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What Is Residual Prostate Cancer

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When A Radical Prostatectomy Is Indicated

Veterans Court: VA ratings for prostate cancer should consider residuals.

Surgery is commonly used to cure prostate cancer if it hasn’t spread beyond the prostate gland itself. The radical prostatectomy is the main type of surgery performed. It involves the removal of the entire prostate gland and surrounding tissue, including the seminal vesicles . Nearby lymph nodes may also be removed.

In a radical prostatectomy, the prostate gland can be accessed in a number of different ways:

  • Through an incision in the lower abdomen
  • Through an incision between the anus and scrotum
  • Through a keyhole incision using a thin, lighted surgical instrument called a laparoscope

The choice of surgery depends largely on the treatment goals. A retropubic prostatectomy is more commonly used if healthcare providers believe that the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes. A laparoscopic prostatectomy is far less invasive but required a skilled surgeon .

Of the three, the perineal prostatectomy is less commonly used because it is more likely to cause nerve damage resulting in erection problems.

Military Burn Pit Exposure

Military burn pits are large areas of land in which the military and its contractors incinerated all waste generated by military bases, including plastics, medical waste, rubber, human waste, and more.

The U.S. Military used burn pits as part of their waste disposal protocol in places such as Iraq and Afghanistan in the post-9/11 era during Operations Iraqi and Enduring Freedom. While the practice was effective in reducing large quantities of waste, burn pits emitted plumes of toxic smoke. This was especially problematic in places such as the Middle East, as the desert wind carried the smoke for miles.

Many U.S. Military veterans have suffered health consequences due to burn pit exposure. Most of the negative effects involve temporary ailments of the respiratory system, though limited evidence suggests a link between burn pit exposure and the long-term deterioration of lung health.

These burn pits were used extensively throughout the Middle East and have affected veterans who served in Operation Iraqi Freedom, Operation Enduring Freedom, and Operation New Dawn.

Research continues to be done to link burn pit exposure to a variety of different conditions, such as cancers and respiratory conditions. While further research will need to be conducted, it has indicated that one of the known chemical compounds which was found in Agent Orange, called TCDD, was also released by burn pits.

New Proposed Burn Pit Legislation 2021

Is My Prostate Size Normal

adiroop

I got a pelvic ultrasound and my prostate size was reported as 4 x 2.7 x 4 cm. It was reported to be normal in size.

From what I understand, prostate size should be 30 cc. By a simple volume calculation , the size of my prostate is 43 cc. I had been having mild chronic prostatitis symptoms for years.

So my question is, is my prostate enlarged or normal? And am I calculating the size wrong?

0 likes, 15 replies

  • Posted 4 years ago

    I have read that normal weight should be 20-25g and size approximately4x2x3cm. I have no idea how anyone can tell how much it weighs! If you have mild prostatitis yours possibly is larger than normal. Its probably like anything else, each person will differ. This forum is great and Im sure a lot more people will be along to offer advice soon.

  • Posted 4 years ago

    They just put two fingers under it and know from experience how much it weighs. It seems not to need much training to do it as GPs who do not do it very often usually get it right. Now they are training nurses to do initial consultations to decide who needs passing up the chain. Every DRE estimate Ive had has later been confirmed by a TRUSS or cystoscopy.

    Size does not mean a lot it depends on where it is pressing and causing an obstuction. Mine was reduced from 135grm to 55grm in my last laser procedure.The 55gms of tissue left is not causing any problem.

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Evidence Needed Related Your Quality Of Life And Ability To Care For Yourself

If you do not meet the Blue Book listing, you still might qualify for SSDI benefits through a medical vocational allowance. This means that the SSA will evaluate your limitations using a residual functional capacity assessment.

Your physician should carefully document your physical and mental capabilities and limitations. For example, is your life impacted by the need to urinate on a frequent basis? Do you experience pain in your back or groin?

Are you depressed as a result of your condition? The more specific you are about your pain, ability to move, and quality of life, the better your chances are of being approved for disability benefits with prostate cancer.

Definition And Outcomes For High

Complications of Prostate Cancer Treatment: Spectrum of ...

High-risk disease generally accounts for approximately 15%30% of all the incident PCa diagnoses. A number of risk stratification systems for PCa have been published. The most commonly used systems are from the D’Amico classification, American Urological Association /American Society for Radiation Oncology /Society of Urologic Oncology , European Association of Urology , and National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines .

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If You Have Any Problems

If you have any discomfort when urinating, any pain in the area around the prostate or any indication of a problem, the recommendation is to visit a urologist who can examine you to determine the source of discomfort or the problem.

It is important to visit a urologist whenever you feel the smallest discomfort, as the problem could get worse with time.

This article is merely informative, oneHOWTO does not have the authority to prescribe any medical treatments or create a diagnosis. We invite you to visit your doctor if you have any type of condition or pain.

If you want to read similar articles to What is the Normal Size of the Prostate, we recommend you visit our Family health category.

Cancer That Clearly Has Spread

If the cancer has spread outside the prostate, it will most likely go to nearby lymph nodes first, and then to bones. Much less often the cancer will spread to the liver or other organs.

When prostate cancer has spread to other parts of the body , hormone therapy is probably the most effective treatment. But it isnt likely to cure the cancer, and at some point it might stop working. Usually the first treatment is a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist, LHRH antagonist, or orchiectomy, sometimes along with an anti-androgen drug or abiraterone. Another option might be to get chemotherapy along with the hormone therapy. Other treatments aimed at bone metastases might be used as well.

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Is There A Role For Intra

Intraoperative frozen section biopsy has been recommended in radical prostatectomy. The problem with most +SMs is that they are microscopic and hence the surgeon has no real feeling or worry of the presence of a +SM. Most surgeons will check a frozen section if they are concerned or unsure of how the tissue looks or feels. In this case the abnormal tissue is usually obvious. So if the surgeon is concerned that there maybe residual tissue or cancer the frozen section is very useful in converting a possible +SM to a SM . However, routine use of frozen section on all cases to be sure of getting negative margins although enticing has not fulfilled its dream.

Figure 3a. Reported rates of percent pT2 +SM rates in robotic-assisted prostatectomy for the years 2003-2007.

Figure 3b.

Urinary Bowel Function Results

The OPTIMUM Trial: 29 MHZ Micro-Ultrasound vs. MRI in Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer

The men who had surgery reported significantly worse urinary function than the radiation group. The surgical patients’ urinary function improved during the first year after their operation. Two years after surgery, one in 10 of the men who had surgery was incontinent, compared with 3% of the radiation patients.

The opposite was true for bowel function. Two years after treatment, more than one in four men in the radiation group had bowel dysfunction, compared with 6% of the surgery patients.

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Minimally Invasive Ablation Treatment For Prostate Cancer

Minimally invasive ablation for prostate cancer is a relatively new and evolving treatment option for prostate cancer at NYU Langones Perlmutter Cancer Center. It uses radiofrequency, high-intensity focused ultrasound , or cryotherapy to ablate, or destroy, part or all of the prostatethereby eliminating the cancer.

In radiofrequency ablation, a probe inserted into the prostate destroys selected tissue using heat created by high-frequency radio waves. In HIFU, targeted sound waves create focused heat energy that destroys only selected tissue. In cryotherapy, the form of ablative therapy most often used by NYU Langone doctors, controlled freezing and thawing of the prostate gland destroys cancerous cells and other cells in the targeted area.

Our experts may consider minimally invasive ablation treatments when radiation therapy fails to eradicate prostate cancer. It can be used to destroy the whole gland as an alternative to salvage prostatectomy surgerysurgery to remove remaining or recurring canceror just the cancerous portion of the prostate, which is known as partial gland ablation, focal ablation, or focal therapy.

Our doctors pioneered prostate ablation using radiofrequency and HIFU.

Take Advantage Of Help Along The Way

Figuring out benefits and programs can be confusing, especially when some may seem to overlap. Take advantage of a host of resources that can help. Among them:

  • To get up to speed on Social Security disability benefits, see Disability Benefits, an online booklet published by the Social Security Administration. Included is information on who is eligible, how to apply and what you need to know when the benefits begin.
  • Some cancer centers and hospitals may offer programs to help you decipher disability programs. Call the cancer center or hospital where you received treatment to inquire, or ask your oncologist.
  • Hire an attorney to help with an appeal. Disability attorneys can be found through your local or state bar associations lawyer referral service. These attorneys are required to provide assistance on a contingency basis, which means that they get paid only if they help get you past benefits.

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Is Prostate Cancer Presumptive

Yesand no. As mentioned above, prostate cancer is a presumptive condition for veterans exposed to Agent Orange. Presumptive means that veterans do not have to provide a nexus to prove service connection.

Veterans who were exposed to burn pits in the Southwest theatre of operations after September 11, 2001 have also gone on to develop prostate cancer. While VA does not acknowledge disabilities as presumptively caused by burn pits, veterans can provide a nexus opinion from a medical professional to argue for service connection for their prostate cancer.

Minimal Residual Disease And The Management Of Prostate Cancer

DWI, false negative. Patient with a glandular apical ...

The concept of minimal residual disease or MRD and how it affects risk for cancer-specific mortality is a subject of growing importance in the management of many cancers. But it is relatively new to the world of prostate cancer.

When it comes to prostate cancer, the concept of minimal residual disease is usually applied to the ability to identify very small numbers of prostate cancer cells in the blood stream or in the bone marrow after intensive treatment of men with unfavorable intermediate-risk or high-risk prostate cancer.

Murray et al. have recently reported prospective data based on a group of 321 patients who they followed for 10 years after initial therapy by radical prostatectomy. Here is what the authors did:

For each of this series of 321 patients, they tracked the patients

  • Biochemical failure-free survival
  • Time to biochemical failure
  • The presence of circulating prostate cancer tumor cells in their blood
  • The presence of micro-metastases in their bone marrow

In the case of the last two evaluations, all patients provided a blood sample and a bone marrow sample only once at 1 month after their radical prostatectomy.

Murry et al. classified the 321 patients into four groups:

  • Patients who were CPC-negative and mM-negative
  • Patients who were CPC-negative but mM-positive
  • Patients who were CPC-positive but mM-negative
  • Patiensts who were CPC-positive and mM-positive too

Here is what they found at 10 years of follow-up:

  • For patients in Group B
  • RMST was 9.23 years
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    How To Understand Psa Levels

    As men get older, they almost all develop enlargement of the prostate. Invariably, PSA rises as a result. PSA comes both from the prostate gland and potentially, in some cases, from prostate cancer. This is what confuses things. PSA can come from both cancer and the benign prostate gland. So when checking PSA, the question should never be, Is it above a pre-specified arbitrary threshold such as 2.5 or 4.0? The question should be, Is the PSA elevated above what should be expected based on the size of the prostate?

    The size of a mans prostate can be estimated by a digital rectal examination by a well-trained doctor. However, in my experience, very few physicians are skillful at estimating the prostate size by digital examination. Therefore, in most cases, prostate size can only be determined by measuring it with an ultrasound or MRI. Ultrasounds can be performed in the doctors office by a urologist. MRI is usually performed at a specialized imaging center. Modern prostate MRI imaging technology, termed 3-T multi-parametric MRI, is gaining in popularity and becoming more widely available.

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    Agent Orange And Prostate Cancer Veterans Disability Benefits

    Veterans who were exposed to Agent Orange and developed prostate cancer may be eligible to receive VA disability benefits. Some veterans receive more than $3,332.06 a month. Some veterans will also be eligible for VA Aid & Attendance benefits, money for dependent children and parents, and healthcare.

    Prostate cancer is one of the Agent Orange presumptives. That means that the VA should approve claims of veterans exposed to Agent Orange who develops prostate cancer. However, you should still present lots of evidence and prove your claim to the VA. Unfortunately, even though prostate cancer is presumed to have come from Agent Orange exposure, the VA does not grant every claim.

    If you were denied prostate cancer veterans disability benefits, you should consider filing a VA benefits appeal. The VA regularly denies veterans who later win their appeals. Do not let a prostate cancer veterans disability benefits denial discourage you.

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    What Evidence Will I Need To Submit With My Claim

    Youâll need to submit these records:

    • A medical record that shows you have an Agent Orangerelated illness, and
    • Military records to show how you were exposed to Agent Orange during your service

    If your illness isnât on the list of presumptive diseases, youll also need to provide at least one of these types of evidence:

    • Evidence that shows the problem started duringor got worse because ofyour military service, or
    • Scientific or medical evidence stating that the illness you have is caused by Agent Orange. Scientific proof may include an article from a medical journal or a published research study.

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    Prostate Cancer And Va Disability Benefits

    What Should the PSA be After Prostate Cancer Surgery? | Ask a Prostate Expert, Mark Scholz, MD

    What Is Prostate Cancer?

    Prostate cancer is a cancer that occurs in the prostate. The prostate is a small, walnut-shaped gland in males that produces some of the fluids contained in semen, the liquid that transports sperm. Many prostate cancers grow slowly and remain confined to the prostate, where they dont cause serious problems. However, some prostate cancers are fast growing and can spread quickly if left untreated.

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common types of cancer. When doctors detect it early on, while it is still confined to the prostate gland, the individual with prostate cancer has the best chance for successful treatment. Prostate cancer may cause no signs or symptoms in its early stages, which is why the American Cancer Society recommends that all men who are of average risk for prostate cancer get yearly prostate screenings starting at age 50. For men who are at high risk for developing prostate cancer, the ACA recommends starting yearly screenings at age 45. Symptoms to watch out for in the more advanced stages of prostate cancer are:

    • Trouble urinating
    • Erectile dysfunction
    • Unexplained weight loss

    Getting Service Connected For Prostate Cancer

    How The VA Rates Prostate Cancer

    Diagnostic Code 7528

    Diagnostic code 7529: Benign neoplasms of the genitourinary system

    • Rate as voiding dysfunction or renal dysfunction, whichever is predominant:

    Renal dysfunction:

    Help With Your Prostate Cancer VA Claim

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    Denied Va Disability Benefits For Prostate Cancer

    VA disability claims for prostate cancer, specifically stemming from exposure to military burn pits, may be denied by VA because there is no presumption of exposure. However, if your claim for prostate cancer was denied, you still have options for appealing the decision.

    The accredited VA disability attorneys at CCK may be able to help you secure VA disability benefits for your prostate cancer. Contact our office today for a free consultation.

    Study Design And Statistics

    Two body imagers with 10 years of experience reading prostate MRIs were assigned the task of measuring total prostatic volume using T2-weighted MRI on the 140 patient cohort. They were provided with a spreadsheet showing only the patient hospital identification numbers. After determining the total prostate volumes, these spreadsheets were returned to the administrator. Intra-rater reliability was tested only on the experts data. Re-measurement of prostate volume was done between 3 and 9 months after primary measures. Inter-rater reliability for continuous variables for volumes was analyzed for actual paired case-to-case correlation using the Pearson product moment and Lins Coefficient of Concordance. Linear regression was calculated to find r2 values, Y intercepts, p values and 95% confidence intervals . These were calculated from the open access statistical programs at the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research and QI Macro Statistics® . Measurements of the administrator were used as a proxy for gross pathological specimen weight for the determination of rater accuracy. Correlations were analyzed by linear regression and graphed. A comparison of means was also done after the data was available to establish data normality. Significance was defined as p0.05.

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