Reviewviral Etiology Of Prostate Cancer: Genetic Alterations And Immune Response A Literature Review
Prostate cancer pathogenesis involves both heritable and environmental factors.
The molecular events involved in the development or progression of prostate cancer are still unclear.
Here we discuss viral etiology of PCa and evidence of viral-mediated genetic changes, and immune dysregulation in PCa.
Additional File 2 Supplementary Table 2
PCR primers used for the detection of HPV DNA. The L1 gene primers are usually MY11 to MY9 , or FAP which amplify different types of HPVs, such as, low risk types 6,11,and high risk types 16,18 and 33. The 450bp products were initially typed by hybridisation or line blots using HPV specific probes, but this typing was later replaced by sequencing. Positive results for the L1 region only confirm the presence of HPV DNA. The E6 and or E7 primers however can relate to oncogenicity of HPV in the tissues
Can Hpv Infection Be Prevented
Theres no sure way to prevent infection with all the different types of HPV. But there are things you can do to lower your chances of being infected. There are also vaccines that can be used to protect young people from the HPV types most closely linked to cancer and genital warts.
HPV can be present for years without causing any symptoms. It doesnt always cause warts or any other symptoms. Someone can have the virus and pass it on without knowing it.
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Can Human Papillomavirus Cause Prostate Cancer
Australian researchers say they have found a causal link between prostate cancer and infections through human papillomavirus . The virus is usually associated with cervical cancer.
A human papillomavirus infection can either directly or indirectly cause a malignant tumor to develop in the prostate, according to Australian researchers.
Professor James Lawson and Dr. Wendy Glenn of the University of New South Wales, Australia, say there are indications for a possible link between the human papillomavirus and prostate cancer after reviewing 26 studies.The two authors say high-risk types of HPV, types 16 and 18, were identified in all types of prostrate tissue normal or healthy, benign and malignant.
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HPV types 16 and 18 are also responsible for the majority of types of cervical cancer. Lawson and Glenn say there is evidence that those high-risk types of HPV are present in prostate cancer more often than in healthy or benign tumor tissue.
Image: picture-alliance/dpa/epa/M. Tsikas
“Although HPVs are only one of many pathogens that have been identified in prostate cancer, they are the only infectious pathogen we can vaccinate against, which makes it important to assess the evidence of a possible causal role of HPVs in prostate cancer,” says Lawson.
has also found evidence of Epstein Barr virus in malignant prostate cancers.
They have published their latest paper in the scientific journal, Infectious Agents and Cancer.
Prostate Cancer And Hpv: What The Research Tells Us
In their literature review, which was published in Infectious Agents and Cancer in July, Lawson and Glenn examined the results of 26 studies conducted between 1980-2020 that looked at HPVs and their links to prostate cancer.
Eight of the 26 studies examined indicated that the prevalence of high risk HPV DNA was significantly higher in prostate cancers compared to normal and benign prostate controls. Furthermore, the more recent studies analyzed those conducted after the year 2000 showed that 231 of 1,071 prostate cancers were HPV positive.5
Lawson and Glenn also found that high risk HPV types 16 and 18, which are known to cause cervical cancer in women and can be prevented by the HPV vaccine, were identified in normal, benign, and malignant prostate tissues.5 Although HPV was previously known to cause other, rare cancers in men, its causal role in prostate cancer which is expected to cause more than 33,000 deaths in the U.S. in 2020 greatly expands the repercussions associated with contracting the virus.2
However, while more research is needed to understand the exact mechanisms for how HPV infection might lead to prostate cancer, the authors assert that the evidence compiled in this literature review makes a strong case for encouraging universal vaccination against HPV infections.5
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Things To Remember About Hpv
- HPV is a very common virus. Most men and women who have ever had sexual contact will get HPV at some time in their lives.
- There is no treatment for HPV, but in most cases it goes away without treatment.
- Having HPV does not mean you will get cancer. Most of the time HPV goes away by itself.
- Certain people are at higher risk for HPV-related health problems. This includes gay and bisexual men and people with weak immune systems .
- Most HPV infections that lead to cancer can be prevented with vaccines.
- Most cervical cancers can be prevented by regular screening.
Risks Of Hpv Infection In Men
Some of the types of HPV associated with genital cancers can lead to cancer of the or in men. Both of these cancer types are rare, especially in men with a healthy immune system. The American Cancer Society estimates that in 2022, about 2,070 men in the U.S. will be diagnosed with cancer of the and 3,150 men will be diagnosed with .
Most cancers that are found in the back of the throat, including at the base of the tongue and in the tonsils, are HPV related. In fact, these are the most common HPV-related cancers found in men. More than 13,000 new cases are diagnosed in men each year.
Other types of HPV virus rarely cause cancer in men, but they do cause genital warts. At any given point in time, about 1% of sexually active men in the U.S. will have genital warts.
Take Steps To Reduce Your Prostate Cancer Risk
While not all risk factors for prostate cancer can be mitigated, there are some steps that men can take to help reduce their chance for developing the disease.
Based on the results of the literature review published by Lawson and Glenn, all males ages nine to 45 should get vaccinated against HPV. In addition, living a healthy lifestyle may help reduce a mans risk for developing not only prostate cancer, but a wide range of other illnesses. Its recommended that men take steps to get to and stay at a healthy weight, keep physically active, and follow a healthy eating pattern.6
Detection Of In Situ Pcr Products
We used an indirect immunolabeling method with a primary anti-digoxigenin antibody conjugated to alkaline phosphatase to detect the PCR product. Briefly, blocking was performed in 5% BSA in PBS for 30 min. The slides were subsequently drained and an anti-DIG antibody was applied for 2 h at room temperature. The detection of alkaline phosphatase was performed for 10 min using an NBT/BCIP kit . After detection, the slides were rinsed in distilled water for 5 min and counterstained with Fast Green. The slides were air-dried and subsequently mounted in Permount histological mounting medium .
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Is The Hpv Vaccine Safe
Yes, the HPV vaccine is very safe. The vaccine has been researched, tested and monitored for many years. Millions of doses have safely been given worldwide.
Side-effects are usually very mild and only last for a short time. The most common side-effects are:
- pain or swelling in the arm where the vaccine is given
- increased temperature, headache, or feeling tired
- dizziness, fainting or feeling sick
About Dr Dan Sperling
Dan Sperling, MD, DABR, is a board certified radiologist who is globally recognized as a leader in multiparametric MRI for the detection and diagnosis of a range of disease conditions. As Medical Director of the Sperling Prostate Center, Sperling Medical Group and Sperling Neurosurgery Associates, he and his team are on the leading edge of significant change in medical practice. He is the co-author of the new patient book Redefining Prostate Cancer, and is a contributing author on over 25 published studies. For more information, contact the Sperling Prostate Center.
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Articles On Hpv/genital Warts
Much of the information about HPV virus centers on women, since having the virus increases their risk of getting cervical cancer. But HPV virus in men can cause health problems, too. It’s important for men to understand how to reduce the risks of HPV infection.
HPV infection can increase a man’s risk of getting genital cancers, although these cancers are not common. HPV can also cause genital warts in men, just as in women.
More than half of men who are sexually active in the U.S. will have HPV at some time in their life. Often, men will clear the virus on their own, with no health problems.
What Does Having Hpv Mean For Me Or My Sex Partners Health
See a healthcare provider if you have questions about anything new or unusual on your or your partners:
Anything new or unusual could be warts, unusual growths, lumps, or sores.
Even if you are healthy, you and your sex partner may also want to get tested for other STIs.
If you or your partner have genital warts, stop having sex until you no longer have warts. We do not know how long a person is able to spread HPV after warts go away.
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Could Infections Cause Prostate Cancer
Could infections cause prostate cancer?
Cancer cant be caught from another person. But infections caused by viruses and bacteria can trigger certain forms of the disease. For example, human papillomavirus can cause cervical cancer and several other types, hepatitis B and hepatitis C can cause liver cancer, and the bacterium Helicobacter pylori is the major cause of stomach cancer.
But could prostate cancer join that list? Two papers, released this week, have suggested that two different infections a virus and a parasite could be involved in some cases of prostate cancer.
Is a virus involved?
In 2002, US researchers had noted that men with prostate cancer often also carry faulty copies of a gene called RNaseL that defends the body from viral infection.
This prompted another team of researchers, led by Robert Schlaberg, to scan tumour samples taken from 86 patients for DNA from almost 5,000 viruses. In 2006, they published the results they had found a virus called xenotropic murine-like retrovirus, or XMRV, in the cell samples from prostate cancer patients.
In fact, their exhaustive search had found XMRV in 45 per cent of men with two faulty copies of the RNaseL gene, but in just 1.5 per cent of men with normal versions. XMRV is one of the retroviruses, a family that includes HIV .
What Are The Causes Of Breast Cancer
No one knows exactly why breast cancer occurs. The environment, hormones, or a persons lifestyle could all play a role in the development of breast cancer. It may also have genetic causes.
High-risk HPV can cause cancer if your immune system doesnt eliminate the cells it infects. These infected cells can then develop mutations, which can cause cancer. Because of this, its possible that HPV could cause breast cancer, but not enough research exists to support that theory.
HPV isnt currently considered a risk factor for breast cancer. Women are more likely to develop breast cancer than men. Other risk factors include:
- having a child at an older age
- not giving birth to any children
- starting your period at a young age
- beginning menopause later in life
- drinking alcohol
- a family history of breast cancer
Breast cancer isnt often inherited, but genetic factors may play a role for some people. Eighty-five percent of the cases occur in women who have no family history of breast cancer.
The greatest risk factor for HPV is being sexually active.
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Screening For Hpv And Cell Changes Caused By Hpv
Screening tests are used to check for disease when there are no symptoms. The goal of screening for cervical cancer is to find precancerous cell changes at an early stage, before they become cancer and when treatment can prevent cancer from developing.
Currently, cervical cancer is the only HPV-caused cancer for which FDA-approved screening tests are available. Screening for cervical cancer is an important part of routine health care for people who have a cervix. This includes women and transgender men who still have a cervix. Cervical cancer screening tests include the HPV test that checks cervical cells for high-risk HPV, the Pap test that checks for cervical cell changes that can be caused by high-risk HPV, and the HPV/Pap cotest that checks for both high-risk HPV and cervical cell changes.
Sometimes an HPV infection can become active again after many years. Learn more about what it means if a woman has a positive HPV test after many years of negative tests.
Histopathological Analyses And Light Microscopy Detection Of Koilocytes In Hpv
All HPV-positive tissue samples were stained with hematoxylin and eosin . Briefly, the tissues were incubated with Harrisâ hematoxylin for 15 min and subsequently washed with distilled water, followed by acid alcohol, running water, and 2% sodium bicarbonate. Subsequently, the samples were fixed in 80% ethanol for 2 min, placed in alcoholic eosin solution for 10 min, and then the samples were decolorized with 90% ethanol to remove excess dye. Finally, the samples were analyzed using a light field optical microscope at 20Ã magnification.
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What Are The Symptoms Of Genital Warts
Genital warts usually appear as a small bump or group of bumps in the genital area. They can be small or large, raised or flat, or shaped like a cauliflower. The warts may go away, stay the same, or grow in size or number. A healthcare provider can usually diagnose genital warts by looking at them. Genital warts can come back, even after treatment. The types of HPV that cause warts do not cause cancer.
How To Manage Hpv In A Relationship
If a man’s long-term sexual partner has HPV, chances are good HPV transmission has already occurred and they also have it. HPV in men may clear from the body more easily than in women. Women, in general, often clear the virus in two years or less.
If a partner has HPV, it does not necessarily mean they have had sex with someone else recently. The virus can lay dormant in the body for years without causing noticeable symptoms.
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How Do People Get Hpv
The virus can also be spread by genital contact without sex, although this is not common.
HPV infection is very common. Most men and women who have ever had sex get at least one type of genital HPV at some time in their lives. Anyone who has had sex can get HPV, even if it was only with only one person, but infections are more likely in people who have had many sex partners. Even if a person delays sexual activity until marriage, or only has one partner, they are still at risk of HPV infection if their partner has been exposed.
You cannot get HPV from:
- Even if it has been years since you were sexually active
- Even if you do not have any signs or symptoms
Transformation And Causal Mechanisms
Information about transformation and causal mechanisms have been added to the original Hill causal criteria.
Exposure of cultured normal and benign prostate epithelial cells to HPV 16 and 18 induces immortalisation of these cells . Schutze et al. have experimentally demonstrated the immortalisation capacity of 11 different HPV types . This capacity varies according to the HPV type. This immortalisation, seen initially in cervical cells, is not confined to prostate epithelial cells. Oral epithelial cells, human embryonic fibroblasts and primary human keratinocytes can also be immortalised.
The joint action of E6 and E7 oncoproteins target cellular pathways which involve cell cycle control and apoptosis and thus enable cell proliferation. Upon integration these genes drive cellular immortalisation. E5 can cooperate with E6 and E7 enhancing transformation activity in precancerous lesions .
Immortalised benign prostate cultured cells can acquire neoplastic properties when further exposed to other viruses, such as the murine sarcoma virus and also components of HPVs such as lipopolysaccharides .
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Treatment For Hpv Or Hpv
Theres no treatment for the virus itself, but there are treatments for the cell changes that HPV can cause.
Cancer is easiest to treat when its found early while its small and before it has spread. Some cancer screening tests can find early cell changes caused by HPV, and these changes can be treated before they even become cancer.
Visible genital warts can be removed with prescribed medicines. They can also be treated by a health care provider.
Hpv Might Cause 1 In 5 Cases Of Prostate Cancer Analysis Says
July 13 — Just over 20 percent of men with prostate cancer tested positive for the human papilloma viruses, or HPVs, an analysis published Monday in the journal Infectious Agents and Cancer found.
The link suggests the viruses might be among the causes of a cancer that kills an estimated 30,000 American men each year, supporting the case for universal vaccination, the researchers said.
“The data may indicate that HPV infection may be transmitted during sexual activity and play causal role in prostate cancer, as well as cervical cancer ,” co-author James Lawson, a professor at the University of New South Wales in Australia, said in a statement.
“Although HPVs are only one of many pathogens that have been identified in prostate cancer, they are the only infectious pathogen we can vaccinate against, which makes it important to assess the evidence of a possible causal role of HPVs in prostate cancer,” he said.
Lawson and colleague Wendy Glenn at the University of New South Wales reviewed data from 26 previous studies on HPVs and their links to prostate cancer.
The high-risk HPV types 16 and 18, which cause the majority of cervical cancers in women, have been identified in normal, benign and malignant prostate tissues, they found.
As many as 45 percent of American men 18 to 59 years old are positive for some form of genital HPV, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
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