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Red Meat And Prostate Cancer

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What Exactly Is Red Meat

Red meat linked to colorectal cancer development

Health Organization also considers processed meat as red meat. These include meat products such as pepperoni, salami, and lunch meat.

It is vital to distinguish between different types of meat:

  • Processed meat: These products are usually from conventionally raised cows, then go through various processing methods. Examples include sausages and bacon.
  • Conventional red meat: Conventional red meats are relatively unprocessed, but the cows are usually factory farmed. Meats that are red when raw are defined as red meats.
  • White meat: Meats that are white when cooked are defined as white meats. This includes meat from poultry like chicken and turkey.
  • Grass-fed, organic meat: This meat comes from animals that have been naturally fed and raised organically, without drugs and hormones. They also dont have any artificial chemicals added.

What Does The Research Show

A prospective study of 1294 men with prostate cancer did not identify any association between increased meat consumption and prostate cancer recurrence or progression . There is a correlation, however, with consumption of well-done meats and increase in prostate cancer risk . Well-done, charred meats produce Heterocyclic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons carcinogenic chemicals formed from the cooking of muscle meats such as beef, pork, fowl, and fish. HCAs form when amino acids and creatine react at high cooking temperatures. Researchers have identified 17 different HCAs resulting from the cooking of meats that may pose human cancer risk.

When accessible, low-cooked temperature, grass-fed meat should be consumed by CaP patients due to their high carotenoid, vitamin E , glutathinone, conjugated linoleic acid levels and low saturated fat content relative to grain-fed beef .

Cured meats should also be avoided as they contain nitrosamines because meats contain amines, and sodium nitrite, a source of nitrosating agents, is added to cured meats as a preservative.

Hormones And Body Mass Index

Prostate cancer is considered to be one of the cancers influenced by the hormonal environment. Perturbations in the sex steroids seem to play an important role in the genesis of prostate cancer, as they do in breast cancer. A higher body mass index has been shown to be associated with lower serum levels of testosterone and sex hormonebinding globulin and with higher levels of estradiol. Serum levels of androstenedione are decreased, but the peripheral conversion of androstenedione to estrone and estradiol is increased.

The increase in BMI and change in hormone status could shift the human body into a pro-inflammatory state, which also could be a cause for concern. In addition, the potentially large reductions in testosterone that can occur with weight gain could provide a partial androgen deprivation akin to the androgen deprivation therapy used for advanced prostate cancer. While in the short term this could reduce the risk of an incident prostate cancer, in the long term it could increase the risk of aggressive disease.

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Red Meat Linked To Prostate Cancer

Every day 70 Canadian men are diagnosed with prostate cancer and eleven die from it. The National Cancer Institute in the United States predicts that over 200,000 men in the US alone will be diagnosed with prostate cancer in 2012. Now another study is pointing the finger at red meat consumption as a risk factor for the disease.

Red meat has long been associated with heart disease but the link to prostate cancer has been debatable. This latest report published in the Journal PLoS One shows that men who ate a significant amount of ground beef were 2.3 times more likely to have aggressive prostate cancer than men who didnt consume any beef.

So why red meat?

Carcinogenic compounds exist in meat. They are produced during the cooking phase so the longer you grill, broil or fry, the more the compound forms. Another factor is dietary fat. Studies have shown that the consumption of fat promotes the production of hormones which can lead to the growth of cancer cells in hormone sensitive organs like the prostate.

Other Studies

Carb Factor

Red meat has been the subject of numerous scientific examinations but those who promote the beef industry remind us that research projects dont always factor in other foods like carbohydrates. Carbs are known to drive insulin, which leads to fat production and inflammation other contributors to cancer.

Veggie Factor


  • Choose lean beef
  • Do not over-cook meat
  • Consume with greens

How Red And Processed Meat Increase Cancer Risk

Pin on Prostatitis Diet

Current research shows that there are certain chemicals in red and processed meats both added and naturally occurring that cause these foods to be carcinogenic. For example, when a chemical in red meat called haem is broken down in the gut, N-nitroso chemicals are formed and these have been found to damage the cells that line the bowel, which can lead to bowel cancer. These same chemicals also form when processed meat is digested. In addition, the nitrite and nitrate preservatives used to preserve processed meat produce these N-nitroso chemicals and can lead to bowel cancer.

To find out your cancer risk, take the Cancer Risk Quiz.

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Avoid Processed Meat Eat More Chicken Says Study To Prostate Cancer Survivors

All cancer survivors want advice on how to remain in remission. Prostate cancer survivors feel this same way. After undergoing rigorous treatment and then being told, Youre in remission, there are many concerns men have about avoiding a cancer recurrence. One of those concerns revolves around what foods to eat.

Several recent studies are showing that one possible way to prevent cancer recurrence is to limit red and processed meat. While the association between eating meat after a cancer diagnosis and the cause of death from any cause, or specifically from prostate cancer, is limited, the American Cancer Society recommends updated dietary guidelines that might improve the length of survival for men with a prostate cancer diagnosis. One such recommendation is to eat less red meat and processed meats and more poultry

Egg Red Meat And Poultry Intake And Risk Of Lethal Prostate Cancer In The Prostate

Corresponding Author:Corresponding Author:

  • Accepted Manuscript September 19 2011
  • Erin L. Richman, Stacey A. Kenfield, Meir J. Stampfer, Edward L. Giovannucci, June M. Chan Egg, Red Meat, and Poultry Intake and Risk of Lethal Prostate Cancer in the Prostate-Specific Antigen-Era: Incidence and Survival. Cancer Prev Res 1 December 2011 4 : 21102121.

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    To Reduce Cancer Risk Avoid Processed Meat

    If youre looking to reduce your risk for colorectal and potentially other types of cancer, avoid eating processed meats.

    The IARC classified processed meat as a Group 1 carcinogen. In other words, theres enough research to show it causes cancer in humans. To give you some context, here are some other Group 1 carcinogens:

    Again, this classification is based on the evidence supporting the link between cancer and a particular agent.

    While theres strong evidence to suggest that all Group 1 agents cause cancer in humans, they dont necessarily all pose the same level of risk.

    For example, eating a hot dog isnt necessarily the same as smoking a cigarette when it comes to cancer risk.

    The IARC report concluded that eating 50 grams of processed meat each day increases cancer risk by 18 percent. According to the American Cancer Society, this can raise lifetime risk for colon cancer from 5 percent to 6 percent.

    For reference, 50 grams of processed meat translates to about one hot dog or a few slices of deli meat.

    Experts suggest only eating these meats once in a while. Consider enjoying them on special occasions rather than making them a part of your daily diet.

    Unprocessed red meat is part of a balanced diet for many people. It offers good amounts of:

    • vitamins, such as B-6 and B-12
    • minerals, including iron, zinc, and selenium

    Still, the IARC report concluded that regularly eating red meat likely increases the risk for certain cancers.

    The Beef With Red Meat: Potential For Increased Cancer Risk

    WHO: processed meat can cause cancer, red meat probably can

    This page adheres to our medical and editorial policy and guidelines.

    For many, summertime means backyard fun, swimming pools and barbecues. And for those who love red meat, theres nothing like a thick ribeye sizzling on the grill. Or maybe you prefer lamb chops, baby back ribs or just a juicy hamburger. Whatever your preference, red meat is whats for dinner for millions of Americans every day. Americans consume more than 55 pounds of beef and around 50 pounds of pork per person every year.

    But concern is mounting that too much red meat, especially beef, may contribute to poor health and increased cancer risk. I love a good steak, says Stephen Lynch, MD, Vice Chief of Staff at Cancer Treatment Centers of America® , Phoenix. But I think its getting harder and harder not to acknowledge that there are significant concerns about beef.

    Red meat tends to be high in saturated fat and cholesterol, which may contribute to heart disease. Its also linked to increased cancer risk. The American Institute for Cancer Research says theres strong evidence that eating a lot of red meat may increase the risk of colorectal cancer and may also be linked to prostate cancer and pancreatic cancer. The World Health Organization says red meat is probably carcinogenic to humans.

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    Cooking Red Meat Can Cause Carcinogens

    A 2011 study found that the way you cook your meat makes a big difference in your prostate cancer risk.

    Those who ate medium and rarer burgers and steaks only had a 12% higher chance of developing prostate cancer than non-red meat-eaters. Those who liked a well-done burger? They were twice as likely to develop aggressive prostate cancer than non-red meat-eaters.

    The big problem with red meat is that is can create known carcinogens when cooked at high temperatures. If you think well-done meat is gross, then you are in luck. Science backs you up that you should not eat it. Red meat cooked at high temperatures produces two known carcinogens HCA and PAH.

    Heterocyclic amines are formed when foods like red meat are cooked at a high temperature. The creatine found in the muscle of the meat reacts with amino acids and sugars to produce this chemical. Grilled meats can create polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons .

    PAHs are formed when the fat and juices of meat drip onto the open flame of a grill. The flames react to the liquids, causing PAHs to stick to the outside of the meat. Smoking meats can also cause PAHs to form as well.

    The most common type of cancer studied for its relationship to red meat is colorectal cancer. Colorectal cancer is cancer that starts in the colon or the rectum.

    In some cases, this association has been linked to heterocyclic amines and other potentially harmful compounds that form when meat is cooked at high temperatures.

    Energy Consumption And Prostate Cancer

    Total energy consumption may be another important factor in the development of prostate cancer. Excessive caloric intake, regardless of its source, may lead to obesity, which correlates with an increased risk of prostate cancer.

    Mukherjee et al demonstrated that in castrated and noncastrated mice, regardless of castration , all of the groups in which energy intake was restricted developed cancers that were smaller and slower growing, had decreased microvessel density, and had a decreased cell-proliferation index. In this study, cancer cells from the Dunning R3327-H and from LNCaP were transplanted into severe combined immunodeficiency mice. Diet was not restricted in one group. A second group was castrated and subdivided into 2 subgroupsone with an energy-intake restriction of 20% and one with a restriction of 40%. Finally, another group was not castrated but had caloric restriction.

    On the basis of the results of a transgenic mouse model, Huffman et al concluded that the ability of caloric restriction to inhibit cancer development and progression is partially mediated by changes in energy balance, body mass, and body composition rather than just caloric intake. This implies that the risk of developing prostate cancer depends more on excess caloric retention, which leads to obesity, rather than just excessive caloric consumption.

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    Researches And Studies Conducted For Meat Consumption And Prostate Cancer

  • The relationship between meat consumption and prostate cancer is studied by the researchers of Harvard University. More than 15000 physicians participated in the study that concluded that high intake of red meat can aggravate the risk of prostate cancer by 2.5% as compared to those with lower intake of meat . In addition
  • A recent study published in the Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics assessed the relationship between diet modification and cancer development. The study revealed that intake of low fat diet with high intake of fresh vegetables and fruits can help in decreasing the risk of prostate cancer.
  • In conclusion, intake of red meat or oily fish can increase the risk of prostate cancer and more aggressive disease in males which is why it is highly recommended to decrease the frequency of intake to no more than one serving per week. References:

  • John, E. M., Stern, M. C., Sinha, R., & Koo, J. . Meat consumption, cooking practices, meat mutagens, and risk of prostate cancer. Nutrition and cancer, 63, 525-537.
  • Joshi, A. D., John, E. M., Koo, J., Ingles, S. A., & Stern, M. C. . Fish intake, cooking practices, and risk of prostate cancer: results from a multi-ethnic casecontrol study. Cancer Causes & Control, 23, 405-420.
  • Wright, M. E., Bowen, P., Virtamo, J., Albanes, D., & Gann, P. H. . Estimated phytanic acid intake and prostate cancer risk: a prospective cohort study. International Journal of Cancer, 131, 1396-1406.
  • Limitations And The Future

    Processed meat can cause cancer, red meat probably can: WHO

    With any study, there are limitations. Firstly, the authors explain that they were not able to carry out a meta-analysis because the studies were so different from each other that it was not possible to compare them.

    The authors also remind us that association does not prove causation, writing that epidemiologic data cannot prove causation, so any change in risk for is by association and subject to confounding factors.

    Another issue that haunts most observational nutrition studies is dietary recall. When participants have to report what they have consumed in the past days, weeks, or months, they are likely to make errors or, perhaps, even massage the truth.

    Similarly, prostate cancer does not occur until later in life, which brings further confusion. It is unclear whether an individuals current diet influences prostate cancer risk as much as their diet 10, 20, or 30 years earlier.

    Overall, the authors conclude that despite the discordant conclusions found in the literature, our review shows that, in general, plant based foods may be associated with a decreased risk of , whereas dairy products may be associated with an increased risk of .

    If nothing else, this review demonstrates the substantial difficulties of studying the effects of the diet on health. In their paper, the authors explain that one of the biggest obstacles in the field of dietary research is the lack of standardized methods for capturing and reporting diet and lifestyle data.

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    Hormones In Red Meat May Increase Your Risk Of Prostate Cancer

    We have all heard that red meat and dairy products produced in the United States are contaminated with natural sex hormones: estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone, as well as synthetic sex hormones: zeranol, trenbolone, and melengestrol. Steroids allow to gain 10% more milk and increase carcass weight, adding an extra profit of $80 per animal.

    But what do Americans pay the price for this extra profit? Increased levels of reproductive cancers in the United States since 1975: 60% for prostate, 59% for testis, 10% for breast, and 38% for childhood cancer.

    The risk of breast cancer in American women is as 5 -fold as women in countries that banned hormones in animal feed. The European Commission, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and Israel set a ban on the production and importation of meat from animals treated with hormones as early as the 1980s.

    Dr. Samuel S. Epstein, Chairman of the Cancer Prevention Coalition, says, Not surprisingly, but contrary to longstanding claims by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the U.S. Department of Agriculture , residues of these hormones in meat are up to 20-fold higher than normal.

    Moreover, there is a large group of synthetic and natural chemical compounds, xenoestrogens, that imitate estrogenic activity. Because of environmental pollution with estrogens, global deterioration of male reproductive function, and progressive feminization of the animal world, including humans, have been taking place.

    Intake Of The Following Foods Increases Your Risk For Prostate Cancer

    Any man who wants to have a healthy prostate should pay careful attention to his food choices. Men are notorious for loving big steaks, triple bacon cheeseburgers and fried foodsall of which do no favors for prostate health.

    Numerous studies have directed men to dump bad dietary habits and embrace a diet rich in vitamins, minerals, fiber and antioxidants. The University of California at San Francisco Medical Center encourages men to practice good nutrition habits in order to reduce the incidence of prostate cancer and its progression. They recommend that men compose their diet primarily of plant-based foods, including fruits and vegetables high in fiber, and limit their intake of fatty foods and foods high in sugar. They also recommend keeping adequately hydrated and physically active to achieve and maintain a healthy body weight.

    If a man wants to get serious about taking care of his prostate gland to avoid various health issues, he needs to get serious about reducing his intake of certain foods. When he changes his dietand gets regular exercise and loses weight if necessaryhe can feel more confident in knowing he is taking care of his prostate.

    Here are foods men should think twice about and how they can negatively affect the prostate.

    Red meat and processed meat

    For men who love meat and still want to enjoy it now and then, here are some tips on how to reduce HCA formation:

    High-fat dairy foods

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