Sunday, September 25, 2022

What Is Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy

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Tests That May Be Done

Pathophysiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)

The following tests may be done if you have complications of BPH or if there is a need to look for other causes of the symptoms.

  • Ultrasound uses sound waves to check the size and structure of the kidneys, bladder, and prostate. A small device called a transducer is inserted into the rectum to evaluate the prostate.
  • Cystoscopy allows the doctor to look inside the urethra and bladder. This may allow the doctor to find out how much an enlarged prostate is blocking the urethra.
  • Intravenous pyelogram uses X-rays to show the function of the kidneys and the flow of urine from the kidneys to the bladder.
  • Spiral computed tomography scan uses X-rays to make detailed pictures of structures inside the body. These scanners can check for an enlarged prostate gland, blockage, and urine flow from the kidneys.

What Is The Prostate

The prostate is a walnut-shaped gland that is part of the male reproductive system. The main function of the prostate is to make a fluid that goes into semen. Prostate fluid is essential for a mans fertility. The gland surrounds the urethra at the neck of the bladder. The bladder neck is the area where the urethra joins the bladder. The bladder and urethra are parts of the lower urinary tract. The prostate has two or more lobes, or sections, enclosed by an outer layer of tissue, and it is in front of the rectum, just below the bladder. The urethra is the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body. In men, the urethra also carries semen out through the penis.

Turp / Greenlight Pvp Laser / Thermotherapy

Transurethral resection of the prostate has long been the mainstay of enlarged prostate surgery, but less invasive alternatives are now available, with the potential for equal results. With TURP, the obstructing portion of the enlarged prostate tissue is removed. Although effective, TURP requires hospitalization and catheterization for 48 hours or more and comes with risks associated with anesthesia bleeding during and after the operation and, in rare cases, fluid absorption that can be life-threatening.

Prostate LaserOne alternative that has emerged is laser enlarged prostate surgery. Like TURP, the so-called GreenLight PVP Laser Therapy aims to create a channel in the urethra through which men can urinate more freely but the surgery is considerably less invasive. Instead of cutting tissue out, the newer technique creates the channel by vaporizing the tissue using laser energy. Thus far, almost every study has shown that when done by experienced urologists, the laser enlarged prostate surgery produces results that are equal to those with TURP, but without the severe side effects and risks. It is an outpatient procedure with minimal to no bleeding, no risk of fluid absorption, and catheterization only overnight, if at all.

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Unsupported Alternative Medicine And Supplements

Several alternative medications and herbal supplements have been studied as treatment options for BPH. To date, data supporting their use is extremely limited so most professional organizations do not consider them effective treatments. For example, practice guidelines from the American Urological Association conclude that no dietary supplement or other non-conventional therapy is recommended for the treatment of BPH.

  • Supplements: Studies have found supplements containing pygeum, cernilton, and beta-sitosterols to be no better than placebo at relieving BPH symptoms, which is to say that they do not work.
  • Acupuncture: Similar results were found in a scientific study of acupuncture for BPH.
  • Saw palmetto: Supplements containing saw palmetto have shown some efficacy in alleviating BPH symptoms. In some parts of Europe, many urologists saw palmetto a reasonable alternative for patients with mild BPH who are not interested in prescription medications. However, more recent literature reviews have found the studies supporting saw palmetto to be of poor quality, so most professional organizations consider the data insufficient to recommend its use.

Other Less Invasive Procedures

Prostrate Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Hypertrophy ...

These minimally invasive procedures carry fewer risks for incontinence or problems with sexual function than invasive procedures, but it is unclear how effective they are in the long term.

Transurethral Microwave Thermotherapy

Transurethral microwave thermotherapy delivers heat using microwave pulses to destroy prostate tissue. A microwave antenna is inserted through the urethra with ultrasound used to position it accurately. The antenna is enclosed in a cooling tube to protect the lining of the urethra. Computer-generated microwaves pulse through the antenna to heat and destroy prostate tissue. When the temperature becomes too high, the computer shuts down the heat and resumes treatment when a safe level has been reached. The procedure takes 30 minutes to 2 hours, and the patient can go home immediately afterward.

Transurethral Needle Ablation

Transurethral needle ablation is a relatively simple and safe procedure, using needles to deliver high-frequency radio waves to heat and destroy prostate tissue.

Transurethral Electrovaporization

Transurethral electrovaporization uses high voltage electrical current delivered through a resectoscope to combine vaporization of prostate tissue and coagulation that seals the blood and lymph vessels around the area. Deprived of blood, the excess tissue dies and is sloughed off over time.

Water Vapor Thermal Therapy

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What Is Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Or Prostate Adenoma

This condition is known as Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia because it refers to the non-malignant growth of prostatic tissue in men from middle age onwards. In a young man, the prostate gland is at an almost undetectable rudimentary stage, and spreads across the coating of the urinary tract like a cluster of seeds. However, during puberty, its form begins to change due to the increased production of the testosterone and dihydrotestosterone hormones.

Testosterone causes the “seeds”, called acini, to germinate and grow. In adult life, due to this growth and proliferation, these small glandular structures can give rise to obstructive symptoms associated with urinary flow disorders.Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia is one of the most common diseases in men and is considered to be part of the physiological ageing process. The incidence of this disease is 51% in men aged 60 to 69, and between 75% and 90% in octogenarians.

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: Treatment

Benign prostatic hyperplasia does not necessarily require treatment. As long as it does not cause any symptoms, it is often sufficient to wait and see how the disease is progressing.

With an IPSS above 7 or general distress in the patient, however, treatment of the benign prostate enlargement is usually started. Treatment usually means the use of medication. Surgical procedures are only considered if the symptoms increase or if there are complications from the enlarged prostate.

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Understanding Bph: When To Call A Doctor

When detected early, BPH can be treated, but if you allow symptoms to persist, its likely you will develop more uncomfortable and potentially life-threatening conditions. Committing to your annual urology check up is the best way to ensure an enlarged prostate is diagnosed earlyeven before symptoms arise. But, if you are experiencing any of the early BPH symptoms listed above, its time to call a doctor. You should also call a doctor immediately if you begin to suffer from any of the following conditions:

  • Incontinence
  • Bed wetting,
  • A burning sensation while urinating
  • Painful ejaculation
  • Abdominal and pelvic pain,
  • Blood in your urine

Not only can BPH develop into other conditions like prostatitis , but many of its symptoms are also shared with prostate cancer. When left untreated, prostate cancer carries potentially deadly outcomes, making it all the more important that you act quickly.

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: Complications

What is benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and how is it treated?

The main problem that causes benign prostatic hyperplasia with pronounced subvesical obstruction is the increased accumulation of urine in the urinary bladder. As a result, urinary tract infections and bladder stones are not only more common, but if left untreated, they can lead to even more serious complications.

Remodeling of the bladder wall

The constant increased bladder filling and the increased pressure during micturition lead to a reactive growth of the muscle cells of the detrusor after a certain time.

The body wants to ensure that a sufficiently high pressure can be built up to overcome the greater resistance during bladder emptying. However, as the muscles grow, the bladder wall loses its elasticity. It also stores more collagen. There may even be small bulges in the wall of the bladder, known as pseudodiverticula.

The changes in the bladder wall in turn encourage the build-up of residual urine. The final state of this pathological remodeling is called the bar bladder because the detrusor is then thickened like a bar. If the benign prostatic hyperplasia is treated, a barbed bladder can in principle be reversed.

Complete urinary retention and overflow bladder

Sudden complete urinary retention is an emergency and needs to be treated quickly! It should be noted that certain risk factors can further promote this complication. These include, for example, alcohol consumption, prolonged bed rest, certain medications, and sexual activity.

Uremia

Blood in the urine

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When To Contact A Medical Professional

  • Less urine than usual
  • Back, side, or abdominal pain
  • Blood or pus in your urine

Also call if:

  • Your bladder does not feel completely empty after you urinate.
  • You take medicines that may cause urinary problems, such as diuretics, antihistamines, antidepressants, or sedatives. DO NOT stop or change your medicines without talking to your provider.
  • You have tried self-care steps for 2 months and symptoms have not improved.

What Are The Risks Of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

It can lead to a variety of complications.

  • acute urinary retention
  • chronic, or long-lasting, urinary retention
  • blood in the urine
  • minimally invasive procedures
  • surgery

The severity of symptoms, how much the traits affect a mans daily life, and preferences affect how treated benign prostatic hyperplasia is treated.

Men with a mildly enlarged prostate may not require treatment unless their symptoms are bothersome and affect their quality of life. In these cases, a urologist may recommend regular checkups rather than a cure. However, a urologist will most likely recommend treatment if the symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia become bothersome or pose a health risk.

Eating, diet, and nutrition do not play a role in developing or preventing benign prostatic hyperplasia. Therefore, men should consult with a health care provider or a dietitian to determine the best diet. On the other hand, a health care provider can provide information on how changes in eating, diet, or nutrition may aid in treatment.

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Function Of The Prostate

The prostate gland consists of many smaller glands that produce a secretion that protects the sperm and stimulates movement. It makes up 30 percent of the ejaculate and is released into the urethra. In addition, the so-called prostate-specific antigen is formed in the prostate an enzyme that makes the sperm liquid.

Layers of connective tissue and smooth muscles lie between the glands of the prostate. With the help of the muscle cells, the prostate can rhythmically contract during orgasm and thus expel the ejaculate.

How Can Treatment Affect The Risk Of Prostate Cancer

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

While BHP is not prostate cancer, the 5-alpha reductase inhibitors can reduce a mans risk over time of developing prostate cancer by about 25%. There are two benefits to this: First, it makes prostate cancer easier to detect, and second, it prevents the treatments down the road that cause side effects. These hormonal agents are not as effective on more aggressive prostate cancers, and have not been shown to save lives due to prostate cancer. As always, its important to discuss the risks and benefits of these medicines with your doctor.

That said, symptoms are symptoms, and no matter whats most likely to be causing them, you should get them checked out by a doctor.

  • The prostate uses male hormones called androgens, such as testosterone and dihydrotestosterone , to trigger and maintain male sex characteristics and reproduction. Normally,…

  • Copied

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What Is Benign Prostate Hypertrophy

Benign prostate hypertrophy, also called prostate enlargement or BPH, is a non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate gland that is more common as men age.

The prostate enlarges slowly, and over time puts increasing pressure on the urethra and the base of the bladder. This is what causes the symptoms of BPH.

Risk Factors And Disease Prevention

For decades there have been 2 accepted, well-established risk factors for the development of BPH/BPH: the presence of functioning testes at the time of puberty as a required permissive element and age. The role of testosterone/DHT is further substantiated by the absence of an enlarged prostate in men with a genetic defect of the 5-reductase type II and those castrated around the age of puberty .

Numerous epidemiological studies have attempted to identify correlates and risk factors for BPE/LUTS, such as religion, socioeconomic factors, sexual activity, vasectomy, cigarette smoking and alcohol. These studies failed to demonstrate a consistent association with BPE/LUTS .

The high prevalence of the disease and its socioeconomic impact raises the issue of disease prevention. Long-term studies with the 5-reductase inhibitors finasteride and dutasteride suggest that both drugs reduce the risk of acute urinary retention and the need for surgery . However, for the indication prevention in men with no or only mild LUTS, both drugs are not licensed mainly because the risk /benefit ratio remains unclear. Whether promoting a healthier lifestyle can alter a mans propensity to develop BPH/LUTS remains to be clarified in large-scale, long-term controlled trials.

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Tests: Bloodwork And Urinalysis

What is Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and how to care for it as a nurse (Nursing Care Plan)

Lab tests will include:

  • Urinalysis, which is performed for all patients suffering from BPH symptoms. A urine culture can rule out a prostate infection or UTI.
  • A Prostate-Specific Antigen is used to rule out cancer of the prostate.
  • Blood creatinine or blood urea nitrogen tests are used in chronic/severe BPH patients to check for kidney damage and/or anemia.

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How Is Bph Diagnosed

Your doctor can diagnose BPH by asking questions about your symptoms and past health and by doing a physical examination. Tests may include a urine test and a digital rectal examination, which lets your doctor feel the size of your prostate. In some cases, a prostate-specific antigen test is done to help rule out prostate cancer.

Your doctor may ask you how often you have symptoms of BPH, how severe they are, and how much they affect your life. If your symptoms are mild to moderate and do not bother you much, home treatment may be all that you need to help keep them under control. Your doctor may want to see you regularly to check on your symptoms and make sure other problems haven’t come up.

You can use this tool to help you think about how bothersome your symptoms are:

How Is Bph Diagnosed And Evaluated

Early diagnosis of BPH is important because if left untreated it can lead to urinary tract infections, bladder or kidney damage, bladder stones and incontinence. Distinguishing BPH from more serious diseases like prostate cancer is important.

Tests vary from patient to patient, but the following are the most common:

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Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: Frequency

Benign prostatic hyperplasia is the most common urological disease in men. It is also a typical phenomenon of old age. While young men generally have no problems with their prostate gland, men over the age of 50 in particular see a urologist because they have difficulty urinating.

The enlargement of the prostate, which is pathological in the medical sense, can occasionally be detected earlier , but then usually has no disease value because symptoms do not appear at first.

Benign prostatic hyperplasia is relatively common from a certain age, but only some of those affected experience the typical symptoms. About every second man between 50 and 60 has an enlarged prostate.

However, only 10 to 20 percent of men in this age group show clinically relevant symptoms. In the 60 to 69 year olds, on the other hand, around 70 percent have an enlarged prostate and 25 to 35 percent have noticeable symptoms.

Living With Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)

While medical treatments are available for BPH, they may not always be necessary. BPH is not prostate cancer, but some early symptoms can be similar. Therefore, it is important to visit with your doctor regularly for appropriate screenings.

A healthy lifestyle goes a long way for managing prostate health. By starting a good diet and lifestyle changes early in your journey as well as communicating regularly with your doctor, you can live a healthy and comfortable life with BPH.

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