What If My Biopsy Shows Cancer
If the biopsy shows prostate cancer, your doctor will determine how likely your cancer is to grow quickly and spread. Sometimes, prostate cancer grows slowly over many years. But other times, it grows quickly.
Your doctor can use your PSA level, Gleason score, and tumor score to determine your risk level. The following pages give more information about Gleason score, T-score, and prostate cancer risk levels.
The Gleason score is a common scale used to determine how fast your prostate cancer is likely to grow. Gleason scores can range from 2 to 10, but most often range from 6 to 10. The higher the Gleason score, the more likely your cancer is to grow and spread.
The T-score tells how far your prostate cancer has grown.
- T1: The cancer is too small to be felt during a digital rectal exam or seen in an imaging test . The cancer is found from a biopsy done after a man has a high PSA level or has surgery for problems urinating. The cancer is only in the prostate gland.
- T2: The cancer can be felt during a digital rectal exam and may be seen in an imaging test. The cancer is still only in the prostate gland.
- T2a: The cancer is in one-fourth of the prostate gland .
- T2b: The cancer is in more than one-fourth of the prostate gland , but has not grown into the other side of the prostate gland.
- T2c: The cancer has grown into both sides of the prostate gland.
- Hormone therapy
Psa Bounce Anxiety In Prostate Cancer
This section has been incorporated in this article to give the reader an insight into the PSA bounce phenomenon. It is a urological phenomenon that has psychological implications. This is an important phenomenon noteworthy for both the psychiatrist and the urologist who treat prostate cancer patients. Patients continue to experience anxiety in prostate cancer even after the treatment is over and after all the malignant tissue has been destroyed. Patients receiving external beam radiation therapy or ultrasound-guided prostate brachytherapy as treatment for early-stage prostate cancer may experience a benign rise in PSA value after the treatment. A study describes the phenomenon called PSA bounce, which can be mistaken for a rise in PSA resulting from biochemical failure. The PSA bounce can be a major source of anxiety for patients and families and can create diagnostic challenges for clinicians. Clinicians should be aware of this complex phenomenon, observe PSA values and account for the PSA bounce in posttreatment management of their patients. Patient education and psychosocial support can be helpful for patients and families when PSA values rise after radiation treatment.
Pelvic Radiation Therapy Effect On Erections
Prostate, bladder, colon, and rectal cancer are sometimes treated with radiation to the pelvis. This can cause problems with erections. The higher the total dose of radiation and the wider the section of the pelvis treated, the greater the chance of erection problems later. If radiation therapy is part of your treatment plan, talk to your doctor before it starts. Ask how your arteries and nerves might be affected by radiation therapy so you know what to expect.
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Prostate Cancer: Causes And Symptoms
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Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men, affecting millions of men around the world every year. The American Cancer Society documents that more than two million men in the U.S. consider themselves prostate cancer survivors. They offer a quiz on their website to help debunk some common myths surrounding this sensitive subject.
One of the positive things about prostate cancer is that it can be treated successfully in many cases. The prostate resides below the bladder, in front of the rectum. The urethra runs directly through the center of the prostate. Prostate cancer begins when cells in the prostate gland, which is responsible for making some of the fluid that is part of semen, begin to grow uncontrollably.
Although there are different types, most all prostate cancers are adenocarcinomas. Other types of prostate cancer are rare, and include:
- Neuroendocrine tumors
- Transitional cell carcinomas
Most prostate cancers grow slowly, which helps aid in successful treatment, if caught early. It is also possible to have prostate cancer that remains undetected by both patient and doctor, if a man is asymptomatic. If you are looking for a detailed guide on the causes, risk factors, prevention, early detection, diagnosis and staging, the American Cancer Society website offers in-depth information.
Is Prostate Cancer Curable
Prostate cancer is the most common type of cancer among men, second only to skin cancer. Learning that one has any type of cancer isnt easy, but the first question on most patients minds after diagnosis is, is prostate cancer curable?
The short answer is yes, prostate cancer can be cured, when detected and treated early. The vast majority of prostate cancer cases are discovered in the early stages, making the tumors more likely to respond to treatment. Treatment doesnt always have to mean surgery or chemotherapy, either. Non-invasive radiation therapy can effectively treat prostate cancer in the case of Pasadena CyberKnife, radiosurgery treatment generally takes less than a week, and you can typically resume your normal activities the same day you receive treatment.
What Is Localized Prostate Cancer
Localized prostate cancer is cancer that is only inside your prostate gland and has not spread to other parts of your body. The prostate is a gland in men about the size of a walnut. It makes and stores the liquid that carries sperm.
The prostate is near the bladder and rectum . It is just below the bladder and surrounds the upper part of the urethra .
Most men with localized prostate cancer have few or no symptoms. Possible symptoms can include:
- Problems when you urinate
- Pain in your lower back
- Pain when you ejaculate
- Blood in your urine
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Staging Of Prostate Cancer
Doctors will use the results of your prostate examination, biopsy and scans to identify the “stage” of your prostate cancer .
The stage of the cancer will determine which types of treatments will be necessary.
If prostate cancer is diagnosed at an early stage, the chances of survival are generally good.
Genetic Testing For Prostate Cancer
You may hear a lot about genetics or genomics. Both terms are related to genes and cell DNA, but they are different. These tests are being used to learn more about the DNA of cancer cells, and link DNA mutations with treatments. In the future, genetic testing may be the first step doctors take when diagnosing prostate cancer.
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How To Make The Right Treatment Decision
Current expert guidelines for treatment of localized prostate carcinoma recommend potentially curative therapy for patients whose life expectancy is at least 10 years., Patients with limited life expectancy are more likely to die from health conditions other than prostate cancer. Men with a life expectancy of more than 10 years are more likely to die from progressive prostate cancer. This 10-year rule enjoys broad acceptance among urologists and radiation oncologists.,
Conservative management proved to be an acceptable treatment option for men with low-grade Gleason scores, clinically localized disease, and life expectancies of less than 10 years. Increasing age was described as a risk factor for receiving inadequate treatment for prostate cancer. Thus, older men have been shown to receive potentially curative therapy less often than younger men., Radical prostatectomy is preferred treatment in men younger than 70 years, whereas radiation therapy is applied predominantly in patients older than 70 years. Conservative therapy such as watchful waiting or androgen deprivation by luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogs is preferentially applied in men older than 80 years. Watchful waiting or hormonal therapy is used to treat 82% of men older than 80 years.
Choosing A Treatment Option
Treatment Options for Localized or Locally Advanced Prostate Cancer A man diagnosed with localized or locally advanced prostate cancer has 3 major treatment options: Active Surveillance, surgery, and radiation therapy. For patients whose cancer appears more aggressive, combination treatment may be recommended. For example, radiation therapy…
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How Will I Know That My Hormone Therapy Is Working
Doctors cannot predict how long hormone therapy will be effective in suppressing the growth of any individual mans prostate cancer. Therefore, men who take hormone therapy for more than a few months are regularly tested to determine the level of PSA in their blood. An increase in PSA level may indicate that a mans cancer has started growing again. A PSA level that continues to increase while hormone therapy is successfully keeping androgen levels extremely low is an indicator that a mans prostate cancer has become resistant to the hormone therapy that is currently being used.
The Role Of Trained Nursing Staff In The Psychological Well
Trained nursing staff form an integral part of any oncology unit. They often spend more time with the patient and his family members than the treating doctor does. Very often family members may pose many questions to the nursing staff rather than the treating doctor and it is essential that correct answers are received. The nurse managing a patient with prostate cancer must be trained and equipped with the knowledge of various treatment modalities used in the management of the disease and the various side effects that may arise post treatment. This may help in alerting the clinician if any of the side effects ensue. The nurse must also be equipped to deal psychologically with the patient and help allay his anxieties and fears regarding treatments and long-term outcomes. Handling anxious relatives who are overconcerned should also be part of one’s nursing skills. Knowledge about the longitudinal course of prostate cancer, urinary and sexual complications, chemotherapy and its side effects, along with psychological issues that arise in prostate cancer, may assist a patient in getting the required help when such complications occur. The nurse may be effective in screening patients who need psychological help, psychosocial interventions and support group enrollment, and may thus direct the patient and relatives correctly. Symptom assessment done in a proper manner by nursing staff may aid the clinician in a valuable manner in planning further interventions for any patient.
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Some Things To Consider When Choosing Among Treatments
Before deciding on treatment, here are some questions you may want to ask yourself:
- Are you the type of person who needs to do something about your cancer, even if it might result in serious side effects?
- Would you be comfortable with watchful waiting or active surveillance, even if it means you might have more anxiety and need more frequent follow-up appointments in the future?
- Do you need to know right away whether your doctor was able to get all of the cancer out ? Or are you comfortable with not knowing the results of treatment for a while if it means not having to have surgery?
- Do you prefer to go with the newest technology , which might have some advantages? Or do you prefer to go with better proven treatments that doctors might have more experience with?
- Which potential treatment side effects might be most distressing to you?
- How important for you are issues like the amount of time spent in treatment or recovery?
- If your initial treatment is not successful, what would your options be at that point?
Many men find it very stressful to have to choose between treatment options, and are very fearful they will choose the âwrongâ one. In many cases, there is no single best option, so itâs important to take your time and decide which option is right for you.
Signs Of Prostate Cancer Include A Weak Flow Of Urine Or Frequent Urination
- Weak or interrupted flow of urine.
- Sudden urge to urinate.
- Frequent urination .
- Trouble starting the flow of urine.
- Trouble emptying the bladder completely.
- Pain or burning while urinating.
- Blood in the urine or semen.
- A pain in the back, hips, orpelvis that doesn’t go away.
- Shortness of breath, feeling very tired, fast heartbeat, dizziness, or pale skin caused by anemia.
Other conditions may cause the same symptoms. As men age, the prostate may get bigger and block the urethra or bladder. This may cause trouble urinating or sexual problems. The condition is called benign prostatic hyperplasia , and although it is not cancer, surgery may be needed. The symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia or of other problems in the prostate may be like symptoms of prostate cancer.
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Hormonal Therapy For Prostate Cancer
In prostate cancer of stage 3 & 4, surgical treatment is often NOT effective. In this case, hormone therapy is used that inhibits the production of testosterone, which stimulates the growth of cancer cells.
To do this, estrogen therapy is carried out to increase female characteristic hormones in the male body in order to limit the production of testosterone .
There is also a method of acting on the pituitary gland of the patient and blocking the production of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone and gonadotropin-releasing hormone. In addition, hormone therapy drugs that block the action of testosterone on prostate cells are used, for example Nilutamide. Most often this method is combined with others.
It is worth mentioning to understand that hormonal treatment of prostate cancer will be effective only in case of hormone-dependent type of tumor. If the cancer is hormone-resistant, it is necessary to carry out chemotherapy.
Other Things That Affect Erections After Surgery
A wide range of ED rates have been reported, even in men who havent had surgery. But for the most part, the younger a man is, the more likely he is to regain full erections after surgery. Men under 60, and especially those under 50, are more likely to recover their erections than older men.
- Strength of erections before surgery: Men who had good erections before cancer surgery are far more likely to recover their erections than are men who had erection problems.
- Other conditions, such as Peyronies disease: In some men, the penis can develop a painful curve or knot when they have an erection. This condition is called Peyronies disease. Its most often due to scar tissue forming inside the penis, and has been linked to some cancer surgeries, such as surgery to remove the prostate . Still, Peyronies disease is rarely linked to cancer treatment, and it can be treated with injections of certain drugs or with surgery. If you have painful erections, ask your doctor for help finding a urologist with experience treating this disease.
Sound Health: New Radiation Treatments For Prostate Cancer Show Promise
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A doctor who specializes in treating cancer patients says new studies on radiation therapy for prostate cancer show promise.
Patrick Fernandes is a radiation oncologist at the Carle Cancer Institute in Normal. In this edition of Sound Health, Fernandes said early studies have shown that radiation treatments for prostate cancer can be done in one week instead of the current six to eight weeks.
I think this is something which we may see in the not-too-distant future, Fernandes declared.
Fernandes said radiation is far more precise than it was 10 to 20 years ago when radiation equipment was primitive. That makes the procedure more effective at removing the cancer and limiting tissue damage, he said.
Thankfully over the last decade or so, our machines have improved with computer technology. We are now able to deliver radiation much more precisely, much more compact, he said.
Anxiety And Prostate Cancer
Anxiety is an affective state that can often occur without an identifiable triggering stimulus. As such, it must be distinguished from fear, which is an emotional response to a perceived threat. Additionally, fear is also related to specific behaviors of escape and avoidance, whereas anxiety is related to situations perceived as uncontrollable or unavoidable. Another form of anxiety is anticipatory anxiety, which is a future-oriented mood state in which one is anxious anticipating a future upcoming negative event. Anxiety is seen in various forms in patients with prostate cancer. Anxiety may be seen while testing for prostate cancer , diagnosis, during treatment, while dealing with the social stigma, could be related to sexual function and an anxiety with a fear related to recurrence of the cancer after treatment. Studies have shown that at any given time 2060% of patients with prostate cancer may suffer from anxiety in general.
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