Days Before Your Surgery
Follow Your Healthcare Providers Instructions for Taking Aspirin
If you take aspirin or a medication that contains aspirin, you may need to change your dose or stop taking it 7 days before your surgery. Aspirin can cause bleeding.
Follow your healthcare providers instructions. Do not stop taking aspirin unless they tell you to.
For more information, read Common Medications Containing Aspirin, Other Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs , or Vitamin E.
Stop Taking Vitamin E, Multivitamins, Herbal Remedies, and Other Dietary Supplements
Stop taking vitamin E, multivitamins, herbal remedies, and other dietary supplements 7 days before your surgery. These things can cause bleeding.
If your healthcare provider gives you other instructions, follow those instead.
For more information, read Herbal Remedies and Cancer Treatment.
What To Expect After The Procedure
- You will be taken back to the radiology day case unit, so that nursing staff may monitor you closely.
- If you are in pain tell the nursing staff so you can be given appropriate painkillers.
- You will be required to stay in our day case unit for about 4 hours. Occasionally one night stay in the hospital might become necessary.
- There may be a small bruise in the groin around the puncture site but this is quite normal.
- You will have antibiotics prescribed to be taken for 5-7 days following the procedure.
- You should be able to resume most normal daily activities within 24 – 48 hours. However, we recommend avoiding driving and all strenuous activities for 48 hours.
- The prostate gland should begin to shrink over the next few weeks and over 70% of men will notice an improvement in their symptoms after PAE.
- You will be reviewed at a follow up appointment in 3 months time.
- If you had a long-term bladder catheter before the procedure, recent studies have shown the majority of patients can have their catheters removed after 7-10 days.
Urinating Frequently During The Day
It may be more difficult to notice a change in frequency during the day than at night. Most of us dont go around counting how many times we use the washroom in a given day!
Besides, whats normal, anyway?
Normal urination during the day is considered to be within a range offour to seven times for most healthy adult men. If youre going more often than this, it could indicate a prostate issue.
It can be easy to miss this sign. Drinking more water or caffeinated beverages than usual can be an easy explanation for a few extra trips.
Even a night out for dinner with a few more glasses of beer than usual can cause several extra trips to the bathroom because alcohol is a diuretic, meaning it triggers anincrease in urine production.
But like your nighttime routine, if you notice an ongoing pattern of having to go more often during the day, ask your doctor about it. A simple blood test and rectal examination is often the first diagnostic step, which is quick and painless.
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How Is Acute Prostatitis Treated
Your doctor will likely prescribe antibiotics for four to six weeks to treat acute bacterial prostatitis. Your treatment may last longer if you have recurrent episodes. The specific type of antibiotic will depend on the bacteria causing your condition.
Your doctor may also prescribe alpha-blockers to help relieve symptoms. These drugs relax your bladder muscles. They can help decrease urinary discomfort. Examples include doxazosin, terazosin, and tamsulosin. Your doctor may also recommend over-the-counter pain relievers, such as acetaminophen and ibuprofen.
Your doctor may advise you to adjust your daily habits to help relieve symptoms. For example, they may encourage you to:
- avoid bicycling or wear padded shorts to decrease pressure on your prostate
- avoid alcohol, caffeine, and foods that are spicy and acidic
- sit on a pillow or donut cushion
- take warm baths
Symptoms Of Prostate Cancer
In its early stages, prostate cancer doesnt necessarily cause symptoms. Men with prostate cancer might experience some of the following symptoms:
- needing to pee frequently or suddenly
- finding it difficult to pee, including trouble getting started or maintaining a strong or steady flow
- feeling like you havent completely emptied your bladder after going to the toilet
- pain, burning or discomfort when peeing
- or pain in the lower back, upper thighs, hips or chest
- feelings of weakness or numbness in the legs or feet
- unexplained weightloss
- feeling tired, short of breath or dizzy
- a rapid heart beat
Youll notice a lot of these symptoms are similar to symptoms of other conditions, including an enlarged prostate or prostatitis, which is why its important to always see your doctor if you notice any of these symptoms or changes.
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Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy
IMRT, an advanced form of 3D-CRT therapy, is the most common type of external beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer. It uses a computer-driven machine that moves around the patient as it delivers radiation. Along with shaping the beams and aiming them at the prostate from several angles, the intensity of the beams can be adjusted to limit the doses of radiation reaching nearby normal tissues. This lets doctors deliver an even higher radiation dose to the cancer.
Some newer radiation machines have imaging scanners built into them. This advance, known as image guided radiation therapy , lets the doctor take pictures of the prostate just before giving the radiation to make minor adjustments in aiming. This appears to help deliver the radiation even more precisely and results in fewer side effects.
A variation of IMRT is called volumetric modulated arc therapy . It uses a machine that delivers radiation quickly as it rotates once around the body. This allows each treatment to be given over just a few minutes. Although this can be more convenient for the patient, it hasnt yet been shown to be more effective than regular IMRT.
Symptoms Of Prostate Cancer Spread To The Lymph Nodes
Lymph nodes are part of a system of tubes and glands in the body that filters body fluid and fights infection.
There are lots of lymph nodes in the groin area, which is close to the prostate gland. Prostate cancer can spread to the lymph nodes in the groin area, or to other parts of the body. The most common symptoms are swelling and pain around the area where the cancer has spread.
Cancer cells can stop lymph fluid from draining away. This might lead to swelling in the legs due to fluid build up in that area. The swelling is called lymphoedema.
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What Are The Symptoms Of Prostatitis
Each type of prostatitis has a range of symptoms that vary depending on the cause and may not be the same for every man. Many symptoms are similar to those of other conditions.
Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. The main symptoms of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome can include pain or discomfort lasting 3 or more months in one or more of the following areas:
- the central lower abdomen
- pain in the urethra during or after urination.
- urinary frequencyurination eight or more times a day. The bladder begins to contract even when it contains small amounts of urine, causing more frequent urination.
- urinary urgencythe inability to delay urination.
- a weak or an interrupted urine stream.
Acute bacterial prostatitis. The symptoms of acute bacterial prostatitis come on suddenly and are severe. Men should seek immediate medical care. Symptoms of acute bacterial prostatitis may include
- urinary frequency
- urinary retentionthe inability to empty the bladder completely
- trouble starting a urine stream
- a weak or an interrupted urine stream
- urinary blockagethe complete inability to urinate
- a UTIas shown by bacteria and infection-fighting cells in the urine
- urinary frequency
- great discomfort or pain in the lower abdomen and urinary tract
Prostate Cancer Diagnoses And Treatment
All cancer is complex, but prostate cancer testing and treatment is particularly complicated.
In some men with prostate cancer, the cancer will grow very slowly, and wont significantly affect them during their lifetime. Other mens prostate cancer can grow and spread very quickly. At the moment, there is no test that can tell what type of prostate cancer a man has when he is diagnosed.
Because some treatments for prostate cancer can cause side effects which might impact on quality of life, its important for men to discuss with their doctor all their options for testing and treatment, and to discuss these with their partners and families. These might include watchful waiting, which means waiting to see what the cancer does over time, radiation, surgery or taking medications.
You can read more about what kinds of questions to ask your doctors about prostate cancer testing and treatment on the Cancer Council website.
What Is The Prognosis For People Who Have Prostatitis
Antibiotics can cure acute bacterial prostatitis. These medications also ease chronic bacterial prostatitis symptoms in approximately 30% to 60% of men. Up to 80% of men with chronic pelvic pain syndrome feel better after receiving appropriate treatments for their symptoms using the UPOINT system. Men with asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis dont need treatment.
Symptoms Of Metastatic Prostate Cancer
Metastatic prostate cancer means that a cancer that began in the prostate gland has spread to another part of the body. It is also called advanced prostate cancer.
If your prostate cancer has spread you might:
- feel generally unwell
- have weight loss for no known reason
You might have specific symptoms depending on where the cancer has spread to. These symptoms can also be caused by other medical conditions so might not be a sign that the cancer has spread.
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What Are The Complications Of Prostatitis
Men with acute bacterial prostatitis may develop . This widespread inflammation can be life-threatening. It requires immediate medical treatment.
Antibiotics can cause an upset stomach. Men with chronic bacterial prostatitis may need lots of antibiotics to treat recurring infections. Some people develop antibiotic resistance, making treatment ineffective.
Asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis can lower sperm count, affecting fertility.
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Symptoms Of Prostate Cancer Spread To The Bones
The most common place for prostate cancer to spread to is the bones. This can include the:
The most common symptom if cancer has spread to the bone is bone pain. It is usually there most of the time and can wake you up at night. The pain can be a dull ache or stabbing pain.
Your bones might also become weaker and more likely to break .
When prostate cancer spreads to the spine, it can put pressure on the spinal cord and cause spinal cord compression. This stops the nerves from being able to work properly. Back pain is usually the first symptom of spinal cord compression.
Spinal cord compression is an emergency. You should contact your treatment team immediately if you are worried you might have spinal cord compression.
What Causes Prostatitis
The causes of prostatitis differ depending on the type.
Chronic prostatitis or chronic pelvic pain syndrome. The exact cause of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome is unknown. Researchers believe a microorganism, though not a bacterial infection, may cause the condition. This type of prostatitis may relate to chemicals in the urine, the immune systems response to a previous urinary tract infection , or nerve damage in the pelvic area.
Acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis. A bacterial infection of the prostate causes bacterial prostatitis. The acute type happens suddenly and lasts a short time, while the chronic type develops slowly and lasts a long time, often years. The infection may occur when bacteria travel from the urethra into the prostate.
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Who Made This Decision
The decision was made by your urologist and an interventional radiologist who is going to perform the procedure. Interventional radiologists are doctors specially trained to perform minimally invasive treatments of various diseases with guidance of an x-ray machine, avoiding the need for open surgery. This includes inserting and navigating special catheters inside blood vessels.
In addition to the standard tests for prostate enlargement, you will need to have a special CT scan to help us visualise the arteries in your pelvis. This will help the radiologist to decide if the anatomy of your arteries is suitable for the treatment. If tests have shown that you are suffering from an enlarged prostate gland you probably have already been told about the more traditional treatment options, including a TURP operation and medication by your urologist or GP.
In your case, a decision was made that you are likely to benefit from an alternative non-surgical treatment option: prostate artery embolisation.
How Common Is Prostatitis
Prostatitis is the most common urinary tract problem for men younger than age 50 and the third most common urinary tract problem for men older than age 50.1 Prostatitis accounts for about two million visits to health care providers in the United States each year.2
Chronic prostatitis or chronic pelvic pain syndrome is
- the most common and least understood form of prostatitis.
- can occur in men of any age group.
- affects 10 to 15 percent of the U.S. male population.3
When Can I Start Having Sex Again
You should not try to have sex for six to eight weeks after surgery. You will find that your erection is initially weak. This is a well recognised side-effect of prostatectomy, due to the fact that the erectile nerves lie next to the prostate and can be damaged while the prostate is removed. If you have had a nerve-sparing prostatectomy you are more likely to recover your erections, but it will take time .
When To Seek Help
If you notice any penile discoloration thats anything other than a mild bruise of which you know the origin, you should see your doctor or a urologist. A urologist is a physician who specializes in the health of the urinary tract and male reproductive organs.
Diagnosing your condition will usually involve a physical examination by a doctor and a review of your medical history and any other symptoms.
Depending on what your doctor suspects is the underlying cause of your penile discoloration, blood tests and other tests may be necessary.
A standard test includes a complete blood count. This test includes a check on levels of:
- white blood cells
- red blood cells
High white blood cell levels, for example, suggest the body is fighting an infection. A blood test can also be used to check for STDs, such as syphilis, HIV, herpes, and hepatitis. Other markers for cancer may also be detected in blood test.
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Acute Prostatitis: Causes Symptoms And Diagnosis
What is acute prostatitis?
Acute prostatitis is usually caused by the same bacteria that cause urinary tract infections or sexually transmitted diseases . Bacteria can travel to your prostate from your blood. It can enter your prostate during or after a medical procedure, such as a biopsy. It can also be caused by infections in other parts of your genitourinary tract.
If you have acute prostatitis, you may develop:
- pain above your pubic bone
- pain in your genitals, testicles, or rectum
Any bacteria that causes UTIs can cause prostatitis. Bacteria that commonly cause UTIs and prostatitis include:
- Proteus species
- Klebsiella species
- Escherichia coli
Some bacteria that cause STDs, such as chlamydia and gonorrhea, can also cause acute bacterial prostatitis. Other conditions that can lead to acute bacterial prostatitis include:
- urethritis, or inflammation of your urethra
- epididymitis, or inflammation of your epididymis, which is the tube that connects your testicles and vas deferens
- injury to your perineum, which is the area between your scrotum and rectum
- bladder outlet obstruction, which can occur due to an enlarged prostate or stones in your bladder
- urinary catheters or cystoscopy
Factors that increase your risk of UTIs, STDs, and urethritis also increase your risk of acute prostatitis. For example, these risk factors include:
- not drinking enough fluids
Other risk factors include:
What Are The Risks Of This Treatment
Prostate artery embolisation is a relatively new procedure for treatment of prostate enlargement. The current evidence from research data has been reviewed by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence and clearly shows that the procedure is safe and an effective treatment option. However, as with any other medical procedures complications may arise.
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How To Find Relief
Bruised or swollen testicles can be uncomfortable enough to keep you from taking part in normal activities.
You can try one or more of the following remedies to help relieve any pain, swelling, or discomfort that may be interfering with your daily life:
If you know what bruised your testicle and you arent experiencing other symptoms, you can wait to see your doctor.
You should see your doctor right away if you:
- are unable to locate both testicles in the scrotum
- have tears or bleeding in the scrotum
- have blood or discharge in your urine
- have difficulty urinating
- have a fever of 101°F or higher
- feel the need to urinate frequently but arent producing much urine
Make an appointment to see your doctor if you arent seeing improvement after a week, or if your symptoms begin to worsen at any time. This may be a sign of a more serious underlying condition.
You may also want to see your doctor if you arent sure of what caused your bruise. In some cases, bruising that appears without warning can be a symptom of a sexually transmitted infection , such as chlamydia.
Other STI symptoms include: