes.

    4. Have a tablespoon a day of flaxseed.

    A few studies show that a low-fat diet, supplemented with doses of ground flaxseed, may slow the growth of prostate cancer in humans and animals. More studies need to be done, but a daily tablespoon of ground flaxseed a day is, in general, a good thing to do for your health.

    5. Go fish — a couple of times a week.

    Also Check: What Is The Definition Of Prostate Gland

    Heart Disease And High Blood Pressure

    One in five men dies from heart disease before the age of 75. It claims more men’s lives than any other disease. Heart disease runs in families, so you have a greater chance of developing it if your family has a history of the disease. Other risk factors include:

    • smoking
    • an unhealthy diet with too much fat, particularly saturated fat
    • lack of exercise

    How Will My Veterinarian Get These Samples

    Unique Characteristics of Mammals

    A free-flow urine sample iscollected . Samples of prostatic fluid are obtained by passing a urethral catheter to the level of the prostate and massaging the prostate to milk fluid out of it.

    Samples of prostatic cells are obtained by fine needle aspiration or biopsy. If the prostate is greatly enlarged, it may be sampled by through the body wall by FNA or biopsied. FNA involves taking a small needle with a syringe and suctioning a sample of cells directly from the prostate and placing them on a microscope slide. A veterinary pathologist then examines the slide under a microscope. In some cases, results from FNA may not be entirely clear and biopsy may be necessary.

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    A Guy’s Nipples May Change Over Time

    A man’s nipples will often change over the course of their lifetime. There are several reasons for this. Puberty causes nipples to grow and darken, but fluctuations in hormone levels can cause changes to the nipple later in life, also. Areolas are part of your skin, and this means they can stretch, especially when you gain or lose weight. It is not uncommon for nipples’ size, color, and sensitivity to change over time. Weight gain or loss can also effect changes.

    What Causes Prostate Cancer

    Doctors dont know exactly what causes prostate cancer. However, they do know that certain risk factors may increase your risk for the disease. Those risk factors include:

    • Older age. Men of any age can get prostate cancer. However, its most common in men older than 65 years of age.
    • African-American men are more likely to develop prostate cancer than Caucasian men.
    • Family history. Men who have had a father or brother with prostate cancer are at increased risk of developing the disease.
    • Obesity. Obese men who are diagnosed with prostate cancer are more likely to have an advanced or aggressive cancer.

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    Whats The Purpose Of The Female Prostate

    In recent years, MRI has helped to clarify the appearance and function of the female prostate. More research is needed, but researchers are starting to get a better understanding of these glands.

    In men, the prostate gland is suspected of being able to store infection in the body. That fact makes researchers wonder whether the Skenes glands serve a similar function. How that might work in men or women is important to know as doctors try to find how infection works in people who are HIV-positive, for example.

    Researchers also are interested that the female prostate produces PSA. The presence of PSA is one of the indicators of prostate cancer in men. It also shows up in women who have certain types of breast cancer . It may be that the role of PSA in both men and women is more complicated than we understand.

    Elevated PSA levels before treatment for cancer of the Skenes glands, and declining levels after, were found in cases where people received

    Monotremes Exhibit A Combination Of Reptilian And Mammalian Characteristics

    What You Need to Know About Blood in Your Dog

    Male monotremes are testicond with the testes undergoing seasonal emergence during winter. The fully developed seminiferous tubules exhibit distinctly small stages of spermatogenesis in that more than one stage is often observed in a cross section of the tubule, a characteristic of spermatogenesis that has also been observed in a reptile, common in birds and man.

    The monotreme paired excurrent ducts empty into a single urethra. Glandular tissue surrounds the urethra into which a pair of bulbourethral glands empty at the base of the penis. The intraabdominal testes and excurrent ducts, along with the presence of a cloaca exhibit homology to the reptilian male reproductive tract.

    The combination of reptilian and mammalian structures within the monotreme reproductive tract has informed the evolution of the male reproductive tract in mammals. For example, the intraabdominal low sperm storage capacity of the echidna epididymis informed the role of the epididymis as a prime mover in the evolution of descended testes in mammals as it relates to lower extragonadal temperatures enhancing epididymal sperm storage in scrotal mammals.

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