Infertility As A Harbinger Of Future Cancers
From puberty onward, spermatogenesis requires rapid and organized cell division that is exquisitely sensitive to a variety of genetic, hormonal and environmental insults . These same insults may place individuals at higher risk for the development of cancer. Because germ cell renewal and meiosis rapidly accelerates at a very young age, declines in spermatogenesis or abnormal sperm quality may be the first marker of insult, long before cancer is detected. This section provides a brief survey of potential etiologies of the link between poor sperm quality and subsequent prostate cancer. To date, some of these etiologies remain hypothetical but provide a foundation for future research.
What Do Sperm Do
A male who has reached puberty will produce millions of sperm cells every day. Each sperm is extremely small: only 1/600 of an inch . Sperm develop in the testicles within a system of tiny tubes called the seminiferous tubules. At birth, these tubules contain simple round cells. During puberty, testosterone and other hormones cause these cells to transform into sperm cells. The cells divide and change until they have a head and short tail, like tadpoles. The head contains genetic material . The sperm move into the epididymis, where they complete their development.
The sperm then move to the vas deferens , or sperm duct. The seminal vesicles and prostate gland make a whitish fluid called seminal fluid, which mixes with sperm to form semen when a male is sexually stimulated. The penis, which usually hangs limp, becomes hard when a male is sexually excited. Tissues in the penis fill with blood and it becomes stiff and erect . The rigidity of the erect penis makes it easier to insert into the female’s vagina during sex. When the erect penis is stimulated, muscles around the reproductive organs contract and force the semen through the duct system and urethra. Semen is pushed out of the male’s body through his urethra this process is called ejaculation. Each time a guy ejaculates, it can contain up to 500 million sperm.
What Is The Prostate Gland And How Does It Function
The prostate is an important organ in the male reproductive anatomy. This small gland, situated just behind the bladder, aids in sperm generation and fine-tuning of semen.
It is a small and soft organ, that on average has the size of a walnut or a ping-pong ball, weighing just about 1 ounce and being soft and smooth to the touch.
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What The Male Reproductive System Does
The main functions of the male reproductive system are:
- Manufacturing, nourishing, and transporting sperm
- Making fluid that protects and supports the sperm
- Depositing sperm inside a womans reproductive system
- Producing and secreting male sex hormones
The urethra, which is part of both the male reproductive system and the urinary system, has the dual function of transporting sperm and urine.
What Is Prostate Cancer
This diagram shows the location of the prostate, in front of the rectum and just below the bladder.
This diagram shows the location of the prostate, in front of the rectum and just below the bladder.
Cancer is a disease in which cells in the body grow out of control. When cancer starts in the prostate, it is called prostate cancer. Not including skin cancer, prostate cancer is the most common cancer in American men.
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Reproduction In Human Beings
All human beings undergo a sexual mode of reproduction. In this process, two parents are involved in producing a new individual. Offspring are produced by the fusion of gametes from each parent. Hence, the newly formed individual will be different from parents, both genetically and physically. Human reproduction is an example of sexual reproduction.
In human beings, both males and females have different reproductive systems hence, they are known to exhibit sexual dimorphism. Males have testes- also called testicles, while the females have a pair of ovaries.
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Penis The Penis Is Made Of Different Types Of Tissue Including Skin Nerves Smooth Muscle And Blood Vessels
The penis has 3 parts. The shaft is the main part of the penis. The head of the penis is called the glans. The glans is covered by a loose fold of moveable skin called the foreskin . Sometimes the foreskin is surgically removed in an operation called a circumcision. The base of the penis within the pelvis is called the root.
For the penis to penetrate a vagina or an anus during sex, it needs to be erect, or stiff. An erection begins when the brain sends a signal down the spinal cord through the nerves that run to the pelvis. Nerves signal the blood vessels inside of each corpus cavernosum of the penis to fill with blood. When the blood flow increases, the spongy tissue expands and causes the penis to stiffen and enlarge.
During an orgasm, the prostate, seminal vesicles and vas deferens contract to move semen near the top of the urethra and then out during ejaculation. Each ejaculation can release up to 500 million sperm. After ejaculation, the extra blood flows out of the penis and the penis becomes soft again.
For pregnancy, semen ejaculated into a vagina allows for sperm to swim up through the cervix and uterus into the fallopian tube to meet an egg . It only takes one sperm to fertilize the egg. Once fertilized, the egg grows in the uterus becoming an embryo and then a fetus.
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Can Male Menopause Be Treated
If your testosterone levels are low, hormone replacement therapy may help relieve symptoms, such as the loss of interest in sex, depression and fatigue. However, replacing male hormones can make prostate cancer worse, and may make atherosclerosis worse, also.
You should receive a complete physical examination and laboratory tests should be performed before starting hormone replacement therapy. There are still many unanswered questions about how many middle-aged men could benefit from hormone replacement therapy. Talk to your healthcare provider about all the pros and cons of this treatment and what the best option is for you.
Reproductive Ducts Push Sperm And Semen Through The Internal Genitalia
The epididymis, vas deferens, ejaculatory ducts, and urethra form a four-part transportation system. The epididymis sits directly on top of each testis. Sperm from the testis mature as they move through the coiled duct of the epididymis. During sexual intercourse and ejaculation, they are expelled into the vas deferens. The vas deferens pushes the sperm up over the bladder and down toward the prostate gland. There, the vas deferens joins the ends of the seminal vesicles to form the ejaculatory ducts. The ejaculatory ducts receive seminal fluid from the vesicles, pass through the prostate, and move semen into the urethra. The male urethra extends from the bladder, through the prostate, to the external orifice at the end of the penis. It receives additional seminal fluids from the prostate before it expels semen out of the body.
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The Male Reproductive System
The organs and structures of the male reproductive system give men the ability to fertilise a woman’s egg to produce a baby.
Several different organs and structures make up the male reproductive system. These include:
The scrotum, or scrotal sac. This is the loose bag of skin which hangs under the main body cavity between the upper thighs. It is divided into two, and each side contains one testicle .
The testicles . There are two testes. Each is an egg-shaped structure located in the scrotum. The testes produce sperm and also produce male hormones. The testes start developing inside the body cavity in a growing baby . About two months before a male baby is born, the testes start to drop down into the scrotal sacs. Because they are outside the main body cavity the testes are slightly cooler. This difference in temperature helps sperm production.
The epididymis. This is the tube attached to the testis where sperm is stored.
The vas deferens. This is the tube which carries the sperm from the epididymis. It may also be called the sperm duct. It meets a tube from the seminal vesicle to form a short tube called the ejaculatory duct. This then opens into the urethra, which is the tube that takes the sperm outside the body.
The accessory sex glands. There are three glands which produce fluids that mix with the sperm to make up semen. Semen is the liquid which is ejected from the penis during ejaculation. The three glands are located close to the bladder and are called:
Prostate Cancer And Sexual Health
A prostate cancer diagnosis can leave you feeling anxious, frustrated, and depressed.
It may also leave you wondering about your ability to have sex. You may also be questioning how prostate cancer treatment can affect your sex life.
Prostate cancer rarely causes problems with sex, but the treatments for prostate cancer often affect penile function and reproduction.
Prostate surgery and radiation are the two most common treatments for prostate cancer. Both of these can affect the nerves in your penis and could cause sexual problems like erectile dysfunction .
Cryotherapy and ultrasound therapy can also cause ED. Your doctor may recommend hormone therapy or radiation therapy, as well. This therapy can lower your sex drive.
Radical prostatectomy is the most effective nerve-sparing surgery for prostate cancer. It can substantially limit the duration of post-surgical ED but requires a surgeon to be highly skilled and trained in the process.
In this type of procedure, the surgeon takes care not to damage the erectile nerves that surround the prostate as it is removed.
However, if cancer has infiltrated these nerves, it may not be possible to save them.
Preventing injury to these nerves dramatically improves the chances of a man recovering erectile function within two years of the surgery.
In addition to ED, you may also find that your orgasms are different after undergoing treatment for prostate cancer.
They may not feel as strong, and you will not see as much ejaculate.
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When To Contact A Medical Professional
- Less urine than usual
- Back, side, or abdominal pain
- Blood or pus in your urine
Also call if:
- Your bladder does not feel completely empty after you urinate.
- You take medicines that may cause urinary problems, such as diuretics, antihistamines, antidepressants, or sedatives. DO NOT stop or change your medicines without talking to your provider.
- You have tried self-care steps for 2 months and symptoms have not improved.
What Does The Male Reproductive System Do
The main function is to give men the ability to fertilise a woman’s egg by producing and delivering semen. The testicles also make hormones which help men develop the characteristics associated with being male. This includes:
- The development of hair in a male distribution – for example, on the chest, under the arms, on the face and in the pubic area.
- Enlargement of the penis.
- Bone growth and increased height.
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Inflammation Of The Prostate Gland
Bacteria sometimes cause prostatitis . More commonly, the underlying cause is uncertain. Consult your doctor promptly if you experience:
- pain in the groin
- urgent and frequent urination.
Treatment with antibiotics is essential for acute bacterial prostatitis. Admission to hospital is often necessary and, as with chronic bacterial prostatitis, specific antibacterial drugs are required for a long time.
How Common Is Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
Benign prostatic hyperplasia is the most common prostate problem for men older than age 50. In 2010, as many as 14 million men in the United States had lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia.1 Although benign prostatic hyperplasia rarely causes symptoms before age 40, the occurrence and symptoms increase with age. Benign prostatic hyperplasia affects about 50 percent of men between the ages of 51 and 60 and up to 90 percent of men older than 80.2
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Male Reproductive System Functions
Related Topics to Study
|5. Diagrammatic Representations|
Reproduction Process In Human Beings
The process of fusion of sperm with egg to produce zygote is called fertilization. Fertilization is a crucial stage of reproduction in human beings. The fertilized egg is called the zygote. Zygote starts to divide into many cells and develops into an embryo.
Embryo moves into the uterus and gets attached to its walls. This process is referred to as implantation, and the implanted embryo eventually develops into a fetus.
Learn more about reproduction in human beings, its types, process, significance and other related topics at
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How Is Hormone Therapy Used To Treat Hormone
Hormone therapy may be used in several ways to treat hormone-sensitive prostate cancer, including:
Early-stage prostate cancer with an intermediate or high risk of recurrence. Men with early-stage prostate cancer that has an intermediate or high risk of recurrence often receive hormone therapy before, during, and/or after radiation therapy, or after prostatectomy . Factors that are used to determine the risk of prostate cancer recurrence include the grade of the tumor , the extent to which the tumor has spread into surrounding tissue, and whether tumor cells are found in nearby lymph nodes during surgery.
The use of hormone therapy before prostatectomy has not been shown to be of benefit and is not a standard treatment. More intensive androgen blockade prior to prostatectomy is being studied in clinical trials.
Relapsed/recurrent prostate cancer. Hormone therapy used alone is the standard treatment for men who have a prostate cancer recurrence as documented by CT, MRI, or bone scan after treatment with radiation therapy or prostatectomy.
Hormone therapy is sometimes recommended for men who have a biochemical recurrencea rise in prostate-specific antigen level following primary local treatment with surgery or radiationespecially if the PSA level doubles in fewer than 3 months.
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Explain The Term Trimester System
In Biology, the trimester system mainly refers to three months. A complete pregnancy period lasts for 38-40 weeks or 9 months from the first day of your last menstrual period to the birth of the baby. This period is divided into three stages, which are collectively called trimesters.
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What Are The Primary Male Reproductive Organs
What are the primary male reproductive organs?The male reproductive system contains the penis, scrotum, testes, epididymis, vas deferens, prostate, and seminal vesicles.
Contemplating this, what are the male reproductive organs and their features?
The organs of the male reproductive system are specialised for 3 primary features:
- To provide, keep, transport, and nourish sperm , and protecting fluid .
- To discharge sperm inside the feminine reproductive tract.
- To provide and secrete male intercourse hormones.
Additionally, how do you clarify the male reproductive system? These exterior buildings embody the penis, the scrotum, and the testicles. The organs of the male reproductive system are specialised for the following features: To provide, keep and transport sperm and protecting fluid To discharge sperm inside the feminine reproductive tract.
Beside above, what are the male and feminine reproductive organs?
The male reproductive system consists of two main components: the testes, the place sperm are produced, and the penis, in line with Merck Manuals. The foremost inside organs of the feminine reproductive system embody the vagina and uterus which act as the receptacle for semen and the ovaries, which produce the feminines ova.
What is measurement of male reproductive organ?
Associated Query Solutions
What Causes Prostate Cancer
Experts arent sure why some cells in the prostate gland become cancerous . Genetics appear to play a role. For example:
- Youre two to three times more likely to get prostate cancer if your father, brother or son has the disease.
- Inherited mutated breast cancer genes and other gene mutations contribute to a small number of prostate cancers.
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Spongy Internal Tissue Is Key To The Reproductive Function Of The Penis
The penis is part of the male external genitalia, suspended from the body at the front and sides of the pubic arch. Internally, the penis consists of three connected columns of tissue. The paired corpora cavernosa extend together from the root of the penis through the body. The corpus spongiosum runs along the underside of the cavernosa. It contains the spongy urethra and expands past the body of the penis to form the glans penis . The tissue of the corpora cavernosa and the corpus spongiosum is spongelike in structure. During arousal and intercourse, the spaces in the tissue fill with blood. The penis stiffens. Now it can penetrate the vagina to deliver semen directly into the female reproductive system.
How Does Prostate Cancer Affect The Male Urinary System
As the name suggests, prostate cancer is a group of abnormal cells that grow and affect a mans prostate. The cancer may affect other parts of the body, including the urinary system. And the affected urinary system will cause a number of consequences.
Prostate is a vital organ of men. It has crucial function to create fluids that maintain and transport sperm. Therefore when it is no longer to work optimal, this can affect the reproductive system. But since prostate cancer is more likely to occur in elderly men , the issue of infertility is usually not the major concern.
How common is prostate cancer?
It is one of common cancers found in men, which is also the major health concern for men, though it is rare in men who younger than 50 years of age.
Worldwide, the statistics of this cancer varies. It is pretty rare in some countries of Latin America, Africa, and Asia but it is more common in elderly men of African-American .
Like most things in cancer, early early detection of the disease will play a role for the prognosis and outcome of patients. At early stage, it is relatively easier to treat than when it is diagnosed at advanced stages.
The good news, most cases of this cancer in the U.S are now able to be diagnosed earlier before it becomes advanced.
The anatomy of prostate
Prostate, a walnut-sized gland organ is located between the penis and the bladder. Another important organ called rectum, is located in the back of prostate.
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