Genetic Counseling And Testing
People with a strong family history of cancer may want to learn their genetic makeup. This may help the person or other family members plan their health care for the future. Since inherited mutations affect all cells of a persons body, they can often be found by genetic testing done on blood or saliva samples. Still, genetic testing is not helpful for everyone, so its important to speak with a genetic counselor first to find out if testing might be right for you. For more information, see Understanding Genetic Testing for Cancer.
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A Personal History Of Colorectal Polyps Or Colorectal Cancer
If you have a history of adenomatous polyps , you are at increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. This is especially true if the polyps are large, if there are many of them, or if any of them show dysplasia.
If youâve had colorectal cancer, even though it was completely removed, you are more likely to develop new cancers in other parts of the colon and rectum. The chances of this happening are greater if you had your first colorectal cancer when you were younger.
Tips To Reduce Risk Of Cancer
It is advisable for people to attend regular cancer screenings following their doctors guidance, particularly those at higher risk. Early detection can improve cancer treatment outcomes.
Additionally, making changes to the manageable risk factors for cancer may help reduce cancer risk in some people. These typically involve changes to the diet and lifestyle, such as:
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What Is Gastric Cancer
The stomach is the major part of the digestive system that connects the food pipe, which is known as the esophagus with the small intestine. Stomach cancer which is also known as gastric cancer which is caused due to the abnormal growth of cells in an uncontrolled manner. It is usually caused due to improper dietary habits like highly smoked food, fast foods, and smoking for longer periods.
Risk Factors For Prostate Cancer
Some risk factors have been linked to prostate cancer. A risk factor is something that can raise your chance of developing a disease. Having one or more risk factors doesnt mean that you will get prostate cancer. It just means that your risk of the disease is greater.
- Age. Men who are 50 or older have a higher risk of prostate cancer.
- Race. African-American men have the highest risk of prostate cancerâthe disease tends to start at younger ages and grows faster than in men of other races. After African-American men, prostate cancer is most common among white men, followed by Hispanic and Native American men. Asian-American men have the lowest rates of prostate cancer.
- Family history. Men whose fathers or brothers have had prostate cancer have a 2 to 3 times higher risk of prostate cancer than men who do not have a family history of the disease. A man who has 3 immediate family members with prostate cancer has about 10 times the risk of a man who does not have a family history of prostate cancer. The younger a mans relatives are when they have prostate cancer, the greater his risk for developing the disease. Prostate cancer risk also appears to be slightly higher for men from families with a history of breast cancer.
- Diet. The risk of prostate cancer may be higher for men who eat high-fat diets.
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Treatment Of Liver Metastasis
Approximately 50% of colon cancer patients will be diagnosed with hepatic metastases, either at the time of initial presentation or because of disease recurrence. Although only a small proportion of patients with hepatic metastases are candidates for surgical resection, advances in tumor ablation techniques and in both regional and systemic chemotherapy administration provide for several treatment options. These include the following:
Hepatic metastasis may be considered to be resectable based on the following factors:
- Limited number of lesions.
- Lack of major vascular involvement.
- Absent or limited extrahepatic disease.
- Enough functional hepatic reserve.
For patients with hepatic metastasis that is considered to be resectable, a negative margin resection resulted in 5-year survival rates of 25% to 40% in mostly nonrandomized studies, such as the North Central Cancer Treatment Group trial . Improved surgical techniques and advances in preoperative imaging have improved patient selection for resection. In addition, multiple studies with multiagent chemotherapy have demonstrated that patients with metastatic disease isolated to the liver, which historically would be considered unresectable, can occasionally be made resectable after the administration of chemotherapy.
Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for unresectable liver metastases
Adjuvant or neoadjuvant chemotherapy for resectable liver metastases
Colon And Rectal Leimyosarcomas
Another form of sarcoma, leiomyosarcoma essentially means cancer of smooth muscle. The colon and rectum have three layers of the type of muscle affected by leiomyosarcoma, and all three work together to guide waste through the digestive tract. This rare type of colorectal cancer accounts for about 0.1 percent of all colorectal cases.
In the early stages, leiomyosarcomas in the colon or rectum may not cause symptoms. As the cancer progresses, symptoms may include fatigue, weight loss, vomiting blood, changes in stools and other stomach problems. Diagnosis generally includes standard measures, such as a biopsy, blood tests and imaging tests. Treatment typically starts with surgery to remove the tumor. Other treatment options include radiation therapy and chemotherapy.
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The Initial Causes Is Colon Cancer And Prostate Cancer The Same
One of the first symptoms of prostate issues is pain or tenderness in the groin or lower back. This can be the result of a noncancerous condition called enlarged prostatic tissue, or it could be an infection of the bladder. In either case, its important to see a doctor as soon as possible. If youre suffering from prostate pain, you may want to consider reducing your caffeine intake.
Another symptom of a potentially enlarged prostate is difficulty starting a stream of urine, leaking, or dribbling. These symptoms are not serious, but theyre still alarming. Most men put up with an enlarged prostate for years before seeking medical attention, but they typically seek treatment as soon as they notice symptoms. Even if you dont have symptoms, its worth getting checked to determine if you have any prostate issues.
If you experience nightly bathroom runs, you may be experiencing an enlarged prostate. You may be having difficulty starting a stream of urine, or you may even be dribbling or leaking during the day. These problems arent life-threatening, but can become a nuisance. You should not ignore these signs and seek treatment as soon as you notice them. If you feel any of these symptoms, you should consult a doctor.
Why Choose Fox Chase East Norriton For Prostate Cancer
- Fox Chase East Norritons Prostate & Urologic Cancer Program is staffed by renowned radiation and urologic oncologists who offer the latest treatment options for prostate cancer.
- Fox Chase East Norriton physicians are part of the medical staff of Fox Chase Cancer Center and Suburban Community Hospital. Patients receive the same quality of care and personalized treatment as they would at our Fox Chase main campus.
- Fox Chase has the highest designation from the National Cancer Institute as a Comprehensive Cancer Centerrecognized for excellence in cancer treatment research, prevention and education.
- Our faculty members participate in cancer panels at the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, helping to write the guidelines for cancer care that form the basis of clinical decisions in medical centers across the country.
- Fox Chase East Norriton is conveniently located on the campus of Suburban Community Hospital in Montgomery County.
*JAMA Oncology, October 8, 2015. Risk Adjusting Survival Outcomes in Hospitals That Treat Patients With Cancer Without Information on Cancer Stage.
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Types Of Cancer In The Colon And Rectum
Most colorectal cancers are adenocarcinomas. These cancers start in cells that make mucus to lubricate the inside of the colon and rectum. When doctors talk about colorectal cancer, they’re almost always talking about this type. Some sub-types of adenocarcinoma, such as signet ring and mucinous, may have a worse prognosis than other subtypes of adenocarcinoma.
Other, much less common types of tumors can also start in the colon and rectum. These include:
- Carcinoid tumors. These start from special hormone-making cells in the intestine. See Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors.
- Gastrointestinal stromal tumors start from special cells in the wall of the colon called the interstitial cells of Cajal. Some are benign . These tumors can be found anywhere in the digestive tract, but are not common in the colon. See Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor .
- Lymphomas are cancers of immune system cells. They mostly start in lymph nodes, but they can also start in the colon, rectum, or other organs. Information on lymphomas of the digestive system can be found in Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma.
- Sarcomas can start in blood vessels, muscle layers, or other connective tissues in the wall of the colon and rectum. Sarcomas of the colon or rectum are rare. See Soft Tissue Sarcoma.
Second Cancers After Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer survivors can be affected by a number of health problems, but often a major concern is facing cancer again. Cancer that comes back after treatment is called a recurrence. But some cancer survivors may develop a new, unrelated cancer later. This is called a second cancer.
Unfortunately, being treated for prostate cancer doesnt mean you cant get another cancer. Men who have had prostate cancer can still get the same types of cancers that other men get. In fact, they might be at higher risk for certain types of cancer.
Men who have had prostate cancer can get any type of second cancer, but they have an increased risk of certain cancers, including:
This risk is probably related to the dose of radiation. Newer methods of giving radiation therapy may have different effects on the risks of a second cancer. Because these methods are newer, the long-term effects have not been studied as well.
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Screenings Are Incredibly Important
Dr. Kachaamy emphasizes, “Routine screenings are very important. You should stick to whichever program you enroll in and not procrastinate. Having appointments on the books in advance makes it easy to follow through, so make an appointment early and not last minute. Yearly screenings for colon cancer are done with stool testing. A colonoscopy for your first screening is standard, and if you are at an average risk, should be done every ten years.”6254a4d1642c605c54bf1cab17d50f1e
Dr. Karimi states, “It’s very important to undergo recommended screenings and it’s not too early to think about them if you’re in your 40s. The American Cancer Society recommends that people of average risk of colorectal cancer start regular screening at age 45. Follow-up colonoscopies should be done every 1-3 years, depending on the individual’s risk and findings from the first test. Screenings can help prevent colon cancer by detecting growths that can be removed before they turn into cancer. In most cases, colon cancer starts as a polyp. Often, polyps can be removed during a colonoscopy. If cancer cells are still in the colon after a colonoscopy, that section can be removed with surgery, which is often minimally invasive. If the cancer has spread beyond the colon, you may also need chemotherapy or radiation therapy.
The Top 7 Signs Of Advanced Prostate Cancer
In the early stages, you may not notice any symptoms related to prostate cancer. This is why screenings are important. Symptoms can sometimes be noticed for the first time when the cancer advances.
Advanced prostate cancer, also called metastatic cancer, means the cancer has spread to other areas of your body beyond your prostate gland. The most common areas for prostate cancer to spread are your bladder, rectum, and bones. It can also spread to your lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and other body tissues.
Whether youve just been diagnosed or youre in treatment, its also important to know the signs of advanced cancer. Cancer can behave differently depending on your genetics, so not every person will experience the same symptoms in the same way.
Read on to learn more about the seven top symptoms of advanced prostate cancer and how to spot them.
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Cancer Treatment Strategies Differ
When rectal cancer is identified before symptoms develop, the treatment priority is lowering the risk of local growth and spread. A rectal cancer is considered locally advanced when an ultrasound or MRI confirms it has grown through the bowel wall into the tissue around the rectum, or there is evidence of nearby lymph node involvement.
At this stage, the strategy is to begin with chemotherapy or targeted radiation to shrink the tumor, Hardiman says. An expert surgeon can then remove the radiated part of the rectum and often reconnect the adjacent parts of the bowel. This approach has been shown to be the best for maintaining surrounding organ function.
Tumors located farther up in the colon pose less risk to nearby organs, so with a different diagnosis, we typically start with surgery. Patients may also need chemotherapy to kill any remaining cancer cells, says Hardiman. Thats why its important to choose a center with advanced imaging technologies and expertise to guide diagnosis and stagingand surgeons with the specialized training to perform rectal surgery, which is far more delicate and complex than colon surgery.
Impact Of Exercise On Internal Organs
Proteomic analysis of the blood of the routinely active participants showed increased carbohydrate usage after exercise.
Data from the prospective study showed that exercise prior to developing cancer had a modest impact on diagnoses of slow-growing cancer.
However, exercise significantly reduced the likelihood of highly metastatic cancer, according to the researchers.
Among the participants studied, those who reported regular aerobic exercise at high intensity had 72% less metastatic cancer than sedentary participants.
In the mouse study, researchers found that mice subjected to exercise prior to being injected with cancer cells were significantly protected against metastases in distant organs.
Proteomic and ex vivo metabolic capacity analyses of the mice organs showed that exercise induces catabolic processes, glucose uptake, mitochondrial activity, and GLUT expression.
When researchers looked at the mice organs, they discovered that long-term physical activity changes muscles and changes organs.
We discovered that internal organs like lymph nodes, like lung, like liver, those organs that are usually hosting cancer changing when there is chronic physical activity, Levy told MNT.
They change in sense that they become super metabolic. And when I say super metabolic, I mean their demand for glucose and demand for their mitochondria is increasing their glucose uptake is increasing. Theyre becoming like superhero organs.
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Association Of Colorectal Cancer And Prostate Cancer And Impact Of Radiation Therapy
Requests for reprints:
Dezheng Huo, Jeremy T. Hetzel, Hemant Roy, David T. Rubin Association of Colorectal Cancer and Prostate Cancer and Impact of Radiation Therapy. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1 July 2009 18 : 19791985.
Lifestyle Choices Make A Difference
Dr. Karimi shares, “I recommend to my patients a nutritious, whole-food diet that is high in fiber . Eating meat in moderation is beneficial, as research studies show an association between colorectal cancers and high levels of meat consumption over long periods of time. Other healthy habits I advise for people to adopt is minimizing alcohol consumption and avoiding tobacco products.
We also know that exercise is a huge component in an individual’s overall health, and we are seeing that more time exercising and less time sitting does impact the risk of colorectal cancer. Half of the patients diagnosed that are in the younger demographic are overweight. As a medical oncologist who sees patients every day, I see firsthand how hard it can be to change your behavior, but even small changes make a big difference. Try getting in the habit of walking for an extra 10 minutes a day or choosing whole foods over highly processed foods when you want a snack. The best way to stop cancer is to prevent it in the first place, and the sooner you make healthy choices, the greater the potential benefits.”
Dr. Bilchik recommends the following healthy habits to help reduce the risk of colon cancer: “Diet that includes fruit and vegetables. Limit intake of red meat and processed food. Exercise at least 30 minutes/day five days/week, avoid smoking, weight loss programs if overweight and stress reduction.”
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Increased Risk Of Colorectal Cancer After Prostate Cancer
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An enlarged prostate can also be the cause of other problems. If the enlarged prostate is causing symptoms, the best treatment would be a natural remedy. In the meantime, there are treatments for a wide range of conditions that cause a man to experience pain. A common surgical procedure involves an electric loop, laser, or electro-stimulation. The procedure is a safe and effective option for treating enlarged or symptomatic BPH.
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