How Is Prostate Cancer Diagnosed
A biopsy is when a small piece of tissue is removed from the prostate and looked at under a microscope.
A biopsy is a procedure that can be used to diagnose prostate cancer. A biopsy is when a small piece of tissue is removed from the prostate and looked at under a microscope to see if there are cancer cells.
A Gleason score is determined when the biopsy tissue is looked at under the microscope. If there is a cancer, the score indicates how likely it is to spread. The score ranges from 2 to 10. The lower the score, the less likely it is that the cancer will spread.
A biopsy is the main tool for diagnosing prostate cancer, but a doctor can use other tools to help make sure the biopsy is made in the right place. For example, doctors may use transrectal ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging to help guide the biopsy. With transrectal ultrasound, a probe the size of a finger is inserted into the rectum and high-energy sound waves are bounced off the prostate to create a picture of the prostate called a sonogram. MRI uses magnets and radio waves to produce images on a computer. MRI does not use any radiation.
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Drugs To Treat Cancer Spread To Bone
If prostate cancer spreads to other parts of the body, it almost always goes to the bones first. These areas of cancer spread can cause pain and weak bones that might break. Medicines that can help strengthen the bones and lower the chance of fracture are bisphosphonates and denosumab. Sometimes, radiation, radiopharmaceuticals, or pain medicines are given for pain control.
Side effects of bone medicines
A serious side effect of bisphosphonates and denosumab is damage to the jaw, also called osteonecrosis of the jaw . Most people will need to get approval from their dentist before starting one of these drugs.
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Of : Recognizing The Symptoms
What About Trans People
People born with a prostate can develop prostate cancer. Individuals born without a prostate cannot develop prostate cancer.
Anyone born with a prostate should speak to their doctor about screening for prostate cancer.
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What Are My Treatment Options With Advanced Prostate Cancer
The treatments your doctor recommends will depend on factors specific to you, from your overall health to how advanced your cancer was when it was first diagnosed.
Many men receive ADT, a type of hormone therapy, which deprives the body of the male hormones that the cancer needs to keep growing.
For most men, however, hormone therapy stops working at some point. Alternatives to hormone therapy were approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2018, and Tagawa often starts men on these therapies as soon as theyre diagnosed with bone metastases. Other treatment options may be available through clinical trials.
In addition, chemotherapy, surgery, and immunotherapy as well as radiation treatments, like external beam radiation, which directly target bone problems may be considered. Major cancer centers, such as Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in New York City and MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, have teams of prostate cancer specialists, as well as sophisticated radiation and other treatment equipment consolidated in one place, which can help with the coordination of care.
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What Is The Treatment For Prostate Cancer
If you test positive for cancer, then there are many different methods of treatment available.
Your GP and allotted cancer support team will talk through the best options for you.
This may include radiotherapy, high-intensity focused ultrasound , cryotherapy, hormone treatment, or surgically removing the prostate.
However, you might not need treatment at all.
If the cancer is at an early stage and not causing symptoms, your doctor may suggest either watchful waiting or active surveillance.
This would depend on many factors including your age and overall health.
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Biopsy Vs Prostate Mri
A prostate biopsy is a procedure performed to remove samples of suspicious tissue from the prostate and is used to detect prostate cancer. The most common way of performing a prostate biopsy is passing the needle through the wall of the rectum in a procedure known as a transrectal biopsy. Stereotactic Transperineal Prostate Biopsy is performed by comprehensively sampling the prostate through the perineum while the patient is under general anesthesia. The benefits of STPB include:
- An increased ability to identify hiding cancers
- No hospital stay necessary
- Very low level of discomfort
- Virtually no risk of infection from the procedure
The prostate biopsy diagnosis has been around for a while and has proven results, some patients might choose to opt for a more non-invasive alternative such as a prostate MRI.
The main difference between the procedures stems from an MRIs use of magnetic waves to produce an image, as opposed to needle insertion of a prostate biopsy. The prostate MRI can also help find prostate cancer if you previously had elevated or rising PSAs. MRI is comparable in accuracy to prostate biopsy and it can be essential to help determine the extent of the prostate cancer by helping Doctors find out if the cancer has spread. We recommend you talk to your Doctor for more information on whether a prostate MRI or a prostate biopsy is better for your treatment.
What Stages Have To Do With Cancer Spread
Cancers are staged according to tumor size and how far it has spread at the time of diagnosis. Stages help doctors decide which treatments are most likely to work and give a general outlook.
There are different types of staging systems and some are specific to certain types of cancer. The following are the basic stages of cancer:
- In situ. Precancerous cells have been found, but they havent spread to surrounding tissue.
- Localized. Cancerous cells havent spread beyond where they started.
- Regional. Cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes, tissues, or organs.
- Distant. Cancer has reached distant organs or tissues.
- Unknown. Theres not enough information to determine the stage.
- Stage 0 or CIS. Abnormal cells have been found but have not spread into surrounding tissue. This is also called precancer.
- Stages 1, 2, and 3. The diagnosis of cancer is confirmed. The numbers represent how large the primary tumor has grown and how far the cancer has spread.
- Stage 4. Cancer has metastasized to distant parts of the body.
Your pathology report may use the TNM staging system, which provides more detailed information as follows:
T: Size of primary tumor
- TX: primary tumor cant be measured
- T0: primary tumor cant be located
- T1, T2, T3, T4: describes the size of the primary tumor and how far it may have grown into surrounding tissue
N: Number of regional lymph nodes affected by cancer
M: Whether cancer has metastasized or not
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What Should I Do If I Think I Might Have Prostate Cancer
If you are experiencing any symptoms of prostate cancer, or if you are over the age of 50 and have not been screened for the disease, it is important to see a doctor as soon as possible. Prostate cancer is a serious disease, but it is treatable. The earlier it is detected, the better the chances are for a successful treatment.
How Serious Is My Cancer
If you have prostate cancer, the doctor will want to find out how far it has spread. This is called the stage of the cancer. You may have heard other people say that their cancer was stage 1 or stage 2. Your doctor will want to find out the stage of your cancer to help decide what types of treatment might be best for you.
The stage is based on the growth or spread of the cancer through the prostate, and if it has spread to other parts of your body. It also includes your blood PSA level and the grade of the cancer. The prostate cancer cells are given a grade, based on how they look under a microscope. Those that look very different from normal cells are given a higher grade and are likely to grow faster. The grade of your cancer might be given as a Gleason score or a Grade Group . Ask your doctor to explain the grade of your cancer. The grade also can helpdecide which treatments might be best for you.
Your cancer can be stage 1, 2, 3, or 4. The lower the number, the less the cancer has spread. A higher number, like stage 4, means a more serious cancer that has spread outside the prostate.
If your cancer hasn’t spread to other parts of the body, it might also be given a risk group. The risk group is based on the extent of the cancer in the prostate, your PSA level, and the results of the prostate biopsy. The risk group can help tell if other tests should be done, and what the best treatment options might be.
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Prostate Cancer Can Be Curable
According to Dr. Taha, “Prostate Cancer is a very treatable and curable disease. There are so many options available to patients, which is great. Some options include radical prostatectomy, which is a surgery to remove the entire prostate gland and surrounding lymph nodes.There are multiple types of therapies including radiation therapy, like external beam radiation or CyberKnife radiotherapy. There is also a Cryotherapy or High Intensity Frequency Ultrasound both used to treat low risk cases. I strongly recommend a multidisciplinary approach when diagnosed. It’s important to seek care with a Medical oncologist, Urologist and radiation oncologist involved to be involved with the treatment of your care.”
What Are Common Risk Factors For Prostate Cancer
As I mentioned earlier, I most commonly see prostate cancer in men over 60. And like many other types of cancer, prostate cancer risks increase as you get older. Other risk factors can include:
- A family history of prostate cancer If you have a close family member, such as a father or brother, with prostate cancer, youre 2 to 3 times more likely than other men to develop prostate cancer .
- Genetics Many of my patients often ask if prostate cancer is hereditary. Hereditary prostate cancer does exist, but only 5 to 10 percent of all prostate cancers are hereditary due to a single inherited gene mutation.
- Race Black men are at a higher risk of prostate cancer than men of other races, and were not sure why.
- Obesity Obese men who are diagnosed with prostate cancer may be more likely to have an advanced cancer thats more difficult to treat.
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Questions To Ask The Doctor
- What treatment do you think is best for me?
- Whats the goal of this treatment? Do you think it could cure the cancer?
- Will treatment include surgery? If so, who will do the surgery?
- What will the surgery be like?
- Will I need other types of treatment, too?
- Whats the goal of these treatments?
- What side effects could I have from these treatments?
- What can I do about side effects that I might have?
- Is there a clinical trial that might be right for me?
- What about special vitamins or diets that friends tell me about? How will I know if they are safe?
- How soon do I need to start treatment?
- What should I do to be ready for treatment?
- Is there anything I can do to help the treatment work better?
- Whats the next step?
How To Know If You Have Undiagnosed Prostate Cancer
Discussing this problem with your doctor is the best possible choice to ward off the complications of undiagnosed prostate cancer. Family history and genetics are major risk factors of prostate cancer, but lifestyle changes and diet can make these warning signs more conspicuous as obesity can worsen your condition of painful micturition.
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How Does The Doctor Know I Have Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer tends to grow slowly over many years. Most men with early prostate cancer dont have changes that they notice. Signs of prostate cancer most often show up later, as the cancer grows.
Some signs of prostate cancer are trouble peeing, blood in the pee , trouble getting an erection, and pain in the back, hips, ribs, or other bones.
If signs are pointing to prostate cancer, tests will be done. Most men will not need all of them, but here are some of the tests you may need:
PSA blood test: PSA is a protein thats made by the prostate gland and can be found in the blood. Prostate cancer can make PSA levels go up. Blood tests will be done to see what your PSA level is and how it changes over time.
Transrectal ultrasound : For this test, a small wand is put into your rectum. It gives off sound waves and picks up the echoes as they bounce off the prostate gland. The echoes are made into a picture on a computer screen.
MRI: This test uses radio waves and strong magnets to make detailed pictures of the body. MRI scans can be used to look at the prostate and can show if the cancer has spread outside the prostate to nearby organs.
Prostate biopsy: For a prostate biopsy, the doctor uses a long, hollow needle to take out small pieces of the prostate where the cancer might be. This is often done while using TRUS or MRI to look at the prostate. The prostate pieces are then checked for cancer cells. Ask the doctor what kind of biopsy you need and how its done.
Prognosis For Prostate Cancer
It is not possible for a doctor to predict the exact course of a disease, as it will depend on each personâs individual circumstances. However, your doctor may give you a prognosis, the likely outcome of the disease, based on the type of prostate cancer you have, the test results, the rate of tumour growth, as well as your age, fitness and medical history.
Prostate cancer often grows slowly and even more aggressive types tend to grow more slowly than other types of cancer. If diagnosed early, prostate cancer has one of the highest five year survival rates.
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How Can Treatment Affect Your Quality Of Life
Your age and overall health will make a difference in how treatment may affect your quality of life.
Both surgery and radiation can cause side effects. Radiation is more likely to cause bowel problems. Surgery is more likely to cause leaking urine or erection problems.
Medicines and mechanical aids may help men who have erection problems after surgery. And there are ways to target the radiation and protect the rectum during radiation.
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What Is The Survival Rate For Prostate Cancer
Most of the men diagnosed with prostate cancer will not die from it. Other medical conditions along with prostate cancer can cause death.
Survival rates for men with prostate cancer have increased over the years due to increased screening and treatment options. Ninety-nine percent of men with prostate cancer will survive for a minimum of five years after diagnosis.
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Tests Used To Check The Prostate
This first step lets your doctor hear and understand the “story” of your prostate concerns. You’ll be asked whether you have symptoms, how long you’ve had them, and how much they affect your lifestyle. Your personal medical history also includes any risk factors, pain, fever, or trouble passing urine. You may be asked to give a urine sample for testing.
How To Check Your Prostate
This article was co-authored by Robert Dhir, MD. Dr. Robert Dhir is a board certified Urologist, Urological Surgeon, and the Founder of HTX Urology in Houston, Texas. With over 10 years of experience, Dr. Dhirs expertise includes minimally-invasive treatments for enlarged prostate , kidney stone disease, surgical management of urological cancers, and mens health . His practice has been named a Center of Excellence for the UroLift procedure, and is a pioneer in non-surgical procedures for ED using his patented Wave Therapy. He earned his undergraduate and medical degrees from Georgetown University and was awarded honors in pre-medical studies, urology, orthopedics, and ophthalmology. Dr. Dhir served as chief resident during his urological surgical residency at University of Texas at Houston / MD Anderson Cancer Center in addition to completing his internship in general surgery. Dr. Dhir was voted Top Doctor in Urology for 2018 to 2019, one of the top three Best Rated Urologists in 2019 & 2020 for Houston Texas, and Texas Monthly has named him to the 2019 & 2020 Texas Super Doctors Rising Stars list.wikiHow marks an article as reader-approved once it receives enough positive feedback. This article received 11 testimonials and 86% of readers who voted found it helpful, earning it our reader-approved status. This article has been viewed 1,073,580 times.
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