Maintaining Good Nutrition During And After Treatment
Maintaining a healthy diet can help you prepare for and recover after cancer treatment. It may also help to prevent the prostate cancer from coming back.Watching your weight may also reduce your risk of dying from prostate cancer. Recent studies have indicated that the risk of dying from prostate cancer is more than double in obese men diagnosed with the disease compared with men of normal weight at the time of diagnosis. Obese men with local or regional disease have been shown to have nearly four times the risk of their cancer spreading beyond the prostate or metastasizing.
Prostate cancer treatment may affect your appetite, eating habits, and weight, but it is important for you to maintain a healthy weight, get essential nutrients, and remain as physically active as possible. If you have difficulty eating due to side effects from treatment, there are ways to make eating more comfortable. Working with a registered dietitian/nutritionist can help make sure you are getting the nutrition you need.
Unfortunately it is possible for the side effects of surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy to cause you to lose your appetite, eat less and lose weight. On the other hand, some treatments, such as androgen deprivation therapy may cause weight gain for some men.
, Prostate Cancer and Nutrition featuring Margaret Martin, RD, MS, LDN, a nutrition educator from PearlPoint Nutrition Services.
What Are The Symptoms
Symptoms of prostate cancer may include needing to urinate more frequently having to rush to the toilet straining to urinate feeling as though your bladder hasn’t fully emptied while going to the toilet and blood in urine or semen, the NHS outlines.
The NHS adds that these symptoms may not necessarily be indicative of prostate cancer.
Older men may experience similar symptoms due to prostate enlargement, which is a non-cancerous condition.
Signs that prostate cancer has spread to other areas of the body may include back, hip or pelvis pain erectile dysfunction blood in urine or semen and unexplained weight loss, Prostate Cancer UK states.
For more information about prostate cancer symptoms, visit the Prostate Cancer UK website here.
Lifestyle And Diet May Stop Or Reverse Prostate Cancer Progression
- University of California – San Francisco
- Men with early stage prostate cancer who make intensive changes in diet and lifestyle may stop or perhaps even reverse the progression of their illness, according to a new study. The research is the first randomized, controlled trial showing that lifestyle changes may affect the progression of any type of cancer. Study findings are published in the September issue of the Journal of Urology.
Men with early stage prostate cancer who make intensive changes in dietand lifestyle may stop or perhaps even reverse the progression of theirillness, according to a new study.
The research is the first randomized, controlled trial showing thatlifestyle changes may affect the progression of any type of cancer.Study findings are published in the September issue of the Journal of Urology.
The study was directed by Dean Ornish, MD, clinical professor,and Peter Carroll, MD, chair of the Department of Urology, both of theUniversity of California, San Francisco, and the late William Fair, MD,chief of urologic surgery and chair of urologic oncology, MemorialSloan-Kettering Cancer Center.
The research team studied 93 men with biopsy-proven prostatecancer who had elected not to undergo conventional treatment forreasons unrelated to this study. The participants were randomly dividedinto either a group who were asked to make comprehensive changes indiet and lifestyle or a comparison group who were not asked to do so.
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Patients Can Live Up To Two Years Longer With Hormone Suppressing Medicine
Most prostate cancer patients have a high success rate after treatment, with their PSA levels shrinking considerably. Although there is always a risk of the disease returning, most men wont have recurrences. However, there is a small part of the population that reports a freezing of the prostate cancer in its current after treatment stage and that doesnt seem to be affected by further hormonal suppressing medications. Unfortunately, a fraction of these cases will develop into an advanced, full-blown cancer that will ultimately be incurable and fatal.
New research presented at American Society of Clinical Oncologys annual Genitourinary Cancers Symposium, held in San Francisco, shines light on medicine that could increase the life expectancy of these patients with up to two years.
According to Mail Online Health News, scientists have found that 806 out of 1207 men that were in the drugs receiving groups and took 240mg a day for ten months, succeeded in delaying the spread of cancer by an average of 40.5 months. The placebo group had only 17.7 months and 16.2 months, respectively, before the prostate cancer metastasized.
The medication works as an enhancement of the chemical castration , by blocking the receptors from the cancer cells that absorb the hormone. The treatment will prove to be of great use for the 2-8% of men worldwide that suffer from this form of non-metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.
What Are The Other Risk Factors For Prostate Cancer
In addition to some of the factors weve discussed above, there are several other known risk factors for prostate cancer. These include:
- Age. Your risk of prostate cancer increases as you get older. According to the ACS, around
- more common in African American men. More research is needed to determine why.
- Geographic location. Its unknown exactly why, but prostate cancer is more common in regions of the world like North America, the Caribbean, Europe, and Australia.
- Genetic changes. Some inherited genetic changes, such as those in genes like BRCA1 and BRCA2, may boost your risk of prostate cancer. Additionally, men with an inherited condition called Lynch syndrome are also at a higher risk.
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Things You Can Change: Diet And Lifestyle
Men in western countries have much higher rates of prostate cancer than men in Asia. While no one can definitively explain this phenomenon, experts suspect differences in eastern and western diets are to blame. Poor eating habits and diets that heavily rely on fats and animal proteins can cause DNA damage and lead to cancer.
Even men who are already at greater risk due to age, race or genetics can reduce their chances of developing prostate cancer by adopting healthy diets and lifestyles.
Whats The Outlook For Prostate Cancer
When prostate cancer is found early, the outlook is quite good. According to the National Cancer Institutes Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program, the overall 5-year survival rate of prostate cancer between 2011 and 2017 was
SEER breaks down these statistics further based on the extent of the cancer at diagnosis:
- Localized. When cancer remains in the prostate, 5-year survival is nearly 100 percent.
- Regional. If cancer is in the prostate and nearby lymph nodes, the 5-year survival rate is still nearly 100 percent.
- Distant. When the cancer has spread to other organs and tissues, the 5-year survival rate drops to 30.6 percent.
Most prostate cancers are diagnosed when theyre either localized or regional.
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Surgery For Prostate Cancer
There are many types of surgery for prostate cancer. Some are done to try to cure the cancer others are done to control the cancer or make symptoms better. Talk to the doctor about the kind of surgery planned and what you can expect.
Side effects of surgery
Any type of surgery can have risks and side effects. Be sure to ask the doctor what you can expect. If you have problems, let your doctors know so they can help you.
Drugs To Prevent Prostate Cancer
Men with benign prostatic hyperplasia are often treated with dihydrotestosterone -lowering drugs called finasteride or dutasteride. These drugs have been studied extensively to determine whether they can prevent prostate cancer, and results suggest that they could reduce cancer risk by about 25 percent. Patients who develop cancer while on the drugs are more likely to get an aggressive form of the disease, so discuss the advantages and disadvantages with your doctor.
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Remission And The Chance Of Recurrence
A remission is when cancer cannot be detected in the body and there are no symptoms. This may also be called having no evidence of disease or NED.
A remission can be temporary or permanent. This uncertainty causes many people to worry that the cancer will come back. Although there are treatments to help prevent a recurrence, such as hormonal therapy and radiation therapy, it is important to talk with your doctor about the possibility of the cancer returning. There are tools your doctor can use, called nomograms, to estimate someone’s risk of recurrence. Understanding your risk of recurrence and the treatment options may help you feel more prepared if the cancer does return. Learn more about coping with the fear of recurrence.
In general, following surgery or radiation therapy, the PSA level in the blood usually drops. If the PSA level starts to rise again, it may be a sign that the cancer has come back. If the cancer returns after the original treatment, it is called recurrent cancer.
When this occurs, a new cycle of testing will begin again to learn as much as possible about the recurrence, including where the recurrence is located. The cancer may come back in the prostate , in the tissues or lymph nodes near the prostate , or in another part of the body, such as the bones, lungs, or liver . Sometimes the doctor cannot find a tumor even though the PSA level has increased. This is known as a PSA recurrence or biochemical recurrence.
Intense Exercise Improved Markers Of Biochemical Progression In Patients On Active Surveillance
byMike Bassett, Staff Writer, MedPage Today August 19, 2021
Rigorous exercise not only boosted cardiorespiratory fitness, but also improved indicators of prostate cancer biochemical progression in patients undergoing active surveillance, according to results of a randomized trial.
Patients participating in a 12-week high-intensity interval training regimen saw an increase in peak oxygen consumption — the study’s primary outcome — of 0.9 mL/kg/min, while a usual-care group saw a decrease of 0.5 mL/kg/min, for an adjusted between-group mean difference of 1.6 mL/kg/min , reported Kerry Courneya, PhD, of the University of Alberta in Canada, and colleagues.
Additionally, the patients in the HIIT program experienced decreased prostate-specific antigen levels , PSA velocity , and lymph node carcinoma of the prostate cell growth , “suggesting that HIIT may have played an inhibitory role in prostate cancer cell growth in this setting,” they wrote in JAMA Oncology.
Patients on active surveillance for prostate cancer have a three times higher risk of cardiovascular disease-specific death than prostate cancer-specific death, and more than half will experience disease progression and require radical treatment within 10 years, the authors noted.
“Interventions during active surveillance to boost cardiovascular health, delay disease progression, and precondition these men for possible radical treatments would be desirable,” they wrote.
Active Surveillance May Help Your Quality Of Life
With this approach, you have regular checkups, including a PSA test and rectal exam. Youll get a prostate biopsy if needed. You can start treatment at any time if the cancer starts to grow.
Active surveillance is a good choice for many men with low-risk prostate cancer, because they can avoid the side effects of treatment. This is an especially important choice if you are older or in poor health.
Screening For Prostate Cancer
There are no tests available with sufficient accuracy to screen populations of men for early signs of prostate cancer. However, early detection and treatment can significantly improve prostate cancer survival.
The test most commonly used to aid early detection of prostate cancer is the prostate specific antigen blood test. This is not a diagnostic test as it can only indicate changes in the prostate. If you are concerned about prostate cancer you should talk to your doctor and make an informed choice about whether to have one of the tests designed to find early signs of prostate cancer, in view of the potential risks and benefits.
There are no proven measures to prevent prostate cancer.
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Things You Cant Change: Age Race And Genes
Prostate cancer is primarily a disease of aging. As you get older, your chances of developing prostate cancer increase. Race and genetics also play a significant role. If you are African American, your chances of developing prostate cancer are double those of white American men. If your father, brother or multiple blood relatives had prostate cancer, you are more likely to get it, too.
Preventing prostate cancer might be difficult if you have these risk factors, but screening early and often can help ensure that if you do get cancer, its diagnosed and treated as soon as possible.
What Questions Should I Ask My Healthcare Provider
If you have prostate cancer, you may want to ask your healthcare provider:
- Why did I get prostate cancer?
- What is my Gleason score? What is my Grade Group? What do these numbers mean for me?
- Has the cancer spread outside of the prostate gland?
- What is the best treatment for the stage of prostate cancer I have?
- If I choose active surveillance, what can I expect? What signs of cancer should I look out for?
- What are the treatment risks and side effects?
- Is my family at risk for developing prostate cancer? If so, should we get genetic tests?
- Am I at risk for other types of cancer?
- What type of follow-up care do I need after treatment?
- Should I look out for signs of complications?
A note from Cleveland Clinic
Prostate cancer is a common cancer that affects males. Most prostate cancers grow slowly and remain in the prostate gland. For a small number, the disease can be aggressive and spread quickly to other parts of the body. Men with slow-growing prostate cancers may choose active surveillance. With this approach, you can postpone, and sometimes completely forego, treatments. Your healthcare provider can discuss the best treatment option for you based on your Gleason score and Group Grade.
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What Happens If You Don’t Treat Prostate Cancer
If prostate cancer is left untreated, it may grow and possibly spread out of the prostate gland to the local tissues or distant sites such as liver and lungs. If prostate cancer is left untreated, it may grow and possibly spread out of the prostate gland to the local tissues or distant sites such as liver and lungs.
Are Prostate Problems Always A Sign Of Prostate Cancer
Not all growths in the prostate are cancerous, and not all prostate problems indicate cancer. Other conditions that cause similar prostate cancer symptoms include:
- Benign prostatic hyperplasia : At some point, almost every man will develop benign prostatic hyperplasia . This condition enlarges the prostate gland but doesnt increase cancer risk. The swollen gland squeezes the urethra and blocks the flow of semen and urine. Medications, and sometimes surgery, can help.
- Prostatitis: Men younger than 50 are more prone to prostatitis, inflammation and swelling of the prostate gland. Bacterial infections are often the cause. Treatments include antibiotics or other medications.
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How Prostate Cancer Is Treated
In cancer care, different types of doctorsincluding medical oncologists, surgeons, and radiation oncologistsoften work together to create an overall treatment plan that may combine different types of treatments to treat the cancer. This is called a multidisciplinary team. Cancer care teams include a variety of other health care professionals, such as palliative care experts, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, oncology nurses, social workers, pharmacists, counselors, dietitians, physical therapists, and others.
The common types of treatments used for prostate cancer are described below. Your care plan may also include treatment for symptoms and side effects, an important part of cancer care.
Treatment options and recommendations depend on several factors, including the type and stage of cancer, possible side effects, and the patients preferences and overall health.
Cancer treatment can affect older adults in different ways. More information on the specific effects of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy on older patients can be found another section of this website.
Because most prostate cancers are found in the early stages when they are growing slowly, you usually do not have to rush to make treatment decisions. During this time, it is important to talk with your doctor about the risks and benefits of all your treatment options and when treatment should begin. This discussion should also address the current state of the cancer:
How Can It Be Treated
Some diagnosed with prostate cancer will not require any treatment at all, the NHS states.
A person’s treatment may depend on whether their prostate cancer is localised in the prostate gland or has spread to other parts of the body.
The NHS explains that a patient with cancer should be cared for by a team of specialists, called a multidisciplinary team.
This team of medical professionals may include oncologists, radiographers and specialist nurses, among others.
The NHS adds that treatment for prostate cancer is undertaken to either cure the disease, or control symptoms so that they do not shorten a patient’s life expectancy.
Some older men who are diagnosed with prostate cancer may be advised to carry out “watchful waiting“, which is when they keep a close eye to see whether or not they develop any progressive cancer symptoms.
They may also be told to do “active surveillance”, which involves undergoing tests such as MRI scans and biopsies while avoiding other treatments deemed “unnecessary”.
Other treatments that patients diagnosed with prostate cancer may undergo include radical prostatectomy, which is the surgical removal of the prostate gland radiotherapy hormone therapy and chemotherapy.
If a person’s prostate cancer has become too advanced, then it may not be able to be cured.
However, treatments such as radiotherapy, hormone treatment and chemotherapy may slow down its progression.
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