Stages Of Prostate Cancer
In order to determine the stage of a patients prostate cancer, most doctors start by using the TNM staging system, which helps describe different aspects of the cancers growth.
- T the T category measures the size and extent of the Tumor
- N the N category measures whether and how far the cancer has spread to the Lymph Nodes
- M the M category whether the cancer has spread to other organs in the body (a process called Metastasis
The score for each of these categories is determined based on a pre-determined set of criteria. Your doctor cannot feel or see the tumor with a score of T1. A score of T3 means that the tumor has begun to grow outside of the prostate.
After calculating the TNM categories, doctors will combine the TNM score with the patients Gleason score and PSA levels assigning of a specific stage to the patients cancer.
Prostate cancer prognosis and survival rates can help give patients an idea of their chances of surviving the disease based on the stage and time of diagnosis. While some patients may find this information helpful, others may not want to know.
How Is Prostate Cancer Diagnosed
Doctors describe the growth and spread of prostate cancer in stages. Doctors use these stages as guides when choosing treatment options or offering prognoses to their patients.
Prostate cancer staging is based on a number of different factors, including prostate cancer screening tests such as a digital rectal exam or prostate-specific antigen test and imaging studies like bones scans, MRIs, CT scans, and trans-rectal ultrasounds.
Inclusion And Exclusion Criteria
All observational studies stated the survival rate of localized prostate cancer in Asian countries were included in the study. Articles of other cancers reported survival in people who reported regional, metastatic, as well as review and meta-analysis studies were excluded. It should be noted that studies that did not report the sample size or confidence interval of survival rates were not included in the meta-analysis.
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Stage 1 Prostate Cancer Survival Rate
The first forms of prostate cancer take shape at stage 1. This is when abnormal cells start growing within the prostate gland.
A stage 1 prostate cancer is traced when the PSA reading detects 10ng/mL. Moreover, the Gleason score is 6.
The stage 1 prostate cancer survival rate for the first 5 years is 99%. In other words, men with this type of prostate tumor are almost 100% as likely as men who are cancer-free to live for at least 5 years after they receive the diagnosis.
A diagnosis that caught prostate tumor at stage 1 leads to the least intrusive forms of treatments. In most cases, doctors prescribe active surveillance. This entails continuous monitoring of the prostate tumor in order to observe the way it evolves and decide the optimal way to treat it.
Other treatment plans at this stage encompass radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy. Both of these recommendations can be prescribed at the same time.
What Can You Do About Appetite Changes
Its important to recognize changes in appetite so that you can get help when its needed. Talk to your medical team about how much youve been eating and whether you need to do something about it. For example:
- Some causes of poor appetite can be managed with medical treatment. There are medicines that can help stimulate your appetite, decrease nausea, and help food move through your stomach more quickly.
- A nutritionist might be able to offer tips on how to get the most out of each bite you take.
- Supplemental drinks or shakes can sometimes help you get needed nutrition more easily.
- You might find that youre able to eat more when others are at the table.
- You might find it easier to eat small frequent meals or snacks during the day instead of trying to eat full meals 3 times a day.
These measures may work for some, but they wont help most people who are very close to the end of life. At later stages, these efforts can even make the person feel worse.
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Survival By Disease Progression
The extent prostate cancer has progressed can influence survival rates.
Prostate-specific antigen is a protein produced by cells of the prostate gland by normal and malignant cells. In men with prostate cancer, blood levels of PSA are often elevated.
Doctors can use PSA as a marker to better understand the progression of prostate cancer and the resulting prognosis.
One way doctors assess the progression of the disease is through PSA doubling time. This refers to the number of months it takes for PSA to double.
One study suggests a short doubling time means a poorer prognosis for patients with stage IV prostate cancer. Median survival was 16.5 months for those with a PSA doubling time lower than 45 days compared with 26 months for patients with a longer PSA doubling time.
Whether or not the cancer has metastasized and spread to other areas of the body outside the prostate can also influence survival. In distant or stage IV prostate cancer, when cancer has spread from the prostate to other organs like the liver or lungs, the five-year survival rate is 31% compared with localized cancer, which has a five-year survival rate of nearly 100%.
Cancer Staging May Miss Errant Cells
Once a pathologist confirms that cancer is present, the doctor will next determine how far the cancer extends a process known as cancer staging and discuss the implications with you. This is perhaps the most important information of all for you to obtain, as it determines whether the cancer is likely to be curable, or whether it has already spread to additional tissues, making prognosis much worse.
If you were my patient, I would ask you to consider two important points. First, cancer staging actually occurs in two phases: clinical and pathological . Of the two, pathological staging is more accurate.
A second point to understand, however, is that even pathological staging can be inaccurate . A cancer spreads, or metastasizes, once a primary tumor sheds cancer cells that travel elsewhere in the body and establish other tumor sites. Metastasis is a complex process that researchers do not fully understand. What is clear is that this process involves multiple genetic mutations and steps, and that each type of cancer spreads in a unique way.
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Prostate Cancer Survival Rates: What They Mean
As cancer diagnoses go, prostate cancer is often a less serious one. Prostate cancer is frequently slow-growing and slow to spread. For many men, prostate cancer is less serious than their other medical conditions.
For these reasons, and possibly because of earlier detection of low-grade prostate cancers, prostate cancer has one of the highest survival rates of any type of cancer. WebMD takes a look at prostate cancer survival rates and what they mean to you.
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Surgical procedures to remove the diseased prostate are usually necessary. Surgical procedures are not always necessary. If the disease is caused by bacterial infections, a doctor can treat the symptoms using alpha-blockers or surgery. Physical therapy, relaxation exercises, and warm baths are all recommended. A physician may also prescribe antibiotics to cure the infection. A bacterial infection can also cause a recurrence of the condition.
An enlarged prostate can be uncomfortable for both men and women. Some of the symptoms of an enlarged male reproductive organ include a weakened urine stream, urgent need to urinate, and urinary tract infections. BPH can also cause damage to the kidneys. A sudden inability to urinate can be life-threatening, as it can lead to bladder and kidney damage. Unfortunately, most men with enlarged prostrates put up with the symptoms for years before they seek treatment. However, many of the men with symptoms finally decide to go to a doctor for proper gynecological evaluation and to begin enlarged prostatic therapy.
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Prostate Cancer Survival Rate
The prostate cancer survival rate is exceptionally high. Because this cancer grows very slowly and responds well to treatment, the majority of patients are able to lead long and healthy lives. According to the American Cancer Society, the five-year survival rate for both localized cancer and regional cancer is nearly 100%.
What Influences Survival Rates
There are many factors to consider when talking about survival rates. All of these can influence survival, especially in men undergoing advanced prostate cancer. Below is a list of factors that influence survival rates:
- Stage of cancer: this is described by doctors using the TNM system . Doctors use scans and diagnostic results to determine important values. Such as, how large a tumor is and where it is. If the tumor has spread to the lymph nodes and has the cancer spread to other parts of the body . Together those values are combined to see what stage the cancer is. The scale has five stages.1-2 on the TNM scale refers to localized prostate cancer that has yet to spread. Stage 3 means the cancer has spread to nearby areas or lymph nodes. Stage 4 involves cancer spreading to organs far from its origin point.
- Age: Age is an important factor in the likelihood of developing prostate cancer. It has less to do with survival rates.
- Race: Survival rates are impacted by disparities in healthcare access, which lead to late diagnosis. This then has an effect on survival rates. In the United States, Black men have the highest incidence of prostate cancer among all other ethnic groups.
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Moffitt Cancer Centers Approach To Prostate Cancer Treatment
No matter the stage of your cancer, Moffitt Cancer Center can help you improve your prognosis and quality of life. Not only do we have a dedicated Genitourinary Oncology Program staffed by surgeons, medical oncologists, radiation oncologists and other support professionals who specialize in treating prostate cancer, but we also create individualized treatment plans for each of our patients. Our multispecialty team comes together in regular tumor board meetings to evaluate a number of different factors that can all affect a patients outcomeincluding the size, grade and location of tumors, along with any other treatments previously attemptedto develop the best possible plan for the patients unique situation.
At Moffitt, we welcome patients who have already received treatment elsewhere, as well as patients who are exploring their options for the very first time. Call , or submit a new patient registration form online a member of our team will tell you more about Moffitts prostate cancer survival rate and discuss your treatment options. We provide every new patient with rapid access to a cancer expert within a day, which is faster than any other cancer hospital in the nation.
Medically reviewed by Monica Chatwal, MD, medical oncologist, Genitourinary Oncology Program.
Risk Of Progression Of Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer can also be classified based on the risk of recurrence . For this assessment, that can impact your choice of therapeutic approach, we take into account your clinical stage, PSA level, and Gleason score.
Your cancer may be at low risk of spreading if:
- Your PSA level is less than 10 ng/mL
- You Gleason score is 6 or less
- Your cancer is stage T1 or T2a
Your cancer may be at medium risk of spreading if:
- Your PSA level is between 10 and 20 ng/mL
- Your Gleason score is 7
- Your cancer is stage T2b
Your cancer may be at high risk of spreading if:
- Your PSA level is higher than 20 ng/mL
- Your Gleason score is 8, 9 or 10
- Your cancer is stage T2c, T3 or T4
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Treatments To Control And Prevent Further Cancer Spread In Patients With Castrate Refractory Advanced Prostate Cancer:
At BPC we offer:
Other treatment options ongoing clinical studies:
- Autologous cellular immunotherapy, which is in late trial stage and although not currently available outside a trial setting in the UK, is likely to be licensed soon.
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Prognosis And Survival For Prostate Cancer
If you have prostate cancer, you may have questions about your prognosis. A prognosis is the doctor’s best estimate of how cancer will affect someone and how it will respond to treatment. Prognosis and survival depend on many factors. Only a doctor familiar with your medical history, the type and stage and other features of the cancer, the treatments chosen and the response to treatment can put all of this information together with survival statistics to arrive at a prognosis.
A prognostic factor is an aspect of the cancer or a characteristic of the person that the doctor will consider when making a prognosis. A predictive factor influences how a cancer will respond to a certain treatment. Prognostic and predictive factors are often discussed together. They both play a part in deciding on a treatment plan and a prognosis.
The following are prognostic and predictive factors for prostate cancer.
Survival Rates Of Prostate Cancer
Survival rates are estimated and used as a way of explaining to cancer patients what their prognosis is. Survival statistics can help a patient understand how long they may survive after they are diagnosed with cancer.
While this may give hope to some patients, others may find survival estimates unhelpful and may not even want to hear them.
When dealing with cancer patients, the 5-year survival rate is often used, which refers to the proportion of people who survive for at least five years after they have been diagnosed with cancer. Many patients who are diagnosed may survive more than five years or may even be cured with treatment.
Five-year relative survival rates adjust for the fact that people may die from causes unrelated to cancer and are relative to the expected survival rates of people without cancer. Survival rates are often based on outcome data for large numbers of people who were diagnosed with cancer and cannot be used to predict the prognosis for a specific individual.
Prostate cancer is a relatively slow growing cancer in most individuals and therefore survival rates are usually high. Doctors explain to the patients how well the numbers may apply to them in the context of the various aspects of their disease. According to the most recent survival data on all stages of prostate cancer:
- The relative 5-year survival rate is between 99% and 100%
- The 10-year survival rate is 98%
- The 15-year survival rate is 93%
Prostate Cancer Treatment And Survival Rate
If treated early, prostate cancer can often be cured. The survival rate for prostate cancer is over 90%. Treatments include:
- Active Surveillance: Having regular PSA levels and a biopsy if PSA levels change or 18 months has passed.
- Surgery to remove the prostate gland. There are few types of surgery that might be recommended- open prostatectomy, keyhole surgery or robotic surgery
- Radiotherapy – using radiation to kill the cancerous cells. Common types of radiotherapy used for prostate cancer is external beam radiotherapy or brachytherapy where small pellets that are full of radiation are placed directly inside the prostate via ultrasound guidance to kill the cancer cells
- Hormone therapy – using medication to block the effects of testosterone
- Watchful waiting- because prostate cancer can grow very slowly, doctors may decide to monitor a man in his 80s to see if it gets bigger but not treat him at the moment if his health is otherwise good.
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Stage Iv Prostate Cancer Prognosis
Prostate cancers detected at the distant stage have an average five-year survival rate of 28 percent, which is much lower than local and regional cancers of the prostate. This average survival rate represents stage IV prostate cancers that have metastasized beyond nearby areas to lymph nodes, organs or bones in other parts of the body.
Looking At Cure Rates
If you, or somebody you love has recently been diagnosed with prostate cancer, survival rates are likely one of the first things that you will want to understand. Of course, it is equally important to understand the specific risks posed to individuals so that they can detect cancer in the earliest stages.
Prostate cancer detection is closely linked with mens age. According to the Prostate Cancer Foundation, only 1 in 451 men has a prostate diagnosis before the age of 50. This continues to increase as men age. Between 50-59 years of age, the rate increases to 1 in 55 , 1 in 20 for ages 60-69 , and 1 in 12 between the ages of 70-79. In fact, almost 60% of all prostate cancer diagnoses occur in men over the age of 65.
Because so many men are diagnosed with prostate cancer later in life, many professionals only worry about the short-term survival rates. The five year prostate cancer survival rate is frequently cited as one of the most important statistics . However, for many people, a five year approach seems short-sighted, and you may wish to know your long-term prognosis. For these individuals, we thought it was important to look at a 15-year prostate cancer survival rate.
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Vitamin And Mineral Supplements
An inverse relationship was observed between sunlight, or UVB exposure, and incidence of prostate cancer , suggesting that vitamin D deficiency might increase prostate cancer risk development . Similarly, discoveries were made by Barnett and Beer who found that people living in âsunnyâ countries were at lower risk of developing secondary solid cancer after melanoma compared to people living in âless sunnyâ countries.
The incidence of prostate cancer in African-American men is twice that of Caucasians, suggesting that race might play a role. There might be a role for vitamin D deficiency in this as UV radiation is blocked in darkly pigmented skin due to high melanin levels and this mechanism inhibits the conversion to vitamin D3 .
Vitamin E is a vitamin which is fat soluble. Vegetable oils, egg yolks, and nuts are the important dietary sources of vitamin E. Tocopherols present in vitamin E have both potent cellular anti-oxidant with anticancer properties . Studies investigating the relationship between vitamin E and prostate cancer risk have shown contradicting results. The ATBC trial showed that in men who smoked supplementing daily vitamin E was not able to reduce the incidence of prostate cancer . In another large clinical trial , vitamin E supplementation did not show any benefit in 31,000 men with incident prostate cancer .
Folate and vitamin B12