What Is Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer can develop when cells in the prostate start to grow in an uncontrolled way.
Some prostate cancer grows too slowly to cause any problems or affect how long you live. Because of this, many men with prostate cancer will never need any treatment.
But some prostate cancer grows quickly and is more likely to spread. This is more likely to cause problems and needs treatment to stop it spreading.
Breaking News: Prostate Cancer Deaths To Hit Highest Numbers In Two Decades
A new report finds no improvement in diagnosis rates, and a troubling rise in death totals
WASHINGTON, D.C. Despite most cancers seeing a drop in deaths, prostate cancer deaths are on the rise in the U.S. New reporting from the American Cancer Society shows that in 2020, the number of men who will die from prostate cancer will hit a record high over the last two decades, with an increase of 5 percent since just last year.
The annual report Cancer Facts and Figures was released earlier today, and states that disease reductions halted for prostate cancer. Other troubling findings include a prediction that in 2020, prostate cancer will receive the most diagnoses among male cancers, with 21 percent of new cancer cases being prostate-related, compared to the next highest, lung and bronchus, at only 13 percent. Of those diagnosed with prostate cancer, 10 percent are expected to pass away from the disease.
In 2020, men will still be diagnosed at a rate of 1 in 9 men. This makes prostate cancer the most likely cancer diagnosis among men, followed by lung and bronchus at a rate of 1 in 15.
When I found out I had prostate cancer, I just wanted to live, said Jeffrey Wilde, a prostate cancer survivor in North Carolina. Im here today because my cancer was caught early. We need to educate more men about this disease, and why early testing is crucial to survival. The fact that Im still here today is proof.
Risk Factors For Lung Cancer
Smoking is the leading risk factor for lung cancer and is responsible for 80% of lung cancer deaths. People who have never smoked account for 20% of lung cancer deaths.
Exposure to radon gas is the second leading risk factor of lung cancer.2
Other risk factors include exposure to:2
- secondhand smoke
- certain metals
- certain organic materials
- air pollution
- diesel exhaust
Family history and genetic factors may also play a role in the development of lung cancer.2
People who have never smoked account for 20% of lung cancer diagnoses every year. An estimated 47,300 non-smokers will be diagnosed with lung cancer in 2022.3
Read Also: How Painful Is A Prostate Needle Biopsy
Incidence Survival And Mortality Data
Population-based cancer incidence data in the United States have been collected by the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program since 1973 and by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Program of Cancer Registries since 1995. The SEER program is the only source for historic population-based incidence data. Long-term incidence and survival trends were based on data from the 9 oldest SEER areas , representing approximately 9% of the US population., Contemporary stage distribution and survival statistics were based on data from the 18 SEER registries . Contemporary incidence trends were based on all 21 SEER registries unless otherwise specified, as was the probability of developing cancer, which was calculated using the NCI’s DevCan software, version 6.7.8. Some of the statistical information presented herein was adapted from data previously published in the SEER Cancer Statistics Review 1975-2017.
The North American Association of Central Cancer Registries compiles and reports incidence data from 1995 forward for registries that participate in the SEER program and/or the NPCR. These data approach 100% coverage of the US population for the most recent years and were the source for the projected new cancer cases in 2021 and cross-sectional incidence rates by state and race/ethnicity., Some of the incidence data presented herein were previously published in volumes 1 and 2 of Cancer in North America: 2013-2017.,
Data Sources And Methods
The sources and methods used in compiling the GLOBOCAN estimates for 2020 are described online at the Global Cancer Observatory . The GCO website includes facilities for the tabulation and graphic visualization of the GLOBOCAN database for 185 countries and 36 cancers , by age and sex. The profile of cancer, globally and by world region, is built up using the best available sources of cancer incidence and mortality data within a given country. Therefore, the validity of the national estimates depends on the degree of representativeness and quality of the source information. The methods used to compile the 2020 estimates are largely based on those developed previously, with an emphasis on the use of short-term predictions and the use of modelled mortality-to-incidence ratios, where applicable. The estimates are available in the GCO for 36 cancer types, based on codes from International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision , including nonmelanoma skin cancer . Together with all cancers combined, cancer-specific estimates are provided for 185 countries or territories worldwide by sex and by 18 age groups .
Recommended Reading: Is Chocolate Bad For Prostate Cancer
Prostate Cancer In The Americas Other Than The Usa
Canada showed an increase in crude prostate cancer incidence/diagnosis rates during 19922010 by 1.70 ± 0.30 cases per 100,000 males per year. However, if the data are age-adjusted, no significant increase in incidence rates were noted. Over the same period Canada witnessed 69,655 deaths, with an overall decline. Crude mortality rates reduced by 0.19 ± 0.022 deaths per 100,000 males per year between 1992 and 2010, significantly lower in the quintile with the highest percentage of AfricanCanadian/Black individuals .
New Canadian Cancer Statistics Report Reveals 50% Decline In Prostate Cancer Death Rate Since Peak In 1995
Progress is a testament to advancements in research leading to life-saving treatments.
4 min. read
A new report released today by the Canadian Cancer Society reveals significant progress is being made in saving the lives of people with prostate cancer. Since its peak in 1995, the prostate cancer death rate has declined by 50%. This progress reflects remarkable advancements in research that have led to life-saving treatments.
Canadian Cancer Statistics 2021 was developed by the Canadian Cancer Statistics Advisory Committee in collaboration with CCS, Statistics Canada and the Public Health Agency of Canada. The report showed the prostate cancer death rate has been cut in half over the last 26 years from 45.1 to an expected 22.7 per 100,000 males. Nevertheless, an estimated 4,500 will die from prostate cancer this year.
Prostate cancer continues to take an enormous toll on the 1 in 8 men expected to be diagnosed with the disease in their lifetime, but thanks to the perseverance of researchers, we have made tremendous breakthroughs, says Elizabeth Holmes, Senior Manager of Policy and Surveillance, CCS. By funding innovative research projects, we have been able to enhance treatments that improve outcomes and extend the lives of people with prostate cancer, helping them live longer and healthier lives.
Advancements in precision surgery and targeted radiation treatments have played a major role in helping to cut the prostate cancer death rate in half.
Don’t Miss: Is There A Cure For Prostate Cancer
Worldwide Prostate Cancer Mortality
- Prostate cancer is the fifth-leading cause of cancer deaths among people AMAB worldwide, accounting for 375,000 deaths in 2020, according to the paper in âCA: A Cancer Journal for Cliniciansâ.
- The same paper also reported that prostate cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in 48 countries, including many in sub-Saharan Africa, the Caribbean and Central and South America.
Here’s a look at the top 10 countries for prostate cancer deaths in 2020:
- âZimbabwe:â 868 41.7 per 100,000
- âBarbados:â 137 40.3 per 100,000
- âHaiti:â 1,533 40.2 per 100,000
- âZambia:â 823 40.1 per 100,000
- âJamaica:â 844 39.4 per 100,000
- âTrinidad and Tobago:â 403 38.9 per 100,000
- âBahamas:â 72 36.3 per 100,000
- âDominican Republic:â 2,228 35 per 100,000
- âSaint Lucia:â 54 32.6 per 100,000
- âCÃ´te d’Ivoire:â 1,600 29.5 per 100,000
Chronic Inflammation And Prostatitis
There is a strong link between prostate cancer and inflammation, and in 1863, Rudolf Virchow was the first to identify the high density of leukocytes in neoplastic samples, suggesting a positive association between inflammation and cancer . After that, both epidemiological and biological studies provided evidence that inflammation is behind the high-grade or aggressive prostate tumors and ultimately metastatic spread . The evidence-based knowledge so far supports the role of inflammatory responses in the regulation of tumor microenvironment through the remodeling of the extracellular matrix and initiation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition . Indeed, inflammatory cells release growth factors and cytokines within the tumor microenvironment to promote angiogenesis and remodeling of the ECM, while further inflammatory cytokines released within the reactive stroma induce EMT-mediated responses .
Patients with elevated PSA often present with intraprostatic inflammation detected with biopsies . Recently, an inflammatory effector, pentraxin 3, has been identified as a biomarker for predicting tumor progression due to prostatic inflammation in prostate cancer patients .
Prostatitis is the inflammation of the prostate gland that is hard to diagnose because it is often asymptomatic . Notably, men with symptoms of prostatitis are more likely to be diagnosed with prostate cancer as a result of the increased prevalence of biopsy .
Recommended Reading: Does Prostate Cancer Affect Sperm Production
Prostate Cancer In Russia And Former Soviet Union Countries
This section analyses the incidence and mortality of prostate cancer in the Baltic States, Belarus, Russian Federation and Ukraine. It should be pointed out that these countries have very different profiles of PSA testing uptake. The Russian Federation was the first to introduce PSA testing in the 1990. Since 2013, PSA is part of a national health check-up program. Lithuania introduced the test in 2000. A nationwide PSA screening program has been introduced since 2006. By 2010 around 7278% of the total eligible male population received a PSA test. In Latvia, PSA testing has not been funded by the Government. A recent review by Patasius et al. showed that the countries can be divided in two groups : high , and low incidence countries. The Baltic States belong to the former whereas Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine to the latter. Lithuania is the country with the highest incidence overall followed by Estonia and Latvia . In the Russian Federation, figures are low as it is for Ukraine . A recent study showed that the APC of prostate cancer has been constantly positive for all years however, the inconsistency of cancer databases should be taken into account. The APC ranges from 3.4 to 7.4 for Ukraine and Lithuania, respectively. In Estonia and Lithuania, incidence peak for men aged 5074 was in 2007, followed by an incidence decrease in Lithuania since 2007 and Estonia since 2011.
Latest Prostate Cancer Data
Prostate cancer is the 2nd most commonly occurring cancer in men and the 4th most common cancer overall. There were more than 1.4 million new cases of prostate cancer in 2020.
The 10 countries with the highest rates of prostate cancer and the highest number of deaths from prostate cancer in 2020 are shown in the tables below.
ASR = age-standardised rates. These are a summary measure of the rate of disease that a population would have if it had a standard age structure. Standardisation is necessary when comparing populations that differ with respect to age because age has a powerful influence on the risk of dying from cancer.
Read Also: Can You Remove Entire Prostate
Worldwide Prevalence Of Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in the world among people AMAB, according to the World Cancer Research Fund International . In 2020, more than 1.4 million people worldwide were newly diagnosed with the disease.
In people AMAB, prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in 112 countries, according to a February 2021 paper in âCA: A Cancer Journal for Cliniciansâ.
Cancer Incidence And Mortality Patterns By The 4
Incidence rates increased with increasing HDI level, ranging from 104.3 and 128.0 per 100,000 in low HDI countries to 335.3 and 267.6 per 100,000 in very high HDI countries for men and women, respectively . Mortality rates are about 2-fold higher in higher HDI countries versus lower HDI countries in men, whereas little variation exists across HDI levels in women .
- a Incidence excludes basal cell carcinoma, whereas mortality includes all types of nonmelanoma skin cancer.
- Abbreviation: HDI, Human Development Index.
Figures and show cancer incidence and mortality ASRs in higher HDI versus lower HDI countries for men and women, respectively, in 2020. For incidence in men , lung cancer ranks first and prostate cancer ranks second in higher HDI countries, and vice versa for lower HDI countries . These cancers were followed by colorectal cancer in higher HDI countries, largely reflecting the substantial contribution by the United States, and lip and oral cavity cancer in lower HDI countries because of the high burden of the disease in India. In women , incidence rates for breast cancer far exceed those of other cancers in both transitioned and transitioning countries, followed by colorectal cancer in transitioned countries and cervical cancer in transitioning countries.
You May Like: Are Hemorrhoids A Sign Of Prostate Cancer
Who Gets This Cancer
Prostate cancer occurs only in men, and it is more common in older men than younger men. It is more likely to occur in men with a family history of prostate cancer and men of African American descent. The rate of new cases of prostate cancer was 112.7 per 100,000 men per year based on 20152019 cases, age-adjusted.
Rate of New Cases per 100,000 Persons by Race/Ethnicity: Prostate Cancer
SEER 22 20152019, All Races, Males
Future Burden Of Cancer In 2040
Worldwide, an estimated 28.4 million new cancer cases are projected to occur in 2040, a 47% increase from the corresponding 19.3 million cases in 2020, assuming that national rates estimated in 2020 remain constant . The relative magnitude of increase is most striking in low HDI countries and in medium HDI countries . In terms of the absolute burden, the high HDI countries are expected to experience the greatest increase in incidence, with 4.1 million new cases more in 2040 compared with 2020. This projection is solely due to the growth and aging of the population and may be further exacerbated by an increasing prevalence of risk factors in many parts of the world.
You May Like: Prostate Cancer In Lymph Nodes
National Cost Of Prostate Cancer Care
The estimated cost of prostate cancer in 2020 was $22.3 million dollars, according to the NCI.
- The estimated cost of prescription drugs for prostate cancer in 2020 was $1.7 million, according to the NCI.
- In 2020, the estimated cost of treating prostate cancer in a person at the initial stage of their diagnosis was just over $28,000, according to the NCI. The cost of continued care is $2,602, and the cost during the last year of life is about $74,000.
- In 2020, the estimated cost for a person’s oral prescription medication for prostate cancer was $312 at the initial diagnosis, according to the NCI. The costs for continued medication was also $312 per person. During the last year of life, the cost of prescription medication is estimated to be $5,800.
Prostate Cancer In Africa
The incidence of prostate cancer in Africa is belived to be high. As it has been shown in many publications, prostate cancer is the leading cancer in terms of incidence and mortality in men of African origin. However, data is fragmented and incomplete. According to Echinemane et al. prostate cancer is more common than liver cancer, non-Hodgkins lymphoma, and lung cancer in Abidjan, Ivory Coast . In contrast, Chu et al. demonstrated that prostate cancer incidence among African Americans was as much as 40 times higher than black men in Africa . The highest rates were reported in East Africa with figures of 10.738.1 per 100,000 people and the lowest rates were reported in West African countries, at 4.719.8 per 100,000 people. However, data collection and PSA testing are both minimal in the continent, thus severely affecting the reliability and statistical analysis of the data.
Read Also: Can Enlarged Prostate Be Cured By Homeopathy
Us Cancer Statistics Data Visualizations Tool
The Data Visualizations tool makes it easy for anyone to explore and use the latest official federal government cancer data from United States Cancer Statistics. It includes the latest cancer data covering the U.S. population.
See how the rates of new prostate cancers or prostate cancer deaths changed over time for the entire United States and individual states.Links with this icon indicate that you are leaving the CDC website.
- The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website.
- Linking to a non-federal website does not constitute an endorsement by CDC or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products presented on the website.
- CDC is not responsible for Section 508 compliance on other federal or private website.
Etiology And Risk Factors
The etiology of prostate cancer is the subject of numerous studies and remains largely unknown compared to other common cancers. The well-established prostate cancer risk factors are advanced age, ethnicity, genetic factors and family history . Other factors positively associated with prostate cancer include diet , obesity and physical inactivity, inflammation, hyperglycemia, infections, and environmental exposure to chemicals or ionizing radiation .
You May Like: What Is Prostate Specific Antigen