Risk Of Prostate Cancer
About 1 man in 8 will be diagnosed with prostate cancer during his lifetime.
Prostate cancer is more likely to develop in older men and in non-Hispanic Black men. About 6 cases in 10 are diagnosed in men who are 65 or older, and it is rare in men under 40. The average age of men at diagnosis is about 66.
Age Of Family Member At Breast Cancer Diagnosis
In general, the younger the relative was when she was diagnosed, the greater a womans chance of getting breast cancer .
For example, a woman whose mother was diagnosed with breast cancer before age 40 has about twice the risk of a woman without this family history . For a woman whose mother was diagnosed at an older age, the increase in risk isnt as high.
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Symptomatic treatment of an enlarged prostate usually involves a combination of medication and lifestyle changes. A diet rich in fruits and vegetables may be the best option if you suffer from chronic urination. It will help the body adjust to the increased size of the prostate. Also, taking regular urination intervals will help retrain the bladder to function properly. Inactivity also contributes to urine retention, and cold temperatures can increase the urge to urinate.
Invasive treatment of enlarged prostate includes medication that relieves the pressure on the urethra and bladder. However, if the condition is severe, it may require surgical intervention. If treatment is not successful, the enlarged prostate can become a potentially life-threatening disease. As the hormone levels in the body change, the enlarged prostate can lead to various complications, including urinary retention and even cancer. This is why it is critical to see a doctor for further evaluation.
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The Mysterious Link Between Breast And Prostate Cancers
Dr. Diego Rubinowicz- Original Credit: – Original Source:
Like so many other cancers, the cause of breast cancer can often be tied to familial genes. As of January 2020, there are more than 3.5 million women with a history of breast cancer in the U.S., and in 2017, there were an estimated 3.2 million men living with prostate cancer in the U.S. as well. However, it is not just a history of breast cancer that may significantly increase ones risk of breast cancer development. Studies have shown that a family history of prostate cancer may be tied to a womans risk of breast cancer. Women whose father, brother or son have had prostate cancer may have a 14% higher risk of developing breast cancer. Furthermore, researchers have found that women with a family history of both prostate and breast cancer are at a 78% greater risk of developing breast cancer.
Keep in mind that these findings reveal a link and not a direct cause-and-effect relationship, between family history of prostate cancer and womens breast cancer risk. However, the findings do underscore the need for both and women to know their complete family medical history, especially cancer diagnosed among first-degree relatives. Communicating this information to your physician whether that be your urologist or gynecologist is imperative in that it may also impact screening recommendations while remaining extremely important in assessing future risk of cancer.
New Cases Of Prostate Cancer And Breast Cancer Rise Significantly In The Us
The number of incident cases of the cancers most common in men and women has jumped since 1990, while lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the US.
SEATTLE Breast cancer continues to account for the highest number of new cancer cases among women in the US, and prostate cancer has the highest number of incident cancer cases for men, according to a new study in the journal JAMA Oncology. But lung cancer claims the lives of the most men and women.
The number of new prostate cancer cases in the US more than doubled between 1990 and 2013 and was among the highest in the world, up from 148,000 to 377,000. During this period breast cancer cases rose by almost half, from 173,000 to 254,000.
Among the 10 leading causes of cancer incidence among men, lung cancer had the lowest increase since 1990 at 16% and prostate cancer the highest at 154%. For women, ovarian cancer had the lowest increase in the number of new cases during this period at 30%, and kidney cancer had one of the highest increases at 99%.
Published on May 28, the study, The Global Burden of Cancer 2013, was conducted by an international consortium of researchers coordinated by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation at the University of Washington.
In the US, lung cancer was the leading cause of cancer deaths for men as well as women. Deaths from this form of cancer far outnumbered deaths from other cancers in the US, at 176,000 in 2013.
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Prostate Cancer Survival Trends Over Time
As with most cancers, survival for prostate cancer is improving. However, interpretation of prostate cancer survival trends is difficult as the case-mix on which they are based is likely to have changed over time with earlier diagnoses following the advent of TURP and PSA testing. The detection of a greater proportion of latent, earlier, slow-growing tumours in more recent time periods will have the effect of raising survival rates due to lead-time bias . Lead-time bias for prostate cancer is estimated to be between five and 12 years, varying with a man’s age at screening. Data from the European Randomized Study of Prostate Cancer estimates that for a single screening test, mean lead times are 12 years at age 55 and six years at age 75. Some of the increase may also be attributed to genuine improvements in survival due to more effective treatment, for both early, aggressive prostate cancers and advanced cases.
One-year age-standardised net survival for prostate cancer has increased from 66% during 1971-1972 to 94% during 2010-2011 in England and Wales an absolute survival difference of 28 percentage points.
Prostate Cancer , Age-Standardised One-Year Net Survival, Men , England and Wales, 1971-2011
Prostate Cancer , Age-Standardised Five-Year Net Survival, Men , England and Wales, 1971-2011
Prostate Cancer , Age-Standardised Ten-Year Net Survival, Men , England and Wales, 1971-2011
Prostate Cancer Symptoms Can Include:
- needing to urinate more frequently, often during the night
- needing to rush to the toilet
- difficulty in starting to pee
- straining or taking a long time while urinating
- feeling that your bladder has not emptied fully
If you or your partner notice any of these symptoms, please talk to a doctor or nurse.
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Regulation Of Oxidative Stress
It is well established that the role of reactive oxygen species is paradoxical, in that it has the potential to be beneficial and detrimental to the progression of tumors, depending on the balance of antioxidants . For simplicity, this review will only discuss the pro-tumorigenic impact of ROS. This notion of oxidative stress arises from inefficient clearance of excess free radicals, and is commonly associated with the initiation of cancers, as it can cause oxidative damage to lipids, proteins and DNA, contributing to genomic instability and mutation . This process can occur naturally with aging, from external environmental stressors, such ultraviolet radiation, and also from lifestyle factors, such as nutritional choices. During overnutrition, the uptake of carbohydrates, lipids and protein trigger the production of ROS, predominantly due to the excess supply of energy substrates for mitochondrial metabolism . This continued state of overnutrition can result in mitochondrial dysfunction and further increase oxidative stress and oxidative stress-induced DNA damage. In addition to food consumption, there has also been a strong link between alcohol intake and breast and prostate cancer risk through the production of ROS species and acetaldehyde arising from alcohol metabolism .
What Should Men Do If They Have The Gene Mutation
First, dont panic. Having a mutation does not automatically mean you will develop prostate cancer. Most men diagnosed with the disease do not have BRCA mutations.
But, it is important to know your family medical history. Talk to your parents or other relatives who are aware of any family history of breast, ovarian, or prostate cancers. Men, who find out that there is a family history of the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutations or if any male family member has had prostate cancer, should discuss this with their primary care physician.
While men cannot change their genes or family history of gene mutations, there are certain steps to take to help reduce the risk of aggressive prostate cancer:
- Starting at age 40, get screened for prostate cancer by having an annual PSA blood test and digital rectal exam.
- If you smoke, stop now.
- Lose weight if needed by reaching and maintaining healthy body weight.
- Exercise daily.
- Curtail alcohol use.
- Eat a healthy diet low in sugary, high-sodium, or high-fat foods. Consume more fruits, veggies, lean meat, fatty fish, beans, nuts, and whole grains.
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What Is Prostate Cancer
- It is the most common cancer in men in the UK – an ageing population means more men are developing and dying from the disease
- It involves the prostate – a small gland in the pelvis in men
- Cancers can develop slowly over years and many men have no symptoms
- Noticeable symptoms include needing to urinate more often and weak flow
- There is no single test for prostate cancer – a blood test, biopsies and physical examinations are all used
So Why Is The Number Of Men Dying From Prostate Cancer Increasing
As our population grows and people live longer, more and more people will be diagnosed with cancer.
Prostate cancer is primarily a disease of older men. Those aged 50 and above are significantly more likely to be diagnosed with it. In 2015, the disease was most common in men aged 65-69.
If more men are being diagnosed, then sadly this can mean that more men will die. In recent years, survival rates have increased significantly thanks to a heightened awareness among men, the development of new treatments and the availability of new tools that can diagnose the disease earlier.
However, breast cancer research has traditionally received significantly more funding than prostate cancer research, and the latest figures have led to calls for more studies in this area to tackle the increase in deaths.
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Latest Prostate Cancer Data
Prostate cancer is the 2nd most commonly occurring cancer in men and the 4th most common cancer overall. There were more than 1.4 million new cases of prostate cancer in 2020.
The 10 countries with the highest rates of prostate cancer and the highest number of deaths from prostate cancer in 2020 are shown in the tables below.
ASR = age-standardised rates. These are a summary measure of the rate of disease that a population would have if it had a standard age structure. Standardisation is necessary when comparing populations that differ with respect to age because age has a powerful influence on the risk of dying from cancer.
Mortality Population And Incidence Data
Mortality data for study purposes were obtained from the Spanish National Statistics Institute . During the calendar period considered , three different Revisions of the International Classification of Diseases were used. Consequently, the cancer-related deaths studied corresponded to: ICD-6-7 code 170, ICD-8-9 code 174 and ICD-10 code C50 for breast cancer in women and ICD-6-7 code 177 ICD 89 code 185 and ICD-10 code C61 for prostate cancer. These mortality data are publicly accessible. Spanish population data corresponding to censuses and municipal electoral rolls for the midyear of each quinquennium were also obtained from the National Statistics Institute. Mortality and population data were stratified by age group , sex, calendar period , and cancer site. Age-adjusted mortality rates for cancers of breast and prostate were calculated for each 5-year calendar period.
The time series of age-adjusted incidence rates in Spain for both tumours were obtained from references and . Note that these data cover the period 19812004 for breast cancer and cancer of prostate 19752004.
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Female Family Members With A History Of Breast Cancer
Most women diagnosed with breast cancer dont have a family history of the disease.
About 15 percent of women diagnosed with breast cancer have a first-degree female relative whos also had it .
A woman who has a first-degree female relative with breast cancer has about twice the risk of a woman without this family history . If she has more than one first-degree female relative with a history of breast cancer, her risk is about 2-4 times higher .
Years Of Life Lost Is A Better Measure Of A Cancers Impact
Yet this is only half the story. A simple death count does not really get at the destructive impact of a disease. A better measure is years of life lost, which compares the age at which someone dies from a disease to the age at which they would be expected to die. Men typically die of prostate cancer at an older age than women die of breast cancer. Using official data, we estimated the years of life lost, for both cancers, in England. This involved estimating how many people died of each disease at each age group, then subtracting that from the life expectancy in England . Breast cancer, it appears, is far more destructive.
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Surgical procedures to remove the diseased prostate are usually necessary. Surgical procedures are not always necessary. If the disease is caused by bacterial infections, a doctor can treat the symptoms using alpha-blockers or surgery. Physical therapy, relaxation exercises, and warm baths are all recommended. A physician may also prescribe antibiotics to cure the infection. A bacterial infection can also cause a recurrence of the condition.
An enlarged prostate can be uncomfortable for both men and women. Some of the symptoms of an enlarged male reproductive organ include a weakened urine stream, urgent need to urinate, and urinary tract infections. BPH can also cause damage to the kidneys. A sudden inability to urinate can be life-threatening, as it can lead to bladder and kidney damage. Unfortunately, most men with enlarged prostrates put up with the symptoms for years before they seek treatment. However, many of the men with symptoms finally decide to go to a doctor for proper gynecological evaluation and to begin enlarged prostatic therapy.
What Causes Prostatitis And Prostate Cancer
The cause of prostatitis is not always known. You can raise your risk of getting it with a bacterial infection or bladder infection, a catheter, an infection from sex, or a problem in the urinary tract. Your doctor may have to do several tests to find out exactly why you feel pain. But it is important to find out what may have caused it.
Bacterial prostatitis happens when bacteria get into your prostate. Bacteria can be found in your pee, prostate fluid, or blood. Your sex partner cannot catch this type of infection.
Nonbacterial prostatitis may be linked to irritation, nerve damage, or stress. It could also happen if your body reacts to an injury or infection you had in the past. This form has no signs of bacteria in your pee or prostate fluid.
Causes for bacterial forms of prostatitis might include:
- Benign prostatic hyperplasia , a common condition where your prostate gets bigger as you age
Thereâs also no clear cause of prostate cancer. But doctors know that it begins when DNA in your prostate cells change. These changes tell your cells to grow and divide quicker than normal cells.
There are some risk factors for prostate cancer. They include:
Older age. As you get older, your risk of prostate cancer goes up. Itâs especially common after the age of 50.
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People With Limited Information On Family Medical History
You may not know your family medical history.
Risk assessment tools such as the Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool can estimate your breast cancer risk without this information. However, it will be less accurate without your family history details.
Talking with your health care provider about other risk factors for breast cancer can help you learn about your risk, even if you dont have information on your family medical history.
Prognosis For Prostate Cancer
It is not possible for a doctor to predict the exact course of a disease, as it will depend on each person’s individual circumstances. However, your doctor may give you a prognosis, the likely outcome of the disease, based on the type of prostate cancer you have, the test results, the rate of tumour growth, as well as your age, fitness and medical history.
Prostate cancer often grows slowly and even more aggressive types tend to grow more slowly than other types of cancer. If diagnosed early, prostate cancer has one of the highest five year survival rates.
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Prostate Cancer Now Kills More People Than Breast Cancer Uk Figures Reveal
Male illness now third most common cause of cancer death behind lung and bowel
Prostate cancer has become the third most common cause of cancer death in the UK, overtaking breast cancer, despite improvements in survival rates for both.
The top cancer killer in the UK is lung cancer, which claimed 35,486 lives in 2015, followed by colorectal cancer, with a toll of 16,067 people.
However, new figures reveal that 11,819 men died in the UK from prostate cancer in 2015, overtaking breast cancer, which resulted in the deaths of 11,442 women. While not included in the data, about 80 men are also thought to have died from breast cancer in 2015.
Angela Culhane, chief executive of the charity Prostate Cancer UK which collated the figures, said the number of prostate cancer deaths had risen as a result of an ageing population, while improvements in research and screening meant the same effect was not seen for breast cancer.
We havent yet got the big game-changing advances that breast cancer has had in terms of the screening programme and also the precision medicine developments, said Culhane, adding that breast cancer had received twice as much money for research as prostate cancer. We need to bust that myth that it is just an old mans disease that you dont need to think is significant, she added.