What Kind Of Treatment Will I Need
There are many ways to treat prostate cancer. The main kinds of treatment are observation, active surveillance, surgery, radiation, hormone therapy, and chemo. Sometimes more than one kind of treatment is used.
The treatment thats best for you will depend on:
- Your age
- Any other health problems you might have
- The stage and grade of the cancer
- Your feelings about the need to treat the cancer
- The chance that treatment will cure the cancer or help in some way
- Your feelings about the side effects that might come with treatment
Is The Psa Test Recommended For Prostate Cancer Screening
Beginning around 2008, as more was learned about both the benefits and harms of prostate cancer screening, a number of professional medical organizations began to caution against routine population screening with the PSA test. Most organizations recommend that individuals who are considering PSA screening first discuss the risks and benefits with their doctors.
Some organizations do recommend that men who are at higher risk of prostate cancer begin PSA screening at age 40 or 45. These include Black men, men with germline variants in BRCA2 , and men whose father or brother had prostate cancer.
In 2018, the United States Preventive Serves Task Force updated its recommendation statement for prostate cancer screening from a D to a C in men ages 55 to 69. The updated recommendation, which applies to the general population as well as those at increased risk due to race/ethnicity or family history, is as follows:
- For individuals ages 55 to 69 years, the decision to undergo periodic PSA-based screening for prostate cancer should be an individual one. Before making the decision, a person should discuss the potential benefits and harms of screening with their clinician and consider these in the context of their own values and preferences.
- PSA-based screening for prostate cancer is not recommended for individuals 70 years and older.
Can Prostate Cancer Be Prevented
There are no clear prevention strategies for prostate cancer. There is some conflicting evidence that a healthy diet composed of low fat, high vegetables and fruits may help reduce your risk of prostate cancer. Routine screening, with PSA blood test and physical exam, is important to detect prostate cancer at an early stage. A healthy diet and regular exercise are also critical in maintaining good health and preventing disease in general.
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What Are 5 Common Warning Signs Of Prostate Cancer
In many cases, prostate cancer does not produce clear symptoms in its initial stages of development. In fact, many men may have prostate cancer without even realizing it. However, there are some common warning signs that could indicate a person has prostate cancer. Five of the most common ones include:
Of course, these five symptoms are not the only potential warning signs of prostate cancer. Other possible indicators could include weak urine flow, and unexplained pain deep in the groin area when sitting down. If cancer has spread beyond the prostate, a man may also suffer lower body swelling, abnormal urinary or bowel habits, or inexplicable weight loss.
It’s important to note that most of these symptoms are not unique to prostate cancer, and may indicate a different condition that is not life-threatening.
What Are The Symptoms Of Prostate Cancer
If you have any symptoms that worry you, be sure to see your doctor right away. They may be caused by conditions other than prostate cancer.
Different people have different symptoms for prostate cancer. Some men do not have symptoms at all.
If you have any of the following symptoms, be sure to see your doctor right away
- Difficulty starting urination.
- Weak or interrupted flow of urine.
- Urinating often, especially at night.
- Trouble emptying the bladder completely.
- Pain or burning during urination.
- Blood in the urine or semen.
- Pain in the back, hips, or pelvis that doesnt go away.
- Painful ejaculation.
Keep in mind that these symptoms may be caused by conditions other than prostate cancer.
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Southern Cross Medical Library
The purpose of the Southern Cross Medical Library is to provide information of a general nature to help you better understand certain medical conditions. Always seek specific medical advice for treatment appropriate to you. This information is not intended to relate specifically to insurance or healthcare services provided by Southern Cross. For more articles go to the Medical Library index page.
Testing Options For Prostate Cancer
There is no one age for prostate cancer testing, but the American Cancer Society makes recommendations about prostate cancer screenings. According to the ACS, patients in any of these groups should consider asking their doctor about testing:
- Men age 50 or older who have an average risk of prostate cancer and a life expectancy of at least 10 more years
- Men age 45 or older with a high risk, including African-American men and those with a first-degree relative who had prostate cancer before age 65
- Men age 40 or older who have a higher risk, such as more than one first-degree relative diagnosed with prostate cancer at an early age
Expert cancer care
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Total Psa And Free Psa Levels
There are no normal levels of total PSA or free PSA for men of any age. Different doctors may use different cutoff points to decide if you need a biopsy or other further testing.
A PSA test measures nanograms of PSA per milliliter of blood. But if you have no symptoms, the usual guidelines for total PSA levels are:
- Safe. Zero to 2.0 ng/mL. Your chance of prostate cancer is very low. Checking your free PSA level may be unneeded.
- Safe for most. Below 4.0 ng/mL. Safe for most. About 15% of the men in this level have prostate cancer. A free PSA check may help your doctor or urologist decide if you might need a needle biopsy.
- Borderline. Between 4 ng/mL and 10 ng/mL. About 25% of men in this group likely have cancer. Your doctor likely will order a free PSA test.
- Dangerous. Above 10.0 ng/mL. The odds are better than 1 in 2 that you have prostate cancer. Your doctor likely will recommend a biopsy.
If your total PSA levels are in the borderline area between 4-10 ng/mL, your free PSA ratio can give you a more detailed picture of your cancer risk.
The chances that a needle biopsy will turn up prostate cancer varies by your free PSA concentration and your age:
Concentration of more than 25%: About 1 in 10 men ages 50 to 59 will have cancer. For those 70 and older, itâs 16%.
Concentration of 25%-19%: Cancer risk ranges from 18% to 30% for men 50 and older.
Concentration of less than 10%: Cancer risk is about 50% if youâre 50 to 59 years old for those 70 and older, itâs 65%.
What Should I Do If I Have Prostate Cancer Symptoms
If you are displaying one or more signs of prostate cancer, be sure to promptly consult with a physician. Even benign prostate conditions like prostate enlargement warrant timely medical attention, so dont delay seeking treatment. And, like most other malignancies, prostate cancer is usually more easily treated when it is detected at an early stage.
Medically reviewed by Monica Chatwal, MD.
At Moffitt Cancer Center, we provide a full range of diagnostic testing for prostate cancer. If you have received a prostate cancer diagnosis, we understand that every day counts, and we want to support you every step of the way. Our Urologic Oncology Program includes a multispecialty team that focuses exclusively on evaluating and treating prostate cancer.
Contact Moffitt at or complete a new patient registration form online to speak with one of our specialized oncologists about your symptoms. As Floridas top cancer hospital, were committed to providing all new patients rapid access to a cancer expert within a day of their reaching out.
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Side Effects Of Radium 223
The side effects of radium 223 can include diarrhoea and sickness but these are generally mild.
The treatment can also sometimes cause low levels of blood cells after a few weeks. This can lead to an increased risk of infection, anaemia, and bruising more than usual. So you need to have regular blood tests after the treatment.
Rarely, some people have increased pain in the area of cancer in the bone for a few days or weeks after this treatment. Let your doctor or nurse know if you have this. They can give you painkillers.
Prostate cancer: diagnosis and managementNational Institute for Health and Care Excellence , 2019. Last updated December 2021
Radium-223 dichloride for treating hormone-relapsed prostate cancer with bone metastasesNational Institute for Health and Care Excellence , 2016
Prostate cancer: ESMO clinical practice guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow upC Parker and othersAnnals of Oncology, 2020. Vol 31, Issue 9. Pages 1119-1134
Cancer: Principles and practice of oncology VT De Vita, TS Lawrence and SA RosenbergLippincott, Williams and Wilkins, 2019
Should I Get Prostate Cancer Screening
You may have wondered why there is no nationwide prostate cancer screening program in Australia . Thats because experts do not recommend routine prostate cancer screening if youre aged between 50 and 69, healthy, and dont have a family history of prostate cancer.
There are several reasons for this:
- A high PSA level can be a result of something other than cancer.
- Experts dont fully agree on what is a normal or abnormal PSA level.
- Most men with a slightly raised PSA level have a biopsy that confirms no cancer.
- Many prostate cancers are low risk, slow growing, and are unlikely to cause harm if left untreated.
- Testing and treating low risk, slow growing cancers may cause more harm than good.
You should speak to your doctor if you have a family history or ongoing symptoms of prostate cancer, such as difficulty passing urine. Your doctor can help you make an informed decision about whether prostate cancer screening is suitable for you.
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Psa Elevation From Large Prostate Glands
Big prostate glands produce more PSA than small prostate glands. The best way to measure the size of the prostate is by using a scan. Finding an oversized gland can be good news, providing a benign and reassuring explanation for why the PSA is high.
Until recently, the only way to sort through all these possibilities of PSA elevation was to puncture the prostate 12 times with a needle biopsy to remove tissue cores for evaluation under the microscope. Due to an inordinate fear of missing cancer, many doctors recommended random biopsy anytime the PSA was slightly elevated. One million men are biopsied in the United States every year. This aggressive behavior was perhaps justified when biopsy was the only way to find cancer.
We now know, however, that scans using multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging are more accurate than a needle biopsy. The beauty of using a scan is that only men who have a suspicious abnormality detected by MRI need to undergo a biopsy. And importantly, the biopsy can be targeted. Only one or two cores are required. No more fishing through the rest of the gland with random needle sticks! Men with clear scans can avoid a biopsy altogether. Changing the policy from random biopsy to MP-MRI would solve the problem of over-diagnosis in men with high PSA.
What Are The Risk Factors For Prostate Cancer
Some of the greatest risk factors for prostate cancer include:
- Age. Prostate cancer is very rare in men younger than 40 years of age. In contrast, approximately 60% of prostate cancer cases occur in men that are older than 65.
- Race. African-American men tend to be at greater risk for prostate cancer compared to non-Hispanic whites, whereas Asian-Americans and Hispanic/Latino men are less susceptible to this disease.
- Location. Prostate cancer is most common in North America, Europe, Australia, and the Caribbean. It is rarer in Asia, Africa, and Central and South America. This may be because of more intensive screening procedures for the disease in certain countries, although lifestyle factors such as diet could also play a key role in the difference.
- Family history. In many cases, there is a strong hereditary factor associated with the emergence of prostate cancer. In fact, men who have a father or brother with prostate cancer have a much higher risk of developing it themselves.
Other possible risk factors could include a dairy-rich diet, obesity, smoking, and exposure to harmful chemicals.
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What Are The Risks Of Having A Psa Test
Often the PSA test can show high levels of PSA that arent caused by cancer .
If your PSA test is high, you may need more testsâlike a prostate biopsyâto check for prostate cancer. These tests can be harmful. For example, prostate biopsies can cause infections. For a few men, these infections are very serious. These tests can also cause a lot of worry.
PSA tests may miss some cancers. Not all prostate cancers cause a high PSA, so some PSA tests will be normal when there is cancer . But the more serious prostate cancers usually do cause a high PSA.
A PSA test can find cancers that would not have caused a problem . You might have this type of cancer, but a PSA test cant tell if the cancer is harmless. So you may get cancer treatmentâincluding surgery or radiationâthat you dont need.
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How Prostate Cancer Is Diagnosed
Tests and investigations to diagnose prostate cancer include digital rectal examination and blood tests by your GP which will be repeated again if you are referred to a urologist . A rectal scan and a biopsy of the prostate may be necessary.
You can read more about the PSA test here.
You can read more about other tests for prostate cancer here.
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What And Where Is It
Your prostate is a small rubbery gland that lives inside your body, just below your bladder. It’s roughly the size and shape of a walnut and sits around the urethra, the tube that carries pee from your bladder through your penis. . From the side, the prostate sits between the front of the rectum and the base of the penis. Only men have a prostate.
I Have Prostate Cancer Now What
What men need to consider when making treatment decisions.
7 min read
Like any cancer diagnosis, the news can leave men and their loved ones feeling anxious and unsure about the future. And with so many different options available for treating prostate cancerincluding surgery, radiation, hormonal therapy, and even the option to initially do no treatment at allthe decision-making process can often be complicated.
To find out more about prostate cancer treatment options and the various factors that both doctors and patients must consider when making a decision, I spoke to three Northwell Health physicians who care for patients with prostate cancer: Dr. Louis Potters and Dr. Richard Byrnes, who are radiation oncologists, and Dr. Lee Richstone, a urologist.
Heres what they had to say:
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Prostate Cancer Screening And Treatment Stats
To screen for prostate cancer, some people get a PSA test, which measures the levels of PSA in the blood. Higher levels of PSA can be linked to prostate cancer.
There are pros and cons to PSA screening. While the test can detect prostate cancer early, allowing the disease to be treated before it spreads, the test can also give people false positives â meaning they have high PSA levels but don’t have prostate cancer.
People who are 55 to 69 should talk to their doctor about whether they should get a PSA screening experts don’t recommend routine screening for those ages 70 and older, according to the CDC.
Here are some more stats about prostate cancer screening.
- For every 1,000 men who are screened between the ages of 55 and 69, about 1 death will be prevented and 3 people will be prevented from getting prostate cancer that spreads to other areas in the body, according to the CDC.
- In 2018, 39 percent of people age 55 to 69 had a PSA screening within the past year, according to data from the National Cancer Institute .
- 40.4 percent of White people had a PSA screening within the past year, according to 2018 data from the NCI this is compared to 37 percent of Black people and 33.2 percent of Hispanic people.
- 44.6 percent of people ages 70 and older had a PSA test within the past year, according to NCI data from 2018 this is compared to 39 percent of people ages 55 to 69, and 13.4 percent of people aged 40 to 54.