Wednesday, January 25, 2023

What Are Symptoms Of Prostate Cancer Spreading

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Your Cancer Care Team

What are the Symptoms of Prostate Cancer?

People with cancer should be cared for by a multidisciplinary team . This is a team of specialists who work together to provide the best care and treatment.

The team often consists of specialist cancer surgeons, oncologists , radiologists, pathologists, radiographers and specialist nurses.

Other members may include physiotherapists, dietitians and occupational therapists. You may also have access to clinical psychology support.

When deciding what treatment is best for you, your doctors will consider:

  • the type and size of the cancer
  • what grade it is
  • whether the cancer has spread to other parts of your body

Symptoms Of Prostate Cancer Spreading

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Warning Signs Of Prostate Cancer

One of the challenges of prostate cancer is that it often doesnt present symptoms that alert men to its presence, particularly in the early stages. But the Urology Care Foundation notes that there may be some warning signs that you have problems related to your prostate, including the following:

  • Frequent urge to urinate
  • Hip, back or thigh pain
  • Reduced appetite
  • If you get screened for prostate cancer, there are additional warning signs based on how the prostate gland cells look under a microscope, notes the American Cancer Society. Cells that may be concerning will exhibit some level of what is known as prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia . These cells may exhibit low-grade PIN, in which something is slightly off with the cells, or high-grade PIN, when they show clear abnormalities.

    Under a microscope, prostate gland cells may also exhibit what is known as proliferative inflammatory atrophy . PIA indicates cells that are smaller than normal and show some signs of inflammation. These cells may be worth additional monitoring because they could develop high-grade PIN and ultimately prostate cancer.

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    Lymph Nodes And What They Do

    Lymph vessels send lymph fluid through nodes throughout the body. Lymph nodes are small structures that work as filters for foreign substances, such as cancer cells and infections. They contain immune cells that can help fight infection by attacking and destroying germs that are carried in through the lymph fluid. Lymph nodes are located in many parts of the body, including the neck, armpit, chest, abdomen , and groin. They contain immune cells that can help fight infection by attacking and destroying germs that are carried in through the lymph fluid.

    There are hundreds of lymph nodes throughout the body. Each lymph node filters the fluid and substances picked up by the vessels that lead to it. Lymph fluid from the fingers, for instance, works its way toward the chest, joining fluid from the arm. This fluid may filter through lymph nodes at the elbow, or those under the arm. Fluid from the head, scalp, and face flows down through lymph nodes in the neck. Some lymph nodes are deep inside the body, such as between the lungs or around the bowel, to filter fluid in those areas.

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    Prostate Cancer: Signs, Symptoms, and Complications

    Surgical procedures to remove the diseased prostate are usually necessary. Surgical procedures are not always necessary. If the disease is caused by bacterial infections, a doctor can treat the symptoms using alpha-blockers or surgery. Physical therapy, relaxation exercises, and warm baths are all recommended. A physician may also prescribe antibiotics to cure the infection. A bacterial infection can also cause a recurrence of the condition.

    An enlarged prostate can be uncomfortable for both men and women. Some of the symptoms of an enlarged male reproductive organ include a weakened urine stream, urgent need to urinate, and urinary tract infections. BPH can also cause damage to the kidneys. A sudden inability to urinate can be life-threatening, as it can lead to bladder and kidney damage. Unfortunately, most men with enlarged prostrates put up with the symptoms for years before they seek treatment. However, many of the men with symptoms finally decide to go to a doctor for proper gynecological evaluation and to begin enlarged prostatic therapy.

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    Questions To Ask Your Doctor Or Nurse

    • What type of hormone therapy are you offering me and why?
    • Are there other treatments I can have?
    • What are the advantages and disadvantages of my treatment?
    • What treatments and support are available to help manage side effects?
    • Are there any lifestyle changes that might help me manage my cancer, symptoms, or side effects?
    • How often will I have check-ups and what will this involve?
    • How will we know if my cancer starts to grow again?
    • What other treatments are available if that happens?
    • Can I join any clinical trials?
    • If I have any questions or get any new symptoms, who should I contact?

    A Genetic Biomarker Test For Newly Diagnosed Prostate Cancer

    Results from a study of a different genetic biomarker test suggest that it could one day help inform treatment decisions for men newly diagnosed with localized prostate cancer.

    According to findings published February 24 in JCO Precision Oncology, a biomarker test called the Oncotype DX Genomic Prostate Score accurately predicted the long-term risk of metastasis and death from prostate cancer in men with localized disease. The test needs to be validated in larger forward-looking studies before it can be used to guide treatment, the study researchers noted.

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    How Long Is A Course Of Chemotherapy

    In the majority of cases for best results the patient will need regular chemotherapy over a specific period. A protocol plan is drawn up which specifies when treatment sessions will occur and for how long.

    A course of chemotherapy may be just a one-day treatment, or can last for a few weeks it will depend on the type and stage of the cancer . If the patient requires more than one course of treatment there will be a rest period for his/her body to recover. This could be a one-day treatment followed by a weeks rest period, followed by another one-day treatment followed by a three-week rest period, etc. This may be repeated many times.

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    Stage Iv Bladder Cancer

    Prostrate Cancer, Causes, Signs and Symptoms, DIagnosis and Treatment.

    Stage IV cancer is the most advanced form of bladder cancer. It is called metastatic. This means the cancer has spread to distant lymph nodes or organs. Cancers that have spread beyond the bladder into the wall of the abdomen or pelvis are also considered Stage IV. Stage IV cancer is usually treated with chemotherapy and, more recently, with immunotherapy as well.

    People with bladder cancer of all stages may be able to participate in a clinical trial. Clinical trials are research studies that test new treatments to see how well they work.

    If your prostate cancer spreads to other parts of your body, your doctor may tell you that itâs âmetastaticâ or that your cancer has âmetastasized.â

    Most often, prostate cancer spreads to the bones or lymph nodes. Itâs also common for it to spread to the liver or lungs. Itâs rare for it to move to other organs, such as the brain, but that can happen.

    Itâs still prostate cancer, even when it spreads. For example, metastatic prostate cancer in a bone in your hip is not bone cancer. It has the same prostate cancer cells the original tumor had.

    Metastatic prostate cancer is an advanced form of cancer. Thereâs no cure, but you take steps to treat and control it. Most men with advanced prostate cancer live a normal life for many years.

    The goals of treatment are to:

    • Manage symptoms
    • Slow the rate your cancer grows
    • Shrink the tumor

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    What Tests Will I Have

    You may have tests to find out how far the cancer has spread. If you are generally not very well it may not be necessary to do extra tests. Your doctor will still be able to recommend treatment. Some of these tests can also be used to check how you are responding to treatment.

    You may have some or all of the following tests:

    PSA blood test

    Prostate specific antigen is a protein that can rise due to disease in your prostate gland. A sample is taken from your blood and measured. A PSA test can also show how well your cancer is responding to treatment.

    Biopsy

    A biopsy is where a sample of your prostate tissue is taken and examined under a microscope. It isnt common to have a biopsy with metastatic prostate cancer, but if this is your first prostate cancer diagnosis it may be necessary. Treatment can still start without a biopsy.

    Bone scan

    Metastatic prostate cancer often spreads to the bones. Bone scans can find cancer spots before they show up on an ordinary X-ray. For this test, a tiny amount of radioactive liquid is put into a vein, usually in your arm. After the injection you will have to wait up to 3 hours. A scan is then taken of all the bones in your body. Abnormal bone takes up more radioactive liquid than normal bone. These areas will show up on the scan and are known as ‘hot spots’. The scan can also show bone changes like arthritis.

    Read more about cancer tests.

    These tests will help your doctor to decide on the best treatment for you.

    Symptoms Of Advanced Prostate Cancer

    If you are worried about prostate cancer, we have more information about the signs and symptoms.

    Symptoms of prostate cancer may not develop for many years. The symptoms of advanced prostate cancer may be caused by an enlarged prostate. Or symptoms may be a sign of secondary cancer, where the cancer has spread to another part of the body.

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    Symptoms Of Prostate Cancer Spread To The Lymph Nodes

    Lymph nodes are part of a system of tubes and glands in the body that filters body fluid and fights infection.

    There are lots of lymph nodes in the groin area, which is close to the prostate gland. Prostate cancer can spread to the lymph nodes in the groin area, or to other parts of the body. The most common symptoms are swelling and pain around the area where the cancer has spread.

    Cancer cells can stop lymph fluid from draining away. This might lead to swelling in the legs due to fluid build up in that area. The swelling is called lymphoedema.

    Bone Loss From Prostate Cancer Treatment

    Prostate Cancer: the common type of cancer in men

    Testosterone, the male sex hormone, fuels the growth of prostate cancer but it also is crucial to bone health. Treatment of prostate cancer with hormone therapy, also called androgen deprivation therapy , blocks the production of testosterone which stops or slows the growth of the cancer. Without testosterone, bones can become weak and break more easily. When a man is on ADT recovery from a bone fracture takes longer than for other men. It is especially important for men taking ADT to speak with their physician about how to plan for and manage the bone loss before a problem arises. Bone strength can also be decreased as a result of radiation and chemotherapy used to treat prostate cancer.

    Fortunately there are ways to strengthen and repair your bones including medicines and lifestyle changes.

    • Bisphosphonates can prevent the thinning of the bone and help make them stronger
    • Oral bisphosphonates include Fosamax and Actonel
    • The intravenous bisphosphonate is Zometa
    • Strive for a healthy diet and make sure to get enough calcium and vitamin D
    • When exercising, include weight bearing and muscle strengthening exercises
    • Avoid tobacco and excessive alcohol

    Learn

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    Signs And Symptoms Of Prostate Cancer

    Most prostate cancers are found early, through screening. Early prostate cancer usually causes no symptoms. More advanced prostate cancers can sometimes cause symptoms, such as:

    • Problems urinating, including a slow or weak urinary stream or the need to urinate more often, especially at night
    • Trouble getting an erection
    • Pain in the hips, back , chest , or other areas from cancer that has spread to bones
    • Weakness or numbness in the legs or feet, or even loss of bladder or bowel control from cancer pressing on the spinal cord

    Most of these problems are more likely to be caused by something other than prostate cancer. For example, trouble urinating is much more often caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia , a non-cancerous growth of the prostate. Still, its important to tell your health care provider if you have any of these symptoms so that the cause can be found and treated, if needed. Some men might need more tests to check for prostate cancer.

    Stage Iv Prostate Cancer Prognosis

    Prostate cancers detected at the distant stage have an average five-year survival rate of 28 percent, which is much lower than local and regional cancers of the prostate. This average survival rate represents stage IV prostate cancers that have metastasized beyond nearby areas to lymph nodes, organs or bones in other parts of the body.

    How We Treat Prostate Cancer

    The prognosis for metastatic prostate cancer can be discouraging, but some treatment centerslike the Johns Hopkins Precision Medicine Center of Excellence for Prostate Cancerspecialize in innovative, individualized therapy with the potential to improve outcomes.

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    How Serious Is My Cancer

    If you have prostate cancer, the doctor will want to find out how far it has spread. This is called the stage of the cancer. You may have heard other people say that their cancer was stage 1 or stage 2. Your doctor will want to find out the stage of your cancer to help decide what types of treatment might be best for you.

    The stage is based on the growth or spread of the cancer through the prostate, and if it has spread to other parts of your body. It also includes your blood PSA level and the grade of the cancer. The prostate cancer cells are given a grade, based on how they look under a microscope. Those that look very different from normal cells are given a higher grade and are likely to grow faster. The grade of your cancer might be given as a Gleason score or a Grade Group . Ask your doctor to explain the grade of your cancer. The grade also can helpdecide which treatments might be best for you.

    Your cancer can be stage 1, 2, 3, or 4. The lower the number, the less the cancer has spread. A higher number, like stage 4, means a more serious cancer that has spread outside the prostate.

    If your cancer hasn’t spread to other parts of the body, it might also be given a risk group. The risk group is based on the extent of the cancer in the prostate, your PSA level, and the results of the prostate biopsy. The risk group can help tell if other tests should be done, and what the best treatment options might be.

    What Are The Signs That Prostate Cancer Has Spread Stay Informed

    Prostate cancer symptoms

    Prostate cancer can be very deceptive. By the time you experience symptoms, you may be in the later stages.

    If youve been wondering What are the signs that prostate cancer has spread, use the points discussed above as a guide.

    We hope you found this article helpful. Feel free to browse the rest of our site for more mens health content.

    See more

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    How Doctors Find Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    When you are diagnosed with prostate cancer, your doctor will order tests such as:

    These tests may focus on your skeleton and in your belly and pelvic areas. That way doctors can check for signs that the cancer has spread.

    If you have symptoms such as bone pain and broken bones for no reason, your doctor may order a bone scan. It can show if you have signs of cancer spread in your bones.

    Your doctor will also ask for blood tests, including a check of PSA levels, to look for other signs that the cancer is spreading.

    PSA is a protein made by the prostate gland. A rise in PSA is one of the first signs your cancer may be growing. But PSA levels can also be high without there being cancer, such as if you have an enlarged prostate a prostate infection, trauma to the perineum, or sexual activity can also cause PSA level to be high.

    If youve been treated, especially if a surgeon removed your prostate, your PSA levels should start to go down. Doctors usually wait seve,ral weeks after surgery before checking PSA levels. A rise in PSA after treatment may suggest the possibility cancer is back or spreading. In that case, your doctor may order the same tests used to diagnose the original cancer, including a CT scan, MRI, or bone scan. The radiotracer Axumin could be used along with a PET scan to help detect and localize any recurrent cancer.

    Though very rare, its possible to have metastatic prostate cancer without a higher-than-normal PSA level.

    What Causes Death In Prostate Cancer Patients

    Most notably, heart failure and external causes were listed as the underlying cause of death, whereas urinary tract disease, diseases of the pulmonary circulation, and anemia were more frequently listed among multiple causes of death. Mechanisms have been proposed linking these conditions to both PC and its treatment.

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    Where Does Prostate Cancer Spread

    The most common place for prostate cancer to spread to is the bones. It can also spread to the:

    A large tumour in the prostate gland can spread into or press on areas around the prostate, such as the back passage or urethra. The urethra is the tube which carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body.

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