Hope For Advanced Cancer
Your doctor will continue to monitor your PSA levels and may perform other tests after treatment for prostate cancer. If it recurs or spreads to other parts of the body, additional treatment may be recommended. Lifestyle choices may matter, too. One study found that prostate cancer survivors who exercised regularly had a lower risk of dying, for example.
Managing Your Feelings About Metastatic Breast Cancer
Regardless of whether metastatic breast cancer is a first diagnosis or a recurrence, its normal for people to feel angry, scared, stressed, outraged, depressed, or calm. You may question the treatments youve had, feel mad at your doctors, or be prepared to deal with the diagnosis in a matter-of-fact way. There is no right or wrong way to come to terms with a metastatic breast cancer diagnosis.
Many people find it helps to concentrate on understanding the diagnosis, learning all they can about different treatment options, and taking the time to get second opinions. Information can give people a feeling of control, which can help them manage any fears they may have.
Loss of control is a huge issue for women diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer, said Musa Mayer, author of Advanced Breast Cancer: A Guide to Living with Metastatic Disease and patient advocate. The process of gathering information and learning about the disease and treatment can be very stabilizing and help women feel more in control.
Some people with metastatic breast cancer may feel the urge to withdraw from social connection. But in interviews and publications, many people who are living with metastatic breast cancer have said that distancing themselves from loved ones wasnt very helpful in dealing with their diagnosis.
Still, its important to remember that everyone deals with fear and stress differently. Coming to terms with the diagnosis takes time and is different for everyone.
Where Does Metastatic Prostate Cancer Spread To
Prostate cancer that has metastasized, or spread, beyond the prostate is known as stage 4 or metastatic prostate cancer. Stage 4 prostate cancer may spread locally, staying within the pelvic region, or it can spread to more distant areas of the body. While this form of cancer can travel to any organ in the body, there are specific areas where it most commonly occurs.
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Prostate Cancer Survival Rates: What They Mean
As cancer diagnoses go, prostate cancer is often a less serious one. Prostate cancer is frequently slow-growing and slow to spread. For many men, prostate cancer is less serious than their other medical conditions.
For these reasons, and possibly because of earlier detection of low-grade prostate cancers, prostate cancer has one of the highest survival rates of any type of cancer. WebMD takes a look at prostate cancer survival rates and what they mean to you.
Where Prostate Cancer Spreads In The Body Affects Survival Time
EMBARGOED FOR RELEASE until 4 p.m. on Monday, March 7, 2016
DURHAM, N.C. — Patients with lymph-only metastasis have the longest overall survival, while those with liver involvement fare worst. Lung and bone metastasis fall in the middle.
Smaller studies had given doctors and patients indications that the site of metastasis in prostate cancer affects survival, but prevalence rates in organ sites were small, so it was difficult to provide good guidance, said Susan Halabi, Ph.D., professor of biostatistics at Duke and lead author of the study published online March 7 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.
With the large numbers we analyzed in our study, we were able to compare all of these different sites and provide information that could be helpful in conveying prognosis to patients, Halabi said. This information could also be used to help guide treatment approaches using either hormonal therapy or chemotherapy.
Halabi and colleagues from leading U.S. and international cancer research centers pulled data from nine large, phase III clinical trials to analyze outcomes of 8,736 men with metastatic prostate cancer. The patients had all undergone standard treatment with the chemotherapy drug docetaxel.
Site of metastases was categorized into four groups: lung, liver , lymph nodes only, bone with or without lymph nodes and no other organ metastases.
Halabi said more research is needed to understand how and why prostate cancer spreads to different organs.
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What Are My Treatment Options With Advanced Prostate Cancer
The treatments your doctor recommends will depend on factors specific to you, from your overall health to how advanced your cancer was when it was first diagnosed.
Many men receive ADT, a type of hormone therapy, which deprives the body of the male hormones that the cancer needs to keep growing.
For most men, however, hormone therapy stops working at some point. Alternatives to hormone therapy were approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2018, and Tagawa often starts men on these therapies as soon as theyre diagnosed with bone metastases. Other treatment options may be available through clinical trials.
In addition, chemotherapy, surgery, and immunotherapy as well as radiation treatments, like external beam radiation, which directly target bone problems may be considered. Major cancer centers, such as Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in New York City and MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, have teams of prostate cancer specialists, as well as sophisticated radiation and other treatment equipment consolidated in one place, which can help with the coordination of care.
Understanding Prostate Cancers Progression
To determine the appropriate treatment, doctors need to know how far the cancer has progressed, or its stage. A pathologist, the doctor trained in analyzing cells taken during a prostate biopsy, will provide two starting pointsthe cancers grade and Gleason score.
- Cancer grade: When the pathologist looks at prostate cancer cells, the most common type of cells will get a grade of 3 to 5. The area of cancer cells in the prostate will also be graded. The higher the grade, the more abnormal the cells.
- Gleason score: The two grades will be added together to get a Gleason score. This score tells doctors how likely the cancer is to grow and spread.
After a biopsy confirms prostate cancer, the patient may undergo additional tests to see whether it has spread through the blood or lymph nodes to other parts of the body. These tests are usually imaging studies and may include a bone scan, positron emission tomography scan or computed tomography scan.
Prostate cancer treatment: The care you need is one call away
Your multidisciplinary team will work with you to develop a personalized plan to treat your prostate cancer in a way that fits your individual needs and goals.
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What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of Bone Metastasis
Patients with bone metastasis often present with a number of signs and symptoms, like,
Pain and Tenderness: The pain is typically a dull type with gradual onset in the site of affected bones.
Nerve and Blood Vessel Compression:The pain related to nerve injury travels along the path of the affected nerves. Blood vessel compression may affect the associated structures with oxygen deprivation.
Elevated Calcium Level in the Blood:In the osteolytic type of bone metastasis, the tumor cells tend to stimulate the osteoclasts, which in turn causes excessive bone resorption and increased level of calcium in the blood . The patients will experience nausea, vomiting, constipation, and mental changes. This condition will confer a very poor prognosis of the existing health.
Fracture of the Weakened Bones:As there is excess bone loss, the bone architecture becomes so weak with an increased risk of fracture.
Bone Marrow Failure:Anemia and pancytopenia will occur when bone marrow is involved.
Spinal Cord Compression: When vertebral bones are affected by metastasis, the spinal cord may get compressed, which is one of the most significant complications that have to be addressed in an emergency. The symptoms included leg weakness, paraesthesia, and other neurological dysfunctions.
What Can I Expect If I Have Metastatic Cancer
Your healthcare provider will work closely with you. Theyll monitor your symptoms and find treatments to ease them. Youll probably have many medical visits and will need to make important decisions regarding your overall health.
Is metastatic cancer curable?
In most cases, metastatic cancer is not curable. However, treatment can slow growth and ease many of the associated symptoms. Its possible to live for several years with some types of cancer, even after it has metastasized. Some types of metastatic cancer are potentially curable, including melanoma and colon cancer.
What is the metastatic cancer survival rate?
The five-year survival rate of metastatic cancer depends on the type of cancer you have. For example, the five-year survival rate for metastatic lung cancer is 7%. This means that 7% of people diagnosed with metastatic lung cancer are still alive five years later. Meanwhile, the five-year survival rate of metastatic breast cancer is 28% for women and 22% for men.
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Survival Rates For Prostate Cancer
Survival rates can give you an idea of what percentage of people with the same type and stage of cancer are still alive a certain amount of time after they were diagnosed. These rates cant tell you how long you will live, but they may help give you a better understanding of how likely it is that your treatment will be successful.
Keep in mind that survival rates are estimates and are often based on previous outcomes of large numbers of people who had a specific cancer, but they cant predict what will happen in any particular persons case. These statistics can be confusing and may lead you to have more questions. Ask your doctor, who is familiar with your situation, how these numbers may apply to you.
Stage 4 Prostate Cancer
According to Rubinowicz, a stage 4 prostate cancer diagnosis indicates spread beyond the prostate gland into the lymph nodes or other organs in the body. It is an uncommon diagnosis as most prostate cancers present at an earlier stage.
Rubinowicz stresses that, when detected early, prostate cancer is very treatable. That is why early detection is crucial.
For a stage 4 condition like Taylors, Rubinowicz says the treatment is centered around controlling and preventing further spread of the cancer cells.
Typically, a stage 4 prostate cancer patient is given hormone therapy to deprive the cancer cells of testosterone .
In a full version of Taylors letter that is on Duran Durans website, he wrote that recently I was doing okay after some very sophisticated life extending treatment but a week or so ago … I suffered a setback.
Rubinowicz says some stage 4 patients may benefit from androgen deprivation and adds there are a number of new alternative treatments for advanced stages, including new chemotherapy protocols.
Unfortunately, hormonal treatment for stage 4 prostate cancer includes many potential side effects including decreased energy, decreased libido, fatigue, hot flashes, decreased bone density and an increased risk for cardiovascular complications.
Rubinowicz says that prostate cancer detected at stage 4 has a low five-year survival rate around 30%.
PROSTATE CANCER STATS AND FACTS
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How Prostate Cancer Staging Is Done
Initial staging is based on the results of PSA blood tests, biopsies, and imaging tests. This is also called clinical staging.
PSA refers to a protein made by the prostate measured by a lab test.
- A higher level of PSA can indicate a more advanced cancer.
- The doctors will also look at how fast the PSA levels have been increasing from test to test. A faster increase could show a more aggressive tumor.
A prostate biopsy is done in your doctors office. The results can indicate:
- How much of the prostate is involved.
- The Gleason score. A number from 2 to 10 that shows how closely the cancer cells look like normal cells when viewed under a microscope. Scores 6 or less suggest the cancer is slow growing and not aggressive. Higher numbers indicate a faster growing cancer that is more likely to spread.
Advances In Treatment Of Metastatic Breast Cancer With Bone Metastasis
Ziping Wu, Jinsong Lu
Department of Breast Surgery, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University , China
Contributions: Conception and design: All authors Administrative support: None Provision of study materials or patients: All authors Collection and assembly of data: All authors Data analysis and interpretation: All authors Manuscript writing: All authors Final approval of manuscript: All authors.
Abstract: Bone is the most commonly seen metastatic site in all the metastatic breast cancer . Treatment includes systemic treatment according to different molecular subtypes and specified treatment of the bone. Bisphosphonate and denosumab are the only two drugs approved to use in bone metastatic site. The optimal dosing schedule and duration of the drugs are still under research. New drugs and therapies including curcuminoids, sunitinib and nano particles are potentially available in the near future.
Keywords: Metastatic breast cancer bone metastasis bisphosphonate denosumab
Submitted Jun 01, 2018. Accepted for publication Jun 07, 2018.
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Survival Rates And Outlook
There is currently no cure for advanced prostate cancer, but advances in treatments are extending life expectancy and improving quality of life.
The ACS states that the 5-year relative survival rate for individuals with prostate cancer that has spread to distant lymph nodes, organs, or the bones is 31% . Therefore, people with this stage of prostate cancer are about 31% as likely as those without the condition to live for at least 5 years after diagnosis.
However, survival rates are only estimates, and everyone is different. The following factors are among those that can affect a personâs outlook:
- how cancer responds to treatment
- how far cancer has spread
Ongoing cancer research is also facilitating the development of more effective treatments and leading to improved survival rates.
Here are some answers to questions people often ask about prostate cancer moving to the bones.
Bone Loss From Prostate Cancer Treatment
Testosterone, the male sex hormone, fuels the growth of prostate cancer but it also is crucial to bone health. Treatment of prostate cancer with hormone therapy, also called androgen deprivation therapy , blocks the production of testosterone which stops or slows the growth of the cancer. Without testosterone, bones can become weak and break more easily. When a man is on ADT, recovery from a bone fracture takes longer than for other men. It is especially important for men taking ADT to speak with their doctor about how to plan for and manage the bone loss before a problem arises. Bone strength can also be decreased as a result of radiation and chemotherapy used to treat prostate cancer.
Fortunately there are ways to strengthen and repair your bones including medicines and lifestyle changes.
- Bisphosphonates can prevent the thinning of the bone and help make them stronger
- Oral bisphosphonates include Fosamax and Actonel
- The intravenous bisphosphonate is Zometa
- Strive for a healthy diet and make sure to get enough calcium and vitamin D
- When exercising, include weight bearing and muscle strengthening exercises
- Avoid tobacco and excessive alcohol
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Towards A Meaningful Definition Of High
In the United States, approximately 238,590 men were expected to be diagnosed with prostate cancer in 2013, and 29,720 prostate cancer patients were anticipated to die of their disease in 2013.2 Many of the patients who die of prostate cancer present initially with tumours seemingly confined to the gland this arguably represents true high-risk disease and new approaches are needed for these patients. By current estimates, high-risk disease accounts for 15% of all prostate cancer diagnoses3. The limitations of determining risk based on the T, N, M classification, which does not include Gleason score or PSA, have long been recognized. An important first step toward a more reliable schema was first proposed by DAmico et al.,4 using an endpoint of PSA failure and defining high-risk as a clinical T stage cT2c, a Gleason score 8, or a PSA > 20 ng/mL this definition has been adopted by the American Urological Association .5 The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group developed the first classification which associated specific baseline factors with overall survival and cause-specific survival, arguably more relevant measures. High risk in the RTOG classification includes 1) Gleason 8, or 2) Gleason =7 plus either cT3 or node-positive PSA adds little to this model for the prediction of cause-specific survival or overall survival.6 When combining the RTOG model with the Kattan nomogram, the ability to predict prostate cancerspecific survival is improved.7
Advanced And Metastatic Prostate Cancer What Is It
02 October 2020
Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in Australian men, with about 17,000 men newly diagnosed each year. For most men the long-term outlook is very good relative to the general population and considering other causes of death, 95% of men with prostate cancer will survive at least five years after diagnosis and 91% of men with prostate cancer will survive 10 years or more. Today there are around 220,000 Australian men alive after a diagnosis of prostate cancer.
Of concern to our mission, for men who develop advanced prostate cancer, the outlook is not as good. Prostate cancer kills more than 3,000 men in Australia every year, representing about 12% of all male deaths from cancer. So, what is advanced prostate cancer, how is it detected and how is it treated?
What is the prostate?
What is prostate cancer?
Diagnosing advanced and metastatic prostate cancer
Further tests to determine where the cancer has spread to and the size of the cancers include:
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