What Is Advanced Prostate Cancer
Advanced prostate cancer is cancer that has spread from the prostate to other parts of the body. It develops when prostate cancer cells move through the blood stream or lymphatic system.
Watch our video about advanced prostate cancer.
You might hear cancer that has spread described as metastatic prostate cancer, secondary prostate cancer, secondaries, metastases or mets. It is still prostate cancer, wherever it is in the body.
Prostate cancer can spread to any part of the body, but most commonly to the bones and lymph nodes. Lymph nodes are part of your lymphatic system, which is part of the bodys immune system. Lymph nodes are found throughout the body including in the pelvic area, near the prostate.
Advanced prostate cancer can cause symptoms, such as fatigue , bone pain, and problems urinating.
The symptoms you have will depend on where the cancer has spread to. Speak to your doctor or nurse if you have any symptoms. There are treatments available to help manage them.
Its not possible to cure advanced prostate cancer. But treatments can help keep it under control and manage any symptoms.
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The Initial Causes Prostate Cancer Spread To Organs
One of the first symptoms of prostate issues is pain or tenderness in the groin or lower back. This can be the result of a noncancerous condition called enlarged prostatic tissue, or it could be an infection of the bladder. In either case, its important to see a doctor as soon as possible. If youre suffering from prostate pain, you may want to consider reducing your caffeine intake.
Another symptom of a potentially enlarged prostate is difficulty starting a stream of urine, leaking, or dribbling. These symptoms are not serious, but theyre still alarming. Most men put up with an enlarged prostate for years before seeking medical attention, but they typically seek treatment as soon as they notice symptoms. Even if you dont have symptoms, its worth getting checked to determine if you have any prostate issues.
If you experience nightly bathroom runs, you may be experiencing an enlarged prostate. You may be having difficulty starting a stream of urine, or you may even be dribbling or leaking during the day. These problems arent life-threatening, but can become a nuisance. You should not ignore these signs and seek treatment as soon as you notice them. If you feel any of these symptoms, you should consult a doctor.
How Is Prostate Cancer Diagnosed
A blood test called a prostate-specific antigen test is the most common way to check for prostate cancer. A higher level of PSA may mean that you have prostate cancer or that your prostate cancer has come back.
Your doctor also may do a biopsy. In this test, your doctor takes samples of tissue from your prostate gland or from the area where the cancer may have spread and sends the samples to a lab for testing. A biopsy is the only way to know for sure that you have prostate cancer.
Learning that you have cancer that has spread or come back can be very hard. Some people find that it helps to talk about their feelings with their family and friends. You may also want to talk with your doctor or with other people who have had this kind of cancer. Your local Canadian Cancer Society chapter can help you find a support group.
Treatments To Help Manage Symptoms
Advanced prostate cancer can cause symptoms, such as bone pain. Speak to your doctor or nurse if you have symptoms there are treatments available to help manage them. The treatments above may help to delay or relieve some symptoms. There are also specific treatments to help manage symptoms you may hear these called palliative treatments. They include:
This is the team of health professionals involved in your care. It is likely to include:
- a specialist nurse
- a chemotherapy nurse
- a urologist
- an oncologist
- a diagnostic radiographer
- a therapeutic radiographer
- a radiologist
- other health professionals, such as a dietitian or physiotherapist.
Your MDT will meet to discuss your diagnosis and treatment options. You might not meet all the health professionals straight away.
Your main point of contact might be called your key worker. This is usually your clinical nurse specialist , but might be someone else. The key worker will co-ordinate your care and help you get information and support. You may also have close contact with your GP and the practice nurses at your GP surgery.
Mechanisms Of Lymph Node Metastasis
Tumor-associated lymphatic vessels serve as a route for lymph node metastasis
Lymph node. Metastases of tumor cells through lymphatic vessels to lymph nodes.
Local extension of tumor cells from the primary tumor into the surrounding lymphatics through a process called permeation is one means through which tumor cells can enter into the lymphatic vessels . In addition, tumor cells can be stimulated by cytokines produced by the lymphatic vessels, which promote chemotactic diffusion of tumor cells into the lymphatics . Finally, many tumors have the ability to secrete growth factors that induce the growth of new lymphatic vessels from a precursor, a process called lymphangiogenesis .
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Soreness In The Groin
When prostate cancer spreads, its common for cancer cells to go to your lymph nodes and then move to more areas of your body. The lymph nodes are a network of glands that help your body filter fluids and fight infections.
There are several lymph nodes in your groin. These are the ones closest to your prostate, so its common for the cancer to spread to them first. Cancer cells prevent your lymph nodes from draining fluid and working properly. When this happens, your lymph nodes swell. As a result, you might experience pain or soreness in the area.
How Does Cancer Spread From One Part Of The Body To Another
Metastasis or metastatic cancer occurs when cancer cells break off from the tumor where they originated, travel through the bloodstream or lymph vessels, and establish new tumors in another part of the body. Scientists at MSK are studying how and why this happens, with the goal of finding ways to prevent it.
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What Are The Treatments For Metastatic Prostate Cancer
It mainly depends on the stage of your cancer. Metastatic prostate cancer is stage IV, and doctors divide it into two types: IVA and IVB.
If you have stage IVA prostate cancer, that means the disease has spread to nearby lymph nodes but not to distant parts of your body. If youâre healthy enough to get treatment, or if youâre having symptoms from the cancer, your doctor may recommend one of these treatment options:
External beam radiation treatment with androgen deprivation therapy . During EBRT, a machine outside your body sends beams of radiation to your prostate gland. Radiation destroys cancer cells.
ADT is a type of hormone therapy. It involves taking medications to lower the levels of male sex hormones that your testicles make, or getting surgery to remove the testicles. Androgens, like testosterone, often fuel the growth of prostate cancer cells.
Along with ADT, your doctor might also have you take a drug called abiraterone . It helps stop cells in other parts of your body, like your adrenal glands, from making androgens.
ADT with or without abiraterone. If your doctor recommends this option, you wonât need to get external beam radiation treatment along with it.
If you have stage IVB prostate cancer, the disease has spread to distant organs, like your bones. Your doctor can give you treatments that help keep your cancer under control for as long as possible and improve your quality of life.
Some treatment options are:
Should I Make Any Lifestyle Changes Including In My Diet Or Physical Activity
Achieving and maintaining a healthy weight by eating a balanced diet with plenty of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, and staying physically active, can help your overall health. These lifestyle changes can also have a positive effect for men with bone metastases, Tagawa says. Both diet and exercise, he says, are things that are under a mans direct control.
A healthy lifestyle can help you better manage side effects from treatment as well. Try setting small but realistic goals for yourself when it comes to eating a healthy diet and getting plenty of exercise.
While no single food is likely to have a benefit for prostate cancer, smart food choices may help you feel better day to day. Start by cutting out foods high in sugar, saturated fat, and added flavorings and preservatives.
If youre not sure which healthy foods to choose, ask your doctor for a referral to a dietitian. This specialist can help you develop a meal plan that includes foods that offer the best chance of slowing the cancers growth and keeping you as healthy as possible.
As an oncologist, Tagawa says he concentrates on treating the cancer itself, but hes aware that many of the men he sees with advanced prostate cancer are older and more likely than younger men to have health problems that can benefit from diet and exercise.
And if youre on hormone therapy, talk to your doctor about investing in some weights or elastic resistance bands to support your bone strength too.
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Treatment For Metastatic Prostate Cancer
Treatment for prostate cancer that has spread to the bones and/or other organs in the body is aimed at relieving symptoms and slowing the cancers growth. Treatment may include:
- Hormone therapy to slow cancer growth.
- Radiation therapy to shrink tumours and ease pain.
- Chemotherapy to stop the growth of cancer cells.
- Surgery to remove blockages that are causing problems .
What Causes Prostate Cancer And Am I At Risk
Every man is at risk for prostate cancer as he ages. Although prostate cancer can affect younger men, about 6 out of 10 cases are diagnosed in men over the age of 65. The average age of diagnosis is 66. After non-melanoma skin cancer, prostate is the most common cancer diagnosed in men in the United States. The American Cancer Society estimates there will be 248,530 new cases of prostate cancer each year.
Although there are several known risk factors for getting prostate cancer, no one knows exactly why one man gets it and another doesnt. Some important risk factors for prostate cancer are:
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Where Does Prostate Cancer Usually Spread First
Once prostate cancer cells start spreading, they are most likely to affect the bones first and foremost. At this point, patients receive the diagnosis of prostate cancer with bone metastases.
This prognosis indicates a stage 4 case of prostate cancer, which is the most advanced type of cancer. When this occurs, patients feel bone pain, and their bones are weakened. The risk of getting bone fractures becomes incrementally higher.
Today, there are no cures to completely treat stage 4 prostate cancer. Nonetheless, patients are recommended to consider palliative care. This type of treatment focuses on pain alleviation and on soothing other symptoms.
Cyberknife For Prostate Cancer
Here are the Facts About CyberKnife Treatment for Prostate Cancer:
- CyberKnife has a 97% cure rate for prostate cancer.
- Its quicker and has a high safety profile. Plus, it causes less disruption to patients lives.
- Its noninvasive. That means no need for anesthesia or cutting. And it doesnt come with the risks of surgery like infection and long periods of downtime.
- CyberKnifes treatments can be done infive radiation therapy sessions over 10 days. Thats compared to 42 to 45 over three months with other types of radiation treatments.
- The CyberKnife radiation beams, which target and destroy the tumor, are so precise which means there is less risk of side effects including impotence and incontinence.
If you are diagnosed with prostate cancer, call CyberKnife Miami for a consultation. Our goal is to get you back to your life cancer free with minimal to no downtime.
If you would like to find out more about prostate cancer treatment with CyberKnife, call us at 305-279-2900 or go to our prostate cancer website now for more information.
With The Beam of Life, CyberKnife Miami is giving thousands of people new hope in treating various cancers where there was none. Visit the CyberKnife Center of Miami located in Miami, Florida.
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Lymph Nodes And What They Do
Lymph vessels send lymph fluid through nodes throughout the body. Lymph nodes are small structures that work as filters for foreign substances, such as cancer cells and infections. They contain immune cells that can help fight infection by attacking and destroying germs that are carried in through the lymph fluid. Lymph nodes are located in many parts of the body, including the neck, armpit, chest, abdomen , and groin. They contain immune cells that can help fight infection by attacking and destroying germs that are carried in through the lymph fluid.
There are hundreds of lymph nodes throughout the body. Each lymph node filters the fluid and substances picked up by the vessels that lead to it. Lymph fluid from the fingers, for instance, works its way toward the chest, joining fluid from the arm. This fluid may filter through lymph nodes at the elbow, or those under the arm. Fluid from the head, scalp, and face flows down through lymph nodes in the neck. Some lymph nodes are deep inside the body, such as between the lungs or around the bowel, to filter fluid in those areas.
Lymphangiogenesis & Lymph Node Metastasis
During embryogenesis lymphatic vessels develop from blood vessels . Therefore, lymphangiogenesis and angiogenesis are stimulated by the same family of growth factor proteins. VEGF-A/VPF is the most potent growth factor for angiogenesis . Other VEGF family members, such as VEGF-C and VEGF-D, are potent lymphangiogenic factors . Flt-4, also known as VEGF receptor-3 , is the tyrosine kinase receptor for VEGF-C or -D in lymphatic endothelial cells. Upon activation, this receptor triggers signaling events to initiate the proliferation and migration of lymphatic endothelial cells . Neuropilin-2, a nontyrosine kinase receptor, is also expressed in lymphatic endothelial cells and acts as a coreceptor for VEGF-C during lymphangiogenesis . Both VEGF-C and -D are expressed by tumor cells and, therefore, promote lymphangiogenesis from the tumor-associated surrounding lymphatics . Importantly, cancer cells have also been shown to express neuropilin-2 and/or VEGFR-3, thus suggesting autocrine regulation of lymphangogenic growth factors . Our laboratory has reported one such autocrine regulation of VEGF-C and its receptor neuropilin-2 in prostate cancer this autocrine function promotes the survival of prostate cancer cells during oxidative stress and, thereby, is important for metastatic progression .
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More About Dr Scholz:
A board-certified medical oncologist, Mark C. Scholz, MD, serves as medical director of Prostate Oncology Specialists Inc. in Marina del Rey, CA, a medical practice exclusively focused on prostate cancer. He is also the Executive Director of the Prostate Cancer Research Institute. He received his medical degree from Creighton University in Omaha, NE. Dr. Scholz completed his Internal Medicine internship and Medical Oncology fellowship at University of Southern California Medical Center. He is the co-author of the book Invasion of the Prostate Snatchers: No More Unnecessary Biopsies, Radical Treatment or Loss of Potency. He is a strong advocate for patient empowerment.
What Happens When Prostate Cancer Spreads To The Lymph Nodes
Prostate cancer cells can break away from their place of origin and spread to the lymph nodes or other parts of the body. This is called Stage 4 prostate cancer.
The lymphatic system plays an instrumental role in immunity maintenance. This organ system looks and behaves like a network of lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, lymphoid organs, and lymphoid tissue. Its main function is to gather the surplus liquid that cells and tissue are producing. This fluid is then reentering the bloodstream and starts recirculating throughout the body.
There is another component that filters this liquid, namely lymph nodes. They also hold white blood cells that attack any foreign organisms that travel via the lymph fluid. While this white army combats as many cancer cells as possible, some of them manage to survive. Then, they exploit the lymphatic system to reach far-away organs and grow there as well.
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Receiving Treatment For Prostate Cancer That Has Spread
At Moffitt Cancer Center, the experts within our Urologic Oncology Program treat patients with all stages of prostate cancer, including advanced-stage cancers that have metastasized to other areas of the body. Our multispecialty team collaborates as a tumor board, ensuring each patient receives a treatment plan tailored to his unique needs. For individuals with metastatic prostate cancer, treatment plans aim to alleviate symptoms, slow the rate of cancer growth and shrink tumors to help improve quality of life.
Medically reviewed by Monica Chatwal, MD.
If you have been diagnosed with prostate cancer, whether early stage or late stage, you can find the treatment you require at Moffitt. We welcome patients with or without a referral to fill out a new patient registration form or call to schedule an appointment.
Find Efficient Treatment For Prostate Cancer Today
At Comprehensive Urology in the Beverly Grove community of Los Angeles, we concentrate on both medical diagnosis and treatment for prostate cancer treatment in LA. Furthermore, Dr. Michel and his professional group work relentlessly to enhance your results and offer the very best options offered. To get evaluated for prostate cancer, schedule a visit with Comprehensive Urology today. You can schedule by phone or book online today!
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