Thursday, April 18, 2024

What Are The Risks Of Prostate Cancer

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How Much Physical Activity Should I Do

Low-Risk Prostate Cancer Treatment – MUSC Hollings

Regular physical activity is good for your general health. People who keep active are more likely to be a healthy weight and less likely to develop health problems such as heart disease, type-2 diabetes and some cancers.

We dont yet know whether physical activity can help prevent prostate cancer, but some studies suggest it may help to lower your risk, particularly of aggressive prostate cancers. Vigorous exercise may be better than light exercise, but any exercise is better than none at all.

  • Aim to do at least 150 minutes of moderate exercise every week, such as brisk walking, cycling or pushing a lawnmower. This doesn’t have to be all in one go.
  • You could start gently for short periods of time, such as 10 to 15 minutes, and slowly increase this to 30 minutes five times a week.
  • Find a sport or activity you enjoy or do lots of different ones so you dont get bored.
  • You might find it more fun to exercise with other people. Ask a friend to come with you, or join a sports team or running group.
  • If you often drive or take the bus for short journeys, try taking a brisk walk instead.
  • Try to spend less time sitting down. You could move about while you watch TV, or choose more active video games. And don’t forget to stand up regularly if you sit down to work.
  • You might find it helpful to write down everything you do in an activity dairy so you can see how well you’re doing.

What Are The Odds You Will Get Prostate Cancer

What are Prostate Cancer Risk Factors? One man in six will get prostate cancer. But which men and why? What makes some men predisposed to prostate cancer, while others are never diagnosed? Age, race, lifestyle, family history, where you live, and what you eat can be risk factors. Having one or more of the risk factors described on this page is not a guarantee that you will get prostate cancer, but it does mean your chances of developing prostate cancer are higher.

What are Prostate Cancer Risk Factors? One man in six will get prostate cancer. But which men and why? What makes some men predisposed to prostate cancer, while others are never diagnosed? Age, race, lifestyle, family history, where you live, and what you eat can be risk factors. Having one or more of the risk factors described on this page is not a guarantee that you will get prostate cancer, but it does mean your chances of developing prostate cancer are higher.

Risk Factors For Prostate Cancer

It is not known exactly what causes prostate cancer. However, research shows that some factors may increase your risk, though scientists are still working to establish why there is a link between these factors and prostate cancer risk.

  • Age

Age is the most significant risk factor for prostate cancer. Your risk increases as you get older. Only 1 out of every 100 of cases diagnosed in Ireland are diagnosed in men under 50. In old age, up to 8 out of 10 men have prostate cancer cells in the prostate but in some men they dont cause any problems.

In Ireland, about 1 in 6 men will get prostate cancer at some point in their lives. However, it is important to note that this is a lifetime risk and involves men who get prostate cancer at any age, up to 85 or older. Your risk when you are younger is much lower than 1 in 6.

  • A family history of cancer

Prostate cancer seems to run in some families. Generally speaking, if you have a father or brother diagnosed with prostate cancer you are 2.5 times more likely to get prostate cancer yourself, compared to the average man.

The age that your relative is diagnosed with prostate cancer may also be a factor. If they were diagnosed before the age of 60, this increases your risk by slightly more than if they were diagnosed after the age of 60. If you have more than one first degree relative diagnosed with prostate cancer your risk is about 4 times that of the general population.

  • Genes
  • BRCA2
  • Lynch Syndrome
  • Ethnicity
  • A previous cancer
  • Diet
  • Hormones

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Will Treatment Cause Erectile Dysfunction

When youre sexually excited, nerves cause tissues in your penis to relax, allowing blood to flow into the organ. The nerves that control erection are very delicate. Surgery or radiation for prostate cancer may damage them enough to cause ED. When you have ED, you cant get or keep an erection.

Radical prostatectomy is a surgery to remove the prostate gland. When your surgeon removes the gland, they may damage the nerves and blood vessels that run along it. If theyre damaged enough, you wont be able to get an erection following the procedure.

Today, doctors can do nerve-sparing surgery, which helps prevent permanent ED. Your surgeon can still touch those nerves and blood vessels, causing ED as a temporary side effect. Many men have trouble getting an erection for a few weeks, months, or even years after their procedure.

Radiation therapy also damages blood vessels and the nerves that control erection. Up to half of men who have radiation for prostate cancer experience ED afterward. In some men, this symptom will improve with time. Sometimes radiation side effects dont appear until a few months after the treatment. If ED starts late, it may not be as likely to go away.

A few treatments can help with ED until youre able to have erections on your own again.

Additional treatments include the following:

What Causes Prostate Cancer


Prostate cancer forms when the DNA in prostate cells develops mutations that may disable their ability to control cell growth and division. In many cases, these mutated cells die or are attacked by the immune system. However, some mutated cells may escape the immune system and grow out of control, forming a prostate tumor.

Understanding the risk factors may help men take preventive measures to reduce the likelihood of developing this disease.

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International Rates And Migration

Prostate cancer exhibits an extraordinary amount of variation in its occurrence worldwide. For example, the incidence rate for African Americans is approximately 60-fold higher than the rate among men in Shanghai, China. Although part of this disparity is due to differences in diagnostic ascertainment and the prevalence of screening, mortality rates, which are less subject to such influences, also vary profoundly. For example, the mortality rate for African Americans from 1988 to 1992 was approximately 12 times higher than the mortality rate in Hong Kong. These differences notwithstanding, mortality is increasing faster in the westernizing parts of Asia than anywhere else in the world. Observation of Asian migrants, moreover, provides the most compelling argument for environmental influences linked to Western lifestyle as causal factors in prostate cancer. Japanese Americans have an incidence rate 43 times higher than their counterparts in Japan, and there are data indicating that migrants develop the high-risk pattern within one generation., Shimizu and colleagues reported that prostate cancer incidence rates in Los Angeles among migrants from Japan were similar regardless of whether men immigrated early or later in life. We interpret this to mean that environmental forces can accelerate the progression of latent tumors even late in life.

Risks For Prostate Cancer

Certain behaviours, substances or conditions can affect your risk, or chance, of developing cancer. Some things increase your risk and some things decrease it. Most cancers are the result of many risks. But sometimes cancer develops in people who don’t have any risks.

The risk for prostate cancer increases as men get older. The chance of being diagnosed with prostate cancer is greater after age 50. Prostate cancer is most often diagnosed in men in their 60s.

Prostate cancer occurs in Black men of African or Caribbean ancestry more often than in men of other ethnicities. Black men are also more likely to have more aggressive prostate tumours and die from prostate cancer when compared to other men. The reason for this is not clear.

The following can increase your risk for prostate cancer. Most of these risks cannot be changed.

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Genetic Testing For Prostate Cancer

You may hear a lot about genetics or genomics. Both terms are related to genes and cell DNA, but they are different. These tests are being used to learn more about the DNA of cancer cells, and link DNA mutations with treatments. In the future, genetic testing may be the first step doctors take when diagnosing prostate cancer.

Radiation Therapy Side Effects

Risk Factors For Prostate Cancer | Norton Cancer Institute

Because the prostate is close to several vital structures, radiation therapy can disrupt normal urinary, bowel, and sexual functioning. Short-term Complications You may experience some temporary urinary symptoms, such as waking up in the night and needing to urinate, needing to urinate more often during the…

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How Common Prostate Cancer Is

In Ireland, prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men, after skin cancer. Every year, more than 3,890 men are diagnosed with prostate cancer in this country. This means that 1 in 6 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer during their lifetime. The number of men getting prostate cancer in Ireland is rising- between 1995 and 2007, the number of new cases more than doubled. Although there are many men with this disease, most men do not die from it.

Hormone Therapy Side Effects

Testosterone is the primary male hormone, and plays an important role in establishing and maintaining typical male characteristics, such as body hair growth, muscle mass, sexual desire, and erectile function, and contributes to a host of other normal physiologic processes in the body. The primary systemic…

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Being Overweight Or Obese

Obese means being very overweight with a body mass index of 30 or higher. And being overweight means having a BMI of between 25 and 30.

Try to keep a healthy weight by being physically active and eating a healthy, balanced diet.

There is some evidence that being active might help to lower your risk of developing prostate cancer.

Being overweight or obese increases your risk of advanced prostate cancer. Researchers have found a link between being obese or overweight and cancers being higher grade .

Can Prostate Cancer Be Prevented

Am I At Risk Of Prostate Cancer?

There are no clear prevention strategies for prostate cancer. There is some conflicting evidence that a healthy diet composed of low fat, high vegetables and fruits may help reduce your risk of prostate cancer. Routine screening, with PSA blood test and physical exam, is important to detect prostate cancer at an early stage. A healthy diet and regular exercise are also critical in maintaining good health and preventing disease in general.

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Can I Take Supplements To Lower My Risk

Some people take supplements to try to lower their risk of cancer, but studies suggest this isnt likely to work. In fact, some supplements may even be harmful.

The best way to get all the vitamins, minerals and other nutrients your body needs is to eat a healthy, balanced diet, including plenty of fruit and vegetables.

Speak to your doctor before taking any supplements and don’t take more than the recommended daily allowance.

What Questions Should I Ask My Healthcare Provider

If you have prostate cancer, you may want to ask your healthcare provider:

  • Why did I get prostate cancer?
  • What is my Gleason score? What is my Grade Group? What do these numbers mean for me?
  • Has the cancer spread outside of the prostate gland?
  • What is the best treatment for the stage of prostate cancer I have?
  • If I choose active surveillance, what can I expect? What signs of cancer should I look out for?
  • What are the treatment risks and side effects?
  • Is my family at risk for developing prostate cancer? If so, should we get genetic tests?
  • Am I at risk for other types of cancer?
  • What type of follow-up care do I need after treatment?
  • Should I look out for signs of complications?

A note from Cleveland Clinic

Prostate cancer is a common cancer that affects males. Most prostate cancers grow slowly and remain in the prostate gland. For a small number, the disease can be aggressive and spread quickly to other parts of the body. Men with slow-growing prostate cancers may choose active surveillance. With this approach, you can postpone, and sometimes completely forego, treatments. Your healthcare provider can discuss the best treatment option for you based on your Gleason score and Group Grade.

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Inflammation Of The Prostate

Some studies have suggested that prostatitis may be linked to an increased risk of prostate cancer, but other studies have not found such a link. Inflammation is often seen in samples of prostate tissue that also contain cancer. The link between the two is not yet clear, and this is an active area of research.

Anthropometric Factors And Physical Activity

Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer Treatment – MUSC Hollings

Measures of obesity and height have been extensively studied in relation to prostate cancer risk. These studies do not indicate any substantial association between either obesity or height and prostate cancer. Adult height was hypothesized to be important, in part because it is influenced by nutrition during childhood. However, attained height is not correlated with adult levels of the somatotrophin insulin-like growth factor -1, which has been linked to prostate cancer risk. The lack of association between obesity and prostate cancer is vexing because obesity reduces sex hormone-binding globulin levels, which could lead to an increase in bioavailable testosterone, and increases both insulin and bioavailable IGF-1, which are both potentially important prostate mitogens. Relatively little research has been conducted so far on body fat distribution, as opposed to total body fat. Of particular interest is abdominal fat, which has metabolic effects different from those of subcutaneous fat. In addition, investigators have hypothesized that physical activity, apart from its beneficial effect on body fat, could reduce prostate cancer risk. The data thus far, however, are not conclusive, perhaps due to difficulty in measuring physical activity in study populations or assessment of activity during the wrong period of life.

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Often Prostate Cancer Is Low

Many prostate cancers are found with a PSA blood test. Often these cancers are low-risk. This means:

  • The tumor is small.
  • It is contained within the prostate.
  • It is probably growing so slowly that it will not become life-threatening.

Usually a man with low-risk prostate cancer dies of something else, even if he doesnt get treatment.

This Prostate Cancer Awareness Month Help Change The Future Of Prostate Cancer

1 in 9 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer in their lifetime. This September alone, during Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, it is estimated that more than 1,900 Canadian lives will be forever changed by the words, You have prostate cancer. But people affected by prostate cancer dont have to face their diagnosis alone. Together, we can create a world where no one fears prostate cancer by funding Canadas most promising prostate cancer research and life-changing support programs.This month, there are many ways to get involved and make a difference in the lives of those affected by the disease.

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Active Surveillance May Help Your Quality Of Life

With this approach, you have regular checkups, including a PSA test and rectal exam. Youll get a prostate biopsy if needed. You can start treatment at any time if the cancer starts to grow.

Active surveillance is a good choice for many men with low-risk prostate cancer, because they can avoid the side effects of treatment. This is an especially important choice if you are older or in poor health.

What We Dont Know

Occupation related to prostate cancer risk in Canadian men ...

While research is promising, thereâs still a lot scientists need to learn. Some things to consider:

  • Thereâs no proof that ejaculating more actually causes lower chances of prostate cancer. For now, doctors just know theyâre connected. It may be that men who do it more tend to have other healthy habits that are lowering their odds.
  • Ejaculation doesnât seem to protect against the most deadly or advanced types of prostate cancer. Experts donât know why.
  • Scientists donât know if ejaculation during sex vs. masturbation has the same benefits. Some research has found that the makeup of semen is different for each. For example, semen during sex has higher levels of sperm and some chemicals. Itâs possible that these could make a difference in a manâs odds of having prostate cancer.
  • Not all studies have found a benefit. The 2016 study got attention because of its size and length . But some smaller studies have not shown the same good results. A few even found that some men, specifically younger men, who masturbated more had slightly higher chances of prostate cancer. Some researchers wonder if a manâs age may affect whether more ejaculation helps.

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Vitamin D Deficiency And Sun Exposure

Vitamin D behaves like a hormone in the body and is produced in the skin upon exposure to ultraviolet light from the sun. It’s been known for some time that men who live in northern regions are more likely to develop the disease than those in southern latitudes, and this increased risk is thought by some to be related to vitamin D deficiency.

Other research has suggested that high serum vitamin D levels may reduce the risk of aggressive prostate cancer. Fortunately, vitamin D levels can be tested a via a simple blood test, and men can talk to their doctors about supplementation if needed.

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