Prostate Cancer Grading And Gleason Scores
Rony Kampalath, MD, is a board-certified diagnostic radiologist specializing in imaging of the abdomen.
If you or a family member is diagnosed with prostate cancer it is important to understand prostate cancer grading and Gleason scores. First, though, let’s take a look at prostate cancer itself.
What Are Some Of The Limitations And Potential Harms Of The Psa Test For Prostate Cancer Screening
Detecting prostate cancer early may not reduce the chance of dying from prostate cancer. When used in screening, the PSA test can help detect small tumors. Having a small tumor found and treated may not, however, reduce the chance of dying from prostate cancer. That is because many tumors found through PSA testing grow so slowly that they are unlikely to be life threatening. Detecting such tumors is called overdiagnosis, and treating them is called overtreatment.
Overtreatment exposes a person unnecessarily to the potential complications associated with prostate surgery and radiation therapy. These include urinary , gastrointestinal , and sexual side effects .
In addition, finding cancer early may not help someone who has a fast-growing or aggressive prostate tumor that may have spread to other parts of the body before being detected.
The PSA test may give false-positive results. A false-positive test result occurs when the PSA level is elevated but no cancer is actually present. A false-positive test result may create anxiety and lead to additional medical procedures, such as a prostate biopsy, that can be harmful. Possible side effects of biopsies include serious infections, pain, and bleeding.
False-positive test results are common with PSA screening only about 25% of people who have a prostate biopsy due to an elevated PSA level are found to have prostate cancer when a biopsy is done .
What Does Staging And Grading Mean For Treatment
The prostate cancer stage and grade are important for determining your course of treatment. Some treatments are only effective for Stage I and II prostate cancer and other treatments are only necessary for Stage III and IV prostate cancer.
Grading is especially useful in early-stage disease. If the tumor shows signs of being aggressive, it may make sense to go forward with more aggressive prostate cancer treatment options. If the tumor does not seem aggressive, it may make sense to go forward with active surveillance or watchful waiting and avoid common side effects.
In any case, the stage and grade must be discussed with your doctor and healthcare team.
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What Is A Normal Gleason Score For Prostate Cancer
Your Gleason score doesn’t rank potential ranges like ranges set for elevated PSA tests. Instead, providers break Gleason scores into three categories:
- Gleason 6 or lower: The cells look similar to healthy cells, which is called well differentiated.
- Gleason 7: The cells look somewhat similar to healthy cells, which is called moderately differentiated.
- Gleason 8, 9 or 10: The cells look very different from healthy cells, which is called poorly differentiated or undifferentiated.
What are grade groups?
Healthcare providers established grade groups to clarify the Gleason score system. Those grade groups are:
- Grade Group 1 = Gleason 6 .
- Grade Group 2 = Gleason 3+4=7.
- Grade Group 3 = Gleason 4+3=7.
- Grade Group 4 = Gleason 8.
- Grade Group 5 = Gleason 9-10.
What Does It Mean If My Biopsy Report Also Mentions Atrophy Adenosis Or Atypical Adenomatous Hyperplasia
All of these are terms for things the pathologist might see under the microscope that are benign , but that sometimes can look like cancer.
Atrophy is a term used to describe shrinkage of prostate tissue . When it affects the entire prostate gland it is called diffuse atrophy. This is most often caused by hormones or radiation therapy to the prostate. When atrophy only affects certain areas of the prostate, it is called focal atrophy. Focal atrophy can sometimes look like prostate cancer under the microscope.
Atypical adenomatous hyperplasia is another benign condition that can sometimes be seen on a prostate biopsy.
Finding any of these is not important if prostate cancer is also present.
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The Role Of Psa In Staging
Prostate cancer causes cells to become malignant and multiply uncontrollably. This can lead to overproduction of PSA, and higher levels of PSA in the bloodstream.
However, some men who have prostate cancer do not exhibit elevated PSA levels. And certain noncancerous conditions, like a prostate infection or benign enlargement, can also cause high PSA levels.
PSA levels are just one factor used in determining the stage of prostate cancer. Another diagnostic tool is called the Gleason scale. This rates the extent of abnormality in your prostate cells after biopsy.
At a certain point in prostate cancers late-stage progression, Gleason and PSA become less useful. When a tumor is large enough, doctors no longer need these numbers to predict its growth or malignancy.
Psa Levels By Age Chart
The main difference between the PSA scores of prostatitis and an enlarged prostate, compared to prostate cancer, is the ratio of free vs bound PSA within your test sample.
- Prostate Cancer will have a higher bound PSA ratio.
- An enlarged prostate and prostatitis will have a higher free PSA ratio.
- If your free PSA results are less than 25%, your risk for developing prostate cancer is between 10% to 20%.
- If your free PSA results are less than 10%, your risk for developing prostate cancer jumps to around 50%.
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Treatments May Have Side Effects
The treatment options for early-stage prostate cancer fall into three broad categories: surgery, radiation therapy, and active surveillance. Your doctor will make a treatment recommendation based on your numbers as well as a mathematical tool known as a nomogram, which can help you and your doctor better assess how extensive your cancer is likely to be and whether it is likely to become active in the future.
Yet clinical studies have not provided any evidence that one treatment is better than another or that any treatment at all actually prolongs life: The average 5-, 10-, and 15-year survival rates are virtually the same for all treatment options in early-stage prostate cancer, including active surveillance. Its also important to understand that no mathematical model is foolproof, and some men diagnosed with early-stage, locally confined disease will later find out that their cancer was more extensive than originally believed.
If you are diagnosed with early-stage prostate cancer, you have a number of treatments to choose from. A brief comparison is listed in Table 2.
What Is Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer develops in the prostate a small gland that makes seminal fluid. It is one of the most common types of cancer in men. Prostate cancer usually grows over time and in the beginning usually stays within the prostate gland, where it may not cause serious harm. While some types of prostate cancer grow slowly and may need minimal or no treatment, other types are aggressive and can spread quickly.
Prostate cancer that is caught early has a better chance of successful treatment.
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A Roundtable Discussion With Brian F Chapin Md Jonathan I Epstein Md And Maha Hussain Md Facp Fasco
Physician-Patient Communication Oncologist counsels patient about options for treatment of prostate cancer. Photo courtesy of Thinkstock.
Prior to ASCOs 2016 endorsement of the Cancer Care Ontario guideline on active surveillance in the management of localized prostate cancer,1 most menover 90%diagnosed with low-risk localized disease were treated with active therapy.2 Today, about 50% of American men with low-risk disease opt for active surveillance instead of therapy. In Sweden, nearly 80% of men with low-risk prostate cancer undergo surveillance rather than treatment.3
This year, approximately 165,000 men in the United States will be diagnosed with prostate cancer,4 and half of those men will have low-risk tumors that pathologists rate as Gleason 6 disease. Changes to the Gleason score grading system in 2014 by the International Society of Urological Pathology classified Gleason 6 as grade 1, putting the cancer in the very lowrisk category.
Strong evidence suggests that Gleason 6 disease, when not associated with higher-grade cancer, almost never develops into aggressive cancer requiring treatment. Thus, many patients with Gleason 6 cancer are able to sidestep therapy, such as surgery and radiation therapy, and its attendant side effects, including sexual, urinary, and bowel dysfunction, for active surveillance, which is increasingly being adopted as the standard of care for men with a Gleason 6 score.
Defining Gleason 6 Cancer
Managing Localized Prostate Cancer
What Does It Mean To Have A Gleason Score Of 6 Or 7 Or 8
The lowest Gleason Score of a cancer found on a prostate biopsy is 6. These cancers may be called well-differentiated or low-grade and are likely to be less aggressive – they tend to grow and spread slowly.
Cancers with Gleason Scores of 8 to 10 may be called poorly differentiated or high grade. These cancers tend to be aggressive, meaning they are likely to grow and spread more quickly.
Cancers with a Gleason Score of 7 may be called moderately differentiated or intermediate grade. The rate at which they grow and spread tends to be in between the other 2.
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What Does It Mean To Have A Gleason Score Of 6 7 8 Or 9
Because grades 1 and 2 are not often used for biopsies, the lowest Gleason score of a cancer found on a prostate biopsy is 6. These cancers may be called well differentiated or low-grade and are likely to be less aggressive that is, they tend to grow and spread slowly.
Cancers with Gleason scores of 8 to 10 may be called poorly differentiated or high-grade. These cancers are likely to grow and spread more quickly, although a cancer with a Gleason score of 9-10 is twice as likely to grow and spread quickly as a cancer with a Gleason score of 8.
Cancers with a Gleason score of 7 can either be Gleason score 3+4=7 or Gleason score 4+3=7:
- Gleason score 3+4=7 tumors still have a good prognosis , although not as good as a Gleason score 6 tumor.
- A Gleason score 4+3=7 tumor is more likely to grow and spread than a 3+4=7 tumor, yet not as likely as a Gleason score 8 tumor.
Gleason Score And International Society Of Urological Pathology 2014 Grade
In the original Gleason grading system, 5 Gleason grades based on histological tumour architecture were distinguished, but in the 2005 and subsequent 2014 International Society of Urological Pathology Gleason score modifications Gleason grades 1 and 2 were eliminated . The 2005 ISUP modified GS of biopsy-detected PCa comprises the Gleason grade of the most extensive pattern, plus the second most common pattern, if two are present. If one pattern is present, it needs to be doubled to yield the GS. For three grades, the biopsy GS comprises the most common grade plus the highest grade, irrespective of its extent. The grade of intraductal carcinoma should also be incorporated in the GS . In addition to reporting of the carcinoma features for each biopsy, an overall GS based on the carcinoma-positive biopsies can be provided. The global GS takes into account the extent of each grade from all prostate biopsies. The 2014 ISUP endorsed grading system limits the number of PCa grades, ranging them from 1 to 5 .
Further sub-stratification of the intermediate-risk group can be made and specifically the National Cancer Center Network Guidelines subdivide intermediate-risk disease into favourable intermediate-risk and unfavourable intermediate-risk, with unfavourable features including ISUP grade 3, and/or > 50% positive biopsy cores and/or at least two intermediate-risk factors .
Table 4.2: EAU risk groups for biochemical recurrence of localised and locally advanced prostate cancer
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Tests To Identify Prostate Cancer Stage
After a prostate cancer diagnosis, your doctor will do tests to see how far the cancer has spread. Not all men need every test. It depends on the results of your biopsy, a test that checks tissue from your prostate gland for cancer. Tests that help your doctor figure out the stage of your prostate cancer include:
- CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis to see if the cancer has spread
- Nuclear medicine bone scan to see if the cancer has spread to your bones
- Surgery to check the lymph nodes in your pelvis for prostate cancer spread
Whats The Best Way To Treat Localized Gleason 9
EBRT plus brachytherapy and ADT appeared to afford the best outcomes.
The most aggressive localized prostate cancer has a Gleason score of 9-10. Whats the best way to treat it? Radiation oncologist Phuoc Tran, M.D., Ph.D., and colleagues recently took part in a multi-institutional study to find out. Their results were published in the Journal of the American Medical Association .
Investigators at 12 hospitals in the United States and Norway compared the clinical outcomes of 1,809 men with Gleason score 9-10 prostate cancer after they had either radical prostatectomy, external-beam radiation therapy with androgen deprivation therapy , or EBRT plus a brachytherapy boost with ADT the men were treated between 2000 and 2013. Of these men, 639 underwent radical prostatectomy, 734 had EBRT and ADT, and 436 had EBRT plus brachytherapy, along with ADT.
We found that treatment with either EBRT and ADT or radical prostatectomy appeared to be equivalent but EBRT plus brachytherapy and ADT appeared to afford the best outcomes of the three.
This work was published with Hopkins co-investigators Ashley Ross, Jeff Tosoian, Stephen Greco, Curtiland DeVille, Todd McNutt, Daniel Y. Song, and Theodore L. DeWeese.
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What Is Cancer Grading
After a biopsy is taken and prostate cancer is diagnosed, the grade of your cancer will be determined. This is done by examining the cancer cells under a microscope to decide how abnormal the cancer cells are. The more abnormal they are, the more likely the cancer is to be aggressive or to spread quickly outside of the prostate.
The grade of your cancer is an important piece of information for your physicians to have when deciding upon the proper treatment. The most common scale for prostate cancer grading is the Gleason score.
Gleason Score Vs Grade Groups
The International Society of Urological Pathology released a revised prostate cancer grading system in 2014. The grade group system seeks to simplify Gleason scores and give a more accurate diagnosis.
One of the major problems with the Gleason score is that some scores can be made up in different ways. For example, a score of 7 can mean:
- 3 + 4. The 3 pattern is the most common in the biopsy and 4 is the second most common. This pattern is considered favorable intermediate risk.
- 4 + 3. The 4 pattern is the most common in the biopsy and 3 is the second most common. This pattern is considered unfavorable and may mean local or metastatic spread.
So, although both situations give a Gleason score of 7, they actually have very different prognoses.
Heres an overview of how the two grading systems compare:
|grade group 5||910|
Not all hospitals have switched to the grade group system. Many hospitals give both grade group and Gleason scores to avoid confusion until grade groups become more widely used.
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What Do The Results Mean
A higher Gleason score indicates more aggressive prostate cancer. Typically, lower scores suggest a less aggressive cancer.
In most cases, scores range between 610. Doctors do not often use biopsy samples that score 1 or 2, as they are not usually the predominant areas of the cancer.
A Gleason score of 6 tends to be the lowest possible score. A doctor will describe prostate cancer with a score of 6 as being well differentiated, or low grade. This means that the cancer is more likely to have a slower rate of growth.
Scores in the 810 region are poorly differentiated, or high grade. In these cases, the cancer is likely to spread and grow quickly. The growth rates of cancers with a score of 9 or 10 are likely to be twice as high as those of a cancer with a score of 8.
A score of 7 can be broken down in two ways:
- 3 + 4 = 7
- 4 + 3 = 7
This distinction indicates how aggressive the tumor is. Scores of 3 + 4 typically have a good outlook. A score of 4 + 3 is more likely to grow and spread than the 3 + 4 score, but less likely to grow and spread than a score of 8.
Some people receive multiple Gleason scores. This is because the grade may vary between samples of the same tumor or between two or more tumors.
In these cases, doctors are likely to use the higher score as the guide for treatment.
The Gleason score is an important tool for doctors when deciding on the best course of treatment. However, additional factors and grouping systems can assist them in making this decision.
Is It A Systemic Maybe Not
Sorry for the news on the bone lesions. I wonder how extensive the metastasis exist and their location. The typical treatment of choice is ADT which is palliative, but when the lesions are fewer in number and in convenient locations one has the possibility in treating with spot radiation .
Dr. Laccetti is a medical oncologist. He may prefer recommending palliative approach but you can inquire on the possibility of a combination of ADT plus RT, or even request for a second opinion at the MSK radiation department. Many other factors could cause bone lesions.
Another aspect for inquiring is about existing bone loss. I recommend you to discuss on the need of bisphosphonates, if any. Had to the list of questions matters regarding systemic cases.
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