Should I Make Any Lifestyle Changes Including In My Diet Or Physical Activity
Achieving and maintaining a healthy weight by eating a balanced diet with plenty of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, and staying physically active, can help your overall health. These lifestyle changes can also have a positive effect for men with bone metastases, Tagawa says. Both diet and exercise, he says, are things that are under a mans direct control.
A healthy lifestyle can help you better manage side effects from treatment as well. Try setting small but realistic goals for yourself when it comes to eating a healthy diet and getting plenty of exercise.
While no single food is likely to have a benefit for prostate cancer, smart food choices may help you feel better day to day. Start by cutting out foods high in sugar, saturated fat, and added flavorings and preservatives.
If youre not sure which healthy foods to choose, ask your doctor for a referral to a dietitian. This specialist can help you develop a meal plan that includes foods that offer the best chance of slowing the cancers growth and keeping you as healthy as possible.
As an oncologist, Tagawa says he concentrates on treating the cancer itself, but hes aware that many of the men he sees with advanced prostate cancer are older and more likely than younger men to have health problems that can benefit from diet and exercise.
And if youre on hormone therapy, talk to your doctor about investing in some weights or elastic resistance bands to support your bone strength too.
The Role Of Other Growth Factors
The involvement of other growth factors and their respective receptors in metastasis of prostate cancer has been extensively investigated, as they are believed to enhance the invasiveness of prostate cancer. So far, the growth factors and growth factor receptors tested were growth differentiation factor 15 , fibroblast growth factor 3, 9, and 19 , chemokine C-X-C motif ligand 1 , galectins, 2-microglobulin, IGF-1, IGF-2, the epidermal growth factor receptor , the hepatocyte growth factor receptor , as well as the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 .
Apart from that, the role of EGFR/Erb-B2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 signaling in prostate cancer metastasis into the bone microenvironment has also been enumerated . The study suggested that osteoblast-directed induction of signaling activity involving EGFR and ERBB2 in prostate carcinoma cells might be culpable in bone metastasis. EGFR and ERBB2 activation in LNCaP cells under the influence of osteoblast-derived sarcoma cells has been reported to activate EGFR/ERBB2 signaling pathways in LNCaP cells co-cultured with osteoblastic cells that had been differentiated from human mesenchymal stem cells or OHS cells. This finding supported the rationale for the use of EGFR or ERBB2 inhibitors for prophylaxis or cure of prostate cancer metastasis in the androgen-sensitive stage .
The Role Of Bone Morphogenetic Protein
Bone morphogenetic protein belongs to the TGF- superfamily, which functionally stimulates the replication and differentiation of normal cells in the osteoblast lineage. It also plays a crucial role during the process of mesoderm induction, neural tissue differentiation, and morphogenesis of various tissues . Interestingly, BMPs are not only synthesized by osteoblasts but also secreted by prostate cancers. The unusual expression of BMPs in prostate cancer has been implicated in the progression of the disease.
Taken together, BMP expressions are detectable in either normal prostate tissue or prostate cancer cells. The pattern of BMP expression has a close relationship with the progression of prostate cancer and contributes to the onset of bone lesions. It is clear that BMPs play a role in the vicious cycle of metastatic bone formation from prostate cancer. BMPs produced by prostate cancer will induce osteoblastic activities and promote osteoblastic lesions. On the other hand, BMPs synthesized by osteoblasts subsequently enhance the growth of prostate cancer cells allowing further production of BMPs from prostate cancer.
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The Role Of Biochemical Markers
Urokinase, a member of serine proteases that also function as a growth factor to osteoblastic cells, is believed to play a catalytic role in the metastasis of prostate cancer to the skeleton and extraskeletal sites. In a model of urokinase overexpression, Copenhagen rats inoculated with MatLyLu rat prostate carcinoma cells transfected with plasmids encoding overexpression of urokinase were investigated for the pattern of metastasis . The study outcomes revealed significantly earlier and more widespread development of bone metastasis in the ribs, scapula, and femora of rats inoculated with pYN-ruPA as compared to the control that manifested metastasis only in the lumbar vertebrae at 2021 days post inoculation. Biochemical assay and histological evaluation revealed an accompanying progressive increase in serum ALP level and osteoblastic activity compared to the control animals .
Causes Of Advanced Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men in the UK. It is more common over the age 65. Although it can happen at a younger age it is uncommon under 50. People who have a prostate include men, transwomen and people assigned male at birth. If you are a trans woman and have had genital gender affirming surgery as part of your transition, you still have a prostate. Trans men do not have a prostate. It is important to talk to your GP or nurse if you are worried about prostate cancer or have symptoms.
We have more information about the risk factors of prostate cancer.
What Happens After Treatment
If you’ve been treated, especially if a surgeon removed your prostate, your PSA levels should start to go down. Doctors usually wait several weeks after surgery before checking PSA levels.
A rise in PSA after treatment may suggest the cancer is back or spreading. In that case, your doctor may order the same tests used to diagnose the original cancer, including a CT scan, MRI, or bone scan. The radiotracer Axumin could be used along with a PET scan to help detect and localize any recurrent cancer.
Though very rare, it’s possible to have metastatic prostate cancer without a higher-than-normal PSA level.
Go to all of your follow-up doctor appointments. At these checkups, let your doctor know about any symptoms youâre having, especially ones like bone pain or blood in your pee. You could keep track of your symptoms by writing them down in a journal or diary.
At home, follow some healthy habits to feel your best:
Eat a balanced diet. It can boost your energy and your immune system. Fill your plate with fruits and vegetables and high-fiber foods. Cut back on fattening foods, sugar, and processed foods and meats.
Let your doctor know if youâre having trouble staying at a healthy weight or if youâre losing your appetite.
Get exercise if your doctor OKs it. It can be good for your body and mind. It can also help you stay at a healthy weight, keep up your strength, and help manage medication side effects.
How Do Doctors Find Metastatic Prostate Cancer
When you are diagnosed with prostate cancer, your doctor will order tests such as:
These tests may focus on your skeleton and in your belly and pelvic areas. That way doctors can check for signs that the cancer has spread.
If you have symptoms such as bone pain and broken bones for no reason, your doctor may order a bone scan. It can show if you have signs of cancer spreading to your bones.
Your doctor will also ask for blood tests, including a check of PSA levels, to look for other signs that the cancer is spreading.
PSA is a protein made by the prostate gland. A rise in PSA is one of the first signs your cancer may be growing. But PSA levels can also be high without there being cancer, such as if you have an enlarged prostate, a prostate infection, trauma to the perineum, or sexual activity.
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What Are The Treatments For Metastatic Prostate Cancer
It mainly depends on the stage of your cancer. Metastatic prostate cancer is stage IV, and doctors divide it into two types: IVA and IVB.
If you have stage IVA prostate cancer, that means the disease has spread to nearby lymph nodes but not to distant parts of your body. If youâre healthy enough to get treatment, or if youâre having symptoms from the cancer, your doctor may recommend one of these treatment options:
External beam radiation treatment with androgen deprivation therapy . During EBRT, a machine outside your body sends beams of radiation to your prostate gland. Radiation destroys cancer cells.
ADT is a type of hormone therapy. It involves taking medications to lower the levels of male sex hormones that your testicles make, or getting surgery to remove the testicles. Androgens, like testosterone, often fuel the growth of prostate cancer cells.
Along with ADT, your doctor might also have you take a drug called abiraterone . It helps stop cells in other parts of your body, like your adrenal glands, from making androgens.
ADT with or without abiraterone. If your doctor recommends this option, you wonât need to get external beam radiation treatment along with it.
If you have stage IVB prostate cancer, the disease has spread to distant organs, like your bones. Your doctor can give you treatments that help keep your cancer under control for as long as possible and improve your quality of life.
Some treatment options are:
What Happens If My Cancer Starts To Grow Again
Your first treatment may help keep your cancer under control. But over time, the cancer may change and it may start to grow again.
You will usually stay on your first type of hormone therapy, even if its not working so well. This is because it will still help to keep the amount of testosterone in your body low. But there are other treatments that you can have alongside your usual treatment, to help control the cancer and manage any symptoms. Other treatments include:
Which treatments are suitable for me?
Which treatments are suitable for you will depend on many things, including your general health, how your cancer responds to treatment, and which treatments youve already had. Talk to your doctor or nurse about your own situation, or speak to our Specialist Nurses.
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The Initial Causes My Prostate Cancer Spread To My Hip Bone
One of the first symptoms of prostate issues is pain or tenderness in the groin or lower back. This can be the result of a noncancerous condition called enlarged prostatic tissue, or it could be an infection of the bladder. In either case, its important to see a doctor as soon as possible. If youre suffering from prostate pain, you may want to consider reducing your caffeine intake.
Another symptom of a potentially enlarged prostate is difficulty starting a stream of urine, leaking, or dribbling. These symptoms are not serious, but theyre still alarming. Most men put up with an enlarged prostate for years before seeking medical attention, but they typically seek treatment as soon as they notice symptoms. Even if you dont have symptoms, its worth getting checked to determine if you have any prostate issues.
If you experience nightly bathroom runs, you may be experiencing an enlarged prostate. You may be having difficulty starting a stream of urine, or you may even be dribbling or leaking during the day. These problems arent life-threatening, but can become a nuisance. You should not ignore these signs and seek treatment as soon as you notice them. If you feel any of these symptoms, you should consult a doctor.
Survival Rates And Outlook
There is currently no cure for advanced prostate cancer, but advances in treatments are extending life expectancy and improving quality of life.
The ACS states that the 5-year relative survival rate for individuals with prostate cancer that has spread to distant lymph nodes, organs, or the bones is 31% . Therefore, people with this stage of prostate cancer are about 31% as likely as those without the condition to live for at least 5 years after diagnosis.
However, survival rates are only estimates, and everyone is different. The following factors are among those that can affect a personâs outlook:
- how cancer responds to treatment
- how far cancer has spread
Ongoing cancer research is also facilitating the development of more effective treatments and leading to improved survival rates.
Here are some answers to questions people often ask about prostate cancer moving to the bones.
What If You Have Metastatic Castration
This means you have a type of metastatic prostate cancer thatâs able to grow and spread after you had hormone therapy to lower your testosterone levels.
Still, most people with mCRPC stay on androgen deprivation therapy because it might still be effective against some prostate cancer cells.
Your doctor may recommend adding other treatments like:
- Treatments to ease symptoms like pain
You could also find out if a clinical trial might be right for you.
Some people with mCRPC simply choose to try active surveillance or watchful waiting.
Treatment Of Bone Complications
Patients with advanced prostate cancer can have cancer cells that have spread to their bones, called bone metastases. Bone metastases commonly cause pain, increase the risk of fractures, and can lead to a life-threatening condition characterized by an increased amount of calcium in the blood called hypercalcemia. Treatments for bone complications may include drug therapy or radiation therapy.
ZometaÂ® is a bisphosphonate drug that can effectively prevent loss of bone that occurs from cancer that has spread to the bones thereby reducing the risk of fractures, and decreasing pain. Bisphosphonate drugs work by inhibiting bone resorption, or breakdown. Zoledronic acid may be used to reduce the risk of complications from bone metastases or to treat cancer-related hypercalcemia,
Xgeva targets a protein known as the RANK ligand. This protein regulates the activity of osteoclasts . Studies have suggested that Denosumab may be more effective than Zoledronic acid at delaying bone complications in prostate cancer patients with bone metastases. Denosumab is associated with side effects including hypocalcemia and osteonecrosis of the jaw .
Radiation therapy: Pain from bone metastases may also be relieved with radiation therapy directed to the affected bones.
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Managing Symptoms Of Advanced Prostate Cancer
Symptoms can often be improved by treating the cancer, but there are other ways to control symptoms. Tell your doctor or specialist nurse if you have new symptoms or symptoms get worse.
You may see a doctor or nurse who specialises in pain and symptom control. They are sometimes called palliative care specialists.
Some people find complementary therapies such as relaxation, gentle massage, or aromatherapy help you feel better and more in control.
What Is My Outlook
If youre diagnosed with advanced prostate cancer, you may want to know how well your treatment is likely to control your cancer and for how long it will control it. This is sometimes called your outlook or prognosis. But not all men will want to know this.
While it isnt possible to cure advanced prostate cancer, treatments can help keep it under control, often for several years. Treatments will also help manage any symptoms, such as pain.
No one can tell you exactly what your outlook will be, as it will depend on many things such as where the cancer has spread to, how quickly it has spread, and how well you respond to treatment. Some men may not respond well to one treatment, but may respond better to another. And when your first treatment stops working, there are other treatments available to help keep the cancer under control for longer. Speak to your doctor about your own situation and any questions or concerns you have.
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Is It Prostate Cancer Bone Mets Or Primary Bone Cancer
A recent article by a Duke Cancer Institute oncologist, Dr. Daniel George, raised an interesting point. He opened with his own experience of meeting with an advanced prostate cancer patient who says he has bone cancer. Dr. George writes, In the past, I would smile politely and correct them by saying, actually what you have is prostate cancer that has spread to your bones. But, what if they are right?
Despite the very small number of primary bone cancer cases, Dr. George is implying that before administering a systemic treatment for metastatic prostate cancer, further diagnostic tests should be done to identify exactly what is growing in the bone. If it turns out to be primary bone cancer, there are several different types. Each one requires its own type of chemotherapy. And if its prostate cancer bone mets, which is far more prevalent than primary bone cancer, it must be treated as prostate cancer, even though its in the bone.
The Underlying Molecular Mechanisms In Prostate Cancer Bone Metastases
Various types of prostate cancer cell lines, including LuCaP 23.1, LNCaP, C4-2, and IGR-CaP1, were utilized as prostate cancer models. The LuCaP 23.1 and LNCaP cells are highly sensitive to androgen . The C4-2 cell lines showed features of reduced androgen sensitivity and increased metastatic capability . In the androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cell lines, the downregulation in androgen receptor expression reduced AR-mediated transcription and cell growth. Meanwhile, the knockdown of AR expression had a marked effect on AR-mediated transcription and cell growth in the androgen-insensitive prostate cancer cell lines . The expression of AR is an important regulator of prostate cancer cell growth and development at the early stage. However, prostate cancer progresses to castration-resistant prostate cancer at the later stage. Thus, possible correlation between AR expression and the signaling molecules involved in prostate cancer bone metastasis could be considered. On the other hand, the IGR-CaP1 cell line represents a unique model recapitulating widespread bone metastasis with mixed osteoblastic and osteolytic bone lesions that resemble the conditions observed in patients .
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